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  2. Here is another interesting paper on the Social Wasps of South America that I am attaching here. It is Richards & Richards (1951) Observations on the Social wasps of South America richards & richards the social wasps of south america.pdf
  3. Iv'e been around. Mostly updating my acedemia.edu site. I know of only one facebook wasp group run by Terry but I don't go on facebook at all these days.
  4. Checklist of the yellowjackets of the world (Hymenoptera; Vespinae) Genus Psuedovespula Bischoff 1931 Psuedovespula Bischoff, 1931 (1930), Sitz.-Ber. Ges. Naturf. Freunde Berl.: 346, subgenus of Psuedovespa Schmiedeknecht (1881). Type species: “Ps. adulterina. Buyss.” [= Vespa norwegica var. adulterina du Buysson, 1905], by original designation. adulterina du Buysson (1905) Vespa norwegica var. adulterina du Buysson, 1905 (1904), Ann. Soc. Entomol. Fr. 73 (3): 499 (key), 600, 628, female - “Europe: Piémont; Vosges, Remiremont; Suisse, Engadine, Rosegethal, Amérique; Orégon, Corvallis” “Mongolie; Ile Sakhaline. Village de Lasevo, pès de la station de Viterbsk, Russie” (Paris, München, Washington, St.Petersburg). Vespa norvegica saxonica natio colchica Birula, 1930, Ann. Mus. Zool. Acad. Sci. U. R. S. S. 31 (2): 314, male - [Georgia] “Adsharien (Batum-Gebiet, Alpenwiesen, s. g. Jailag, bei Sarytschair auf der Höhe von etwa 2300 m ü. d. M)” (St. Petersburg). Unavailable under Article 45.5 of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature. Distribution: Norway; Sweden; Finland; Denmark; Belgium; Spain, Netherlands; France; Luxembourg; Switzerland; Italy; Germany; Austria; Liechtenstein; Hungary; Croatia; Czech Republic; Poland; Slovakia; Greece; Serbia; Albania; Slovenia; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Macedonia; Romania; Moldova; Belarus; Lithuania; Latvia; Estonia; Ukraine; Russia: European Russia, Kola Peninsula, Altai, Caucasus to Siberia to Chutkotka Peninsula, Kamchatka, Amur; Primor’ye; Sakhalin Island; Georgia; Turkey. adulterina montivaga Yamane 1982 Dolichovespula adulterina montivaga Yamane, 1982, Trans. Shikoku Entomol. Soc. 16: 109, 110, female, male, fig.1., - “Mt. Kariba (1500 m alt.), Hokkaido, Japan” (holotype female Kagoshima); also from Honshu. male, fig.1., - “Mt. Kariba (1500 m alt.), Hokkaido, Japan” (holotype female Kagoshima); also from Honshu. Distribution: Japan: Hokkaido, Honshu. Russia: Kurile Islands: Kunashir. adulterina ssp. #A Distribution: Kazakhstan; Kyrgyzstan; Mongolia. adulterina ssp. #B Distribution: China: Sichuan, Shaanxi. arctica Rohwer 1916 Vespa borealis Lewis, 1897, Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 24: 171 (key), 174 (female, male; “United States, New York, Mt. Washington, British Columbia; Amherst, Mass.”). Misidentification. Vespula arctica Rohwer, 1916, Conn. State Geol. Nat. Hist. Surv. Bull. 22: 642 (key; in subgenus Dolichovespula). New name for Vespa borealis sensu Lewis. Distribution: Canada: Yukon Terr., N. W. T., B. C., Alta., Sask., Man., Ont., Que., N. B., Nova Scotia; P. E. I., Newfoundland; Anticosti Island; U. S. A.: AK, WA, OR, CA, NV, ID, MT, WY, UT, CO, AZ, NM, ND, MN, WI, IL, MI, IN, OH, PA, NY, VT, NH, ME, MA, RI, CT, NJ, DE, MD, VA, WV, KY, TN, NC, SC, GA. arctica spp #A Distribution: Canada: B.C., Alta, U.S.A.: OR, WA, CA. ID, UT, CO, WY. arctica spp #B Distribution: Canada: B.C., Alta, U.S.A.: OR, WA, CA. ID, UT, CO, WY. omissa Bischoff (1931) Vespa tripunctata Schenck, 1861, Jahrb. Ver. Naturk. Nassau 16: 17 (key), 25, female - [Germany] “Bamberg” (München). Junior primary homonym of Vespa 3-punctata Fabricius, 1787. Vespula norvegica saxonica morpha ingrica Birula, 1930, Ann. Mus. Zool. Acad. Sci. U. R. S. S. 31 (2): 309, female - “Leningrader Gouvernement” (lectotype from “Leningrad, Kaipolova” in St. Petersburg). Unavailable under Article 45.5 of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature. Vespa omissa Bischoff, 1931, Mitt. Deutsch. Entomol. Ges. 2 (1): 6, female - [Austria] “Thüringen” (Berlin); