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lxdng79 last won the day on June 24 2012

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About lxdng79

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  1. Hey guys call it karma but.,.. I just bagged this one last night road herping and would appreciate advice from anyone who has successfully maintained them in captivity. Currently I'm keeping it on damp coconut husks with a large shallow water tub big enough for it to soak itself in. I heard the diet requirement is very inconvenient. If anyone can elaborate more on this to a helpful degree, I would greatly appreciate it.... Thank you in advance, Cheers and best regards
  2. cheers and best regards guys :Party2:
  3. It's been a while lads and here's an overdue update 3/4 is filling the right portion of the north-wall out. One more 50x80cm and a temp 2footer quarantine tank beside it still to come The Update of Enclosures shown before... ViperVille with 2.2.0 Tropidolaemus subannulatus Thinking of ways to fix a siphon plug to the water tub for water change. Jez takes her food by the tongs now... and if she's got room to spare she'll hit mice, large frogs and even birds as shown here This new girl also does well with tong-feeding but she seems to be doing find snatching loose geckos along with the lads The Boiga Ranch with the B. cynodon and the B. drapiezii co-habitating it. The both have their own fave branch perches an coil space on the leaf littler. For feeding I just chuck in live Euarsian sparrows with the flight wings clipped. The B. cynodon picks them off shyly in the dark of night. A mid-body bulge is the only indication. The B. drapiezii is given geckos by hand/tweezer. Both often remain hidden during the daytime. That real fern in the middle didn't make it and will be replaced by an artificial plant. The NEW Installment for the Mangrove (B. dendrophilla)... kept separate from the rest since it is known prey on other snakes; even adult vipers It features a foward opening trapdoor boldted down with hinges and a shallow front-side lagoon sufficient for wading. The favored perch is right up on the top right back corner in a nest artificial ferns. But I managed to get this peek shot by luck. I'll close with a little panoramic of how Borneo Homelab AKA Reptile House Studios as my band uses this as our regular rehearsal space. Cheers and best regards as always
  4. Just Shot this one, of the mated pair
  5. This is my first attempt to construct Front-Opening Sliding Glass Enclosures out of Aquarium Conversions from old tanks my friend sold to me. This one was intended for my Boiga cynodon... but added the Boiga draqiezii as well. Despite the size difference, they seemed to get along fine without issues; probably due to their difference in diet preference. Here's an earlier pic of my B. cynodon The jewelers lock is practical safety feature especially for the following: - Here is the one I did for my 2.1.0 Borneo Temple Pit Vipers Finally in an enclosure that can accommodate 3 of them together and this is what ensued Two more to go for the Boiga dendrophilla and the Boiga drapiezii Cheers and best regards
  6. Yea after browsing through some papers on Isometrus and a discussion with Ryokenzaki... it's looking very likely to be Isometrus zideki Thanks
  7. I made composite of close-ups to make ID easier. 1. is a live specimen while 2 is a dead one. Hope that helps
  8. First Thank you all for your comments... I've never worked on H. laoticus... but I've kept some H. petersii before, and between the three I've done more work on H. longimanus and H. spinifer. I've noticed some subtle behavioral differences between the two species mostly in terms of territorial displays between males but other than that, the sub-social behavior among captive raised broods between the two species are virtually identical. I've raised both species under similar captive conditions and setups and both species behave similarly in terms of sub-social orientation. Brooding females of both species will protect any juveniles which are similar in size to those in her care; even those that are not her young. Both species remain communal when raised together until they are separated as adults. Unrelated juveniles and sub-adults can be mixed together without problems. However, in a communal enclosure where a few adult individuals have already established territories, they will act aggressively towards any scorpion that is newly introduced. Cheers and best regards
  9. Sorry for how audaciously late this article is. I hope its a just portrayal of a very well-known and enigmatic species. INTRODUCTION One of the world’s larger tropical Scorpionids, Heterometrus longimanus constitutes the predominant representative of the family Scorpionidae in Borneo, Java, Sumatra, Bali Indonesia, right up to the Philippines. They are known to occur in Singapore, but are absent from the Malaysian Peninsular (Kovarik 2004). A large portion of taxonomical literature on Heterometrus species from South East Asia, have designated many varieties under the species nomenclature of longimanus. Before Kovarik’s 2004 revision, the ambiguity of Heterometrus speciation has been largely understated by many mainstream nature publications which erroneously identified numerous specimens of Heterometrus. Adding to this confusion were the indistinguishable similarities among females and juveniles of several species found in South East Asia; H. longimanus along with H. liophysa, H. spinifer and H. cimrmani; were only reliably indentified through gender dimorphism in the males (Kovarik 2004). The striking sexual dimorphism in H. longimanus; so starkly distinguishes it from the female, that many could have placed them as different species altogether. Sexual Dimorphism in H. longimanusThere is clearly a substantial proportional differences between the pedipalpal segments of males and females. In males, the femur and patella is much more elongated than that of the female. Lateral depiction of the chela illustrates how the manus of the male is noticeably more slender and elongated than that of the female. Consequentially ventral inspection of the operculum is not needed for the sexing of this species but it is important to note that this Sexual dimorphism only appears in mature specimnes. Determining gender among juveniles and sub-adults is unreliable. Natural Habitat H. longimanus inhabit the humid tropical rainforest of South East Asia. Essentially fosorial, many observations by hobbyist and enthusiasts claim that they exhibit behaviours which seem to suggest a semi-arboreal lifestyle. The numerous occasions on which I have found H. longimanus in the wild suggests that their arboreal tendencies may simply be circumstantial adaptation to different situations. Across their distributive range H. longimanus occur in both lowland and highland areas. In remote pristine jungles they frequently reside in dugouts of extensively emaciated tree trunks, or burrows at the base of standing tree roots; not dissimilar to those of H. spinifer. Some burrows I’ve seen were situated at the base of the tree oriented vertically up against the tree trunk. In seasonally flooded lowlands or riverside areas, they can be found inhabiting trunks trees higher off the ground. One specimen I found, occupied a vertical cleft several meters off the ground in the trunk of a tree that stood at the waters’ edge of a small riverine forest. This adaptability is one reason why this species is seen to persist in areas considerably affected by human impact. In Western Borneo it is not uncommon to find them in small isolated pockets of designated greenery right in the heart of Kuching‘s urban city. Some have been found etching out a living at the base large trees of not far from traffic-congested roadsides. Despite the amount of human disturbance and pollution, these habitats hosts a vibrant community of other invertebrates, from crickets, burrowing roaches, woodlice, millipedes, hunting spiders and even scorpions of a different cast - Liocheles australasiae. Simultaneously, urban environments and the human waste it generates, sustains an adhering population of cockroaches which also provides them ample food. Temperament and Behaviour Due to their size, this species can certainly make itself seem intimidating when annoyed. Once fully-grown, they have few natural enemies. They mostly reside at the entrance to their burrows into which they quickly retreat once any threat is detected. Occasionally some are found wandering into human dwellings when their usual hiding places have been flooded by torrential downpour. They have a habit of raising their large pedipalps and ‘clapping’ them together loudly as a defensive strategy. In truth, they are mildly-tempered creatures when they do not feel harassed and can be managed rather easily when not roughly handled. Toxicity: Though the venom of this species comprises of numerous molecular components that target a wide array of chemical processes that result in different symptomatic affects, its low concentration and mildness renders stings from this species non-lethal and medically unimportant. Nonetheless, the venom of this species has been thoroughly analysed for novel peptides (Bringans et. al, 2007). My personal account of being envenomated by this species could be described as an acute moderate burning sensation which persists for roughly 20 minutes, preceded by slight numbness of the area which eventually dissipates within two hours. On rare occasions, the surrounding tissue may be slightly inflamed or reddish. Envenomations by younger individuals are considerably more painful than those inflicted by adult specimens. By comparison, I would have to say that the sting of H. longimanus is substantially more intense than that of H. spinifer, and is comparably close but still more painful than that of Pandinus imperator. THE KEEPING & BREEDING OF H. longimanus Housing requirements for this species is the same for most large tropical Scorpionids such as P. imperator or Heterometrus sp. Floor space is more important than height. A small 1½ cubic ft terrarium should be ideal for a single adult specimen, compact enough to ensure that any live feeder given is caught and consumed immediately. The hide should be heavy enough to prevent the scorpion from upturning it, and the water bowl wide and deep enough for them to partially immerse themselves in. The substrate should be 2 to 3 inches deep and as long as the lid is secure, it is not required for the top of the aquarium to be higher than the scorpion can reach. Ideal temperature range is 22 – 28°c (71.6 – 82.4°F) and the humidity should be kept relatively high. The substrate should remain cool and slightly moist but not too damp. For hydrating the enclosure, pouring water directly on to the substrate is more effective than misting alone. When kept in ideal conditions, they are unlikely to leave the comfort and security of their burrows, unless they are adult males in search of mates. Communality of this species is typical of most Heterometrus. Juveniles and adolescents are very communal and can be kept together in large numbers without problems. Large breeding-size adults can be aggressively territorial; females more so than males. Keeping large adults communally would require an enclosure large enough for each scorpion to occupy its own den space. It is generally better to introduce all individuals into a communal setting simultaneously, rather than allowing one or two to claim territories and aggressively defend them against subsequently introduced individuals. While most will get along fine in a communal setting, some simply can’t be kept with others. Thus, it is advisable to assess the personal temperaments of certain individuals before choosing to introduce them into a communal mix. Gravid or brooding females are easily agitated and should be isolated to minimize stress. My communal setup is a 2x1x1ft glass terrarium with 3 – 4 inches of substrate and several overlapping layers of tree bark under a large piece of driftwood to provide ample hiding places. A terrarium this size should accommodate up to 5 large adult individuals (originally intended for 6, which ended up being one female too many). Feeding: Their considerable size allows these formidable predators to overpower a wide range of invertebrates and small animals. Though roaches are more appropriate for scorpions of this size, 2 to 3 large crickets may be given for each scorpion as a staple between intervals of 1 or 2 weeks. The larger the prey item, the longer the interval between feedings. They will also take wax-worms (Super Worms), but these should be chucked in front of a waiting scorpion, to avoid the worms from burrowing into the substrate. Breeding: Embryonic development in Scorpionids is categorized as Katoikogenic; meaning the absence of yolk and the embryos are nourished by mother in a similar manner to mammals (Polis, 1990). Gestation period for this species is roughly 10 months to a year. It is not certain if they breeding during a particular season but 4 of the 6 mature females I collected from the wild gave birth to broods within the same time frame between mid April and mid May. Adequate moisture and humidity seems to be an encouraging factor for parturition. On two occasions, two females that have already produced young in captivity gave birth again after almost a year kept in isolation; indicating that they are capable of producing systemic broods i.e. multiple broods from one mating. Growth & Development: Raising Heterometrus scorplings is a rewardingly simple task since the females take exceptional care of their young. Like other Heterometrus species, the young are born white with soft glutinous bodies, clinging to the mother’s dorsum. After their first moult they become miniature light-coloured replicas of the adults. Their colours begin to darken after the 3rd ecdysis. After they leave her back, the mother maintains her role as protector but provides for her young by subduing large prey items which she often eviscerates into bite-sized portions for her young to consume in a mass feeding ball. From my experience, it is not at all necessary to separate the young after the 2nd or 3rd moult. In fact, scorplings that are kept with the mother tend to develop faster and more robust than those separated at an earlier stage. At this stage they are at their most communal. Occasionally one will be eaten from coming out of a bad moult, but other than this, cannibalism is a rare occurrence. I’ve even managed to keep some broods together with the mother until maturity without problems. Scorpions that are raised together in captivity often remain communal. As captive-kept communities grow, larger enclosures should be prepared to accommodate them. They undergo a total of 6 (sometimes 7) ecdysis before reaching the adult form. In captivity, they take roughly 1 year to mature. Their adult lifespan is difficult to determine but they are known to live for about 10 years or more. Advanced Sub-Social Behavior among primitive arthropods like scorpions is rare and largely associated with maternal care. In the wild, it is probable that H. lonigmanus mothers may eventually leave the nest burrow where their young will remain living together like a sub-social colony; hunting and consuming prey cooperatively as juveniles and sub-adults. This is consistent with many accounts of large numbers of scorpions found living together in backyard compost heaps. This advanced level of sub-social behaviour among large tropical Scorpionids is relatively common and has been observed and documented in the wild in other species of the genus Heterometrus i.e. H. fluvipes (TShivashankar 1994) and H. spinifer; (Krapf, 1986 cited in TShivashankar 1994). Little is known regarding why and how these scorpions disperse or congregate, though it is apparent that while females and their young may occupy a den site for long periods of time, adult males seem to be more transient in their wanderings. In many instances, H. spinifer and H. longimanus have been mistaken for each other even by experienced naturalist. In the hobby trade, they are more often sold under the generic description of ‘Asian Forest Scorpion’ through suppliers who are usually indiscriminate about the origins of the specimens they provide to retailers. This complicates the task of accurately identifying the species of any given specimen which is crucial for determining compatible breeding pairs. Both species are somewhat similar in size and coloration, though H. spinifer are generally larger and more heavily built than H. longimanus and adult male H. spinifer lack the gender dimorphism present in H. longimanus males. The females of the two species look very much alike and are difficult to differentiate. Kovarik’s (2004) diagnostic of both species stated that the manus of H. longimanus being sparsely tuberculate whereas those of H. spinifer having smooth carinae that formed irregular reticulations. Couzijn (1981) proposed granulations of the prosoma (carapace) as a valid key for speciation and sub-speciation within the genus Heterometrus and proposed 10 subspecies for H. longimanus. These nominal subspecies were synonymised by Kovarik’s 2004 review of the genus except for H. longimanus liophysa, which was elevated to its own species. Kovarik (2004) considered this character to be unreliable in Heterometrus speciation as it varied greatly within definite species across disparate regional populations; making identifying them based on this aspect very problematic. According to Kovarik (2004) the prosoma of both species have smooth discs with margins granulate, with one difference being H. longimanus sometimes had the entire surface granulated. When compared to one another, the prosoma of H. longimanus is generally more finely granulated than that of H. spinifer; the later having more pronounced granules that are also fewer in numbers. In some specimens of H. longimanus, the margins that define the lateral discs of the prosoma tend to be more angular. These demarcations tend to be more smoothly rounded in H. spinifer. Conclusion This species has been described in some of the oldest literature on Scorpions. Throughout their distributive range, H. longimanus along with its other close relatives represents the archetypal image of what a scorpion is in the eyes of most local people. In Borneo, the symbol of the scorpion, known as kala is potently expressed in the tattoo culture of many indigenous tribes such as the Iban. Yet for all its enduring presence in human culture, a significant amount is still unknown about the animal itself. Though it is one of the more studied species of scorpions, many apparent questions about their natural history remain unanswered. Some of them questions I would be: What were the forces of natural selection that shaped this extent of sexual dimorphism we see in H. longimanus? Is it correlated with their courtship behaviour; through female preference or sexual competition? Why did this occur in some species of Heterometrus and not in others throughout their adaptive radiation? Can this be linked to survival adaptation in specific environmental conditions or an advantageous aspect in prey capture? How do territorial boundaries determine their dispersion throughout an area, and what can the subtle extents of their sub-social behaviour inform us about the formation of social-structures among insects and other animals? What ecological roles do they fulfill and what significance does it play in the lives of other species that share its habitat? As my first scorpion species, I’ll always remember it as my introduction to their fascinating world. At the age of 9, I found a large adult female two houses away from my home, and for the first time, a scorpion was no longer a static photograph or still-illustration in a book, but a living creature whose behavior and movements intrigued me from how it consumed its prey to all other aspects of its life. In a time with no internet, what little was written about scorpions in books and encyclopedias could not even tell its species name. When other sources seemed to care little about them or the fact that little was known about them, this urged me to seek them out in pockets of forest around my hometown and learn all I can about them. Because of this particular species, I have developed a life-long interest and fervent enthusiasm for biodiversity and the natural world. My thanks to - Heterometrus longimanus… And thank you Venomlist for giving enthusiasts a platform to write about things that they are passionate about. Cheers and best regards. References Bringans, S.; Eriksen, S., Kendrick, T.; Kaur, R.; Gopalkrishnakone P. and Lipscombe R. 2007 “Proteomic analysis of the venom of Heterometrus longimanus (Asian black scorpion)” Proteomics International, PO Box 6064, East Perth, WA 6892, Australia; 2Venom and Toxin Research Programme, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore. Couzijn, H. W. C. 1981 “Revision of the genus Heterometrus Hemprich & Ehrenberg (Scorpionidae, Arachnida )” Zoologische Verhandelingen 184. Kovarik, F. 2004 “Ehrenberg, 1828, with Descriptions of Seven New Species (Scorpiones, Scorpionidae)” Euscorpius Publications Polis, G. A. 1990 “The Biology of Scorpions” Standford University Press TShivashankar 1994 “Advanced Sub-Social Behavior in Heterometrus fluvipes” J. Biosci·, Vol· 19, Number 1, March 1994, pp 81-90· © Printed in India
  10. This was found under tree bark at Lambir Hills National Park in Miri, Sarawak, Borneo. Based on the ID keys from Kovarik 1997 It seems to fit the description of Lychas lourencoi which is known from Sumatra but not Borneo, since It does not seem to fit Lychas flavimanus or Lychas shelfordi which have been documented in the area. I'm not certain what it is so I would like a second opinion. Thanks in advance.
  11. Part 2 Lambir National Park After 17 days in Mulu, we flew to Miri and took a half-an hour drive from the city to our secondary collecting site in Lambir Hills National Park. Being largely on the slopes of Bukit Pantu and Bukit Lambir, the area experienced more drain-offs resulting in much drier forest from some of Mulu’s intermittently flooded alluvial lowlands. One thing apparent to us in Mulu was a noticeable scarcity in ground dwelling Salticids which was attributed to exceedingly wet conditions. The dry fluffy leaf-litter seemed promising for bumping up our sample size of ground-dwellers. The trees and vegetation here were also somewhat dissimilar many regards. Palms and other plants with large wide leaves more abundant here. The tree trunks had flakier bark as opposed to being moss-laden as they typically were in Mulu. These different conditions indicated a comparably difference in the Salticid fauna, which was confirmed by the numbers and types of species found here in comparison to our samples in Mulu. Many foliage dwelling species that were less common in Mulu were more abundant here and vice versa. Other than the account of the elusive Clouded Leopard occupying these forests, the presence of large animals was virtually absent. The insect life however, was rich and this meant plenty of food for the hunters of insects like spiders and their kin. Though I didn’t manage to find Chien Lee’s undescribed buthid of Mulu, I was nonetheless rewarded with a comparable find. I’ve never found any scorpion of the family Buthidae in Borneo until now. While brushing off the flaky barks off trees in Lambir, Wayne found this. Though I’m still not sure what it is, the descriptions seem to match Lychas lourenci which not known from Borneo. Though I managed to get this specimen to eat, it didn’t survive so I preserved it for identification. More importantly, finding them has provided new insights to where local buthids were more likely to be found. For the longest time, searching for them was ike shooting in the dark because I had no idea where to look. This find renewed me with a better likelihood of finding them and affirmed for me at least that they are out there. Of the many newly reported and possible new species and genera of Salticids that we found, one stands out as being the most important find. Before this expedition, only 2 specimens of the subfamily Hisponinae were ever found outside Africa. During this expedition, at least 3 were found here in South East Asia. Among them, a species most likely new to science, If anything, being given the opportunity to participate in this project has informed me more of how much of our planets’ biodiversity remains unstudied. While most of the world including myself finds awe in seeing a large carnivore like a Clouded Leopard or a rare Civet, it should be known to more people that often the smallest creatures that reside right under our noses are truly no less remarkable and are just as fascinating. To Wayne Maddison and Edyta Piascik, Thanks for bringing me on this journey with you. http://i593.photobucket.com/albums/tt12/lxdng79/Mulu%20Lambir/EdyWayne2.jpg[/img] Cheers and may the force be with you Wayne Paul Maddison is a professor and Canada Research Chair at the Dept of Zoology and Botany at University of British Columbia, and Scientific Co-Director of the Beaty Biodiversity Museum. His contributions to phylogenetic theory as co-founder the Tree of Life Web Project, and program designer of the MacClade and Mesquite open-source phylogeny software. His research centres on the phylogeny, biodiversity, and evolution of jumping spiders (Salticidae), of which he has discovered new species and genera. Edyta Piascik is Wayne’s Masters Student in Evolutionary Biology at UBC. Her research project upon which this expedition was based is aimed at studying Comparative Analyses of Adaptive Radiation between New World and Old World Salticids.
  12. Hello my Friends... it’s been awhile since my last post. Been busy with various things but I just got back from 5-week Field Expedition with Professor Wayne Maddison to collect Jumping Spiders (Salticidae) in Mulu and Lambir National Park, as well as a few other sites in Sarawak. Sometime in Jan 2012, nature photographer Chien Lee informed me of Professor Wayne Maddison from the University of British Columbia (UBC), Department of Zoology and Botany, coming down to Borneo to do a survey on the species diversity of Jumping Spiders (Salticidae), and asked if I would be interested to work as a field assistant. I jumped on the chance to get my hands ‘dirty’ in some real field-work learning experience. The trip has been a successful and productive one, amounting to expanding the previous species list for the family Salticidae from under 100 to around 170. Many are described species that are new to Borneo while others are quite likely new species and even genera. A chronicled account of the expedition can be found in Wayne Maddison’s blog post: - http://blogs.scienti...o-mulu-wrap-up/ To avoid being repetitive, I won’t be posting much about the Salticids we have found during this trip, and other things that Wayne may have covered by in his blog; though I must say that this expedition has given me an enthralling introduction to this amazing group of spiders. This post will be a condensed account of my experience on this extraordinary journey and feature towards the end, some of the other non-Salticid critters that we encountered along the way. Mulu National Park Before this trip, I was one of many locals who have never been to this World Heritage Site. I can now say for sure that being there and seeing it in the flesh is a world of difference from the pictures in books and online brochures. Since we were there for field-work, we had little opportunity for typical tourist activities. Instead we had the priviledge of experiencing Mulu off the beaten path. A Day in a Life This is the Research Station were we set up shop and used as our base of operations. Early in the morning we’d suit-up and hike to a designated sample site; each of us sampled from a different microhabitat (ground, trunk and foliage) for 40 minutes and then rotate assignments for consecutive 50 meter blocks. We would do a morning session, have a lunch break and an afternoon session before heading back to base to process, preserve and label the specimens. The Tropical Rainforest Here are examples of the lowland Alluvial forests we spent a lot of time collecting in. Many had massive trees which towered many meters above us with branches and leaves blocked out the sun and shrouded its understory to the forest floor in a shadowy gloom. Some sites were scattered with limestone monoliths that resembled overgrown ancient cities. Everywhere, the forest floor was covered in layers upon layers dead leaves, tangled roots and brooding fungi; crawling with all manners of many-legged invertebrates. In disparate light gaps, ferns, and various scrub vegetation jostle for space and purchase. This continuance of vast jungle is only occasionally broken by channels of shallow slow-flowing streams. However, it is from the Canopy Walk that the true majestry of the Tropical Rainforest is put in perspective; an immense complex of branches, vines, lianas and foliage; twisting amongst each other in a timeless race for sunlight. Together, they weave an intricate multi-dimensional space for all manners of plant and animal life to occupy. Camp 1 Excursion Many of the sites we collected at were within 2 to 3 kilometres from our base. To sample in areas of higher elevation we made a 4-day excursion to Camp 1; roughly 6 kilometres and a good 3 hour hike from Park HQ. The journey took us by Paku Waterfall and across a few stone-bed streams. Camp 1 had basic amenities and no electricity; hence the clandestine nature of our night routine. The one bit of luxury that Camp 1 did have was a nice cold fast-flowing stream to bathe in after a long day of collecting. . Throughout our forays for Jumping Spiders in Mulu, we often come across other fascinating denizens of the rainforests. Here’s a Common Rat Snake (Elaphe flavolineata) we spotted in the early morning near Park HQ. This fellow gave me a ‘kiss’ on the forehead, but other than that, he wasn’t so bad. Another snake was one I knew too well; a welcome sight nonetheless. This one made perch on the branches of a tree near a boardwalk and was reported to have resided there for weeks. Other herps that I managed to snap sporadically: a baby Agamid and a Trunk-dwelling Frog. The outhouse toilet at Camp 1 on one occasion came with a questionably desirable bathroom companion: a large Scutigeramorpha munching on a good-sized Sparassid. Often mistaken for tarantulas, Sparassids are apparently the most common spider in these parts, frequently parking themselves on the wooden hand-rails of the park trails at night. As for scorpions; gaps in many a wooden structure, typically played host to the ever abundant Liocheles australasiae. Last but not least, I found one arboreal dwelling of Heterometrus longimanus. Though I had hoped to find the undescribed species of Buthid that Chien Lee had photographed, it has eluded me. No doubt I will return to try again someday. During our time at Mulu, I feel most fortunate to have made friends with so many awesome people; Syria the ‘golden guide,’ mighty Andyson; our porter to Camp 1, Bian, Jeremy and other members of the park staff that spared no expense in making our stay a pleasant and memorable one. All in all, it has Mulu has been a truly unforgettable experience. I would like to thank Professor Wayne Maddison, Edyta Piacek for giving me the opportunity to “cut my teeth” on some genuine field-work experience and to Chien Lee for his recommendation and encouraging support. You guys rocked my world! Cheers and best regards To be continued... Lambir Hills National Park
  13. sounds good... I'll just do some basic groundwork and you can add your observations to it.
  14. Chest, are you still gonna do H. longimanus? Cause otherwise I could putting together something with the material I have... cheers & best regards
  15. That is one Awesome setup for Hadogenes... considering they are non-communal and somewhat territorial, how many individuals would this setup comfortably accommodate? Great job BTW Cheers and best regards...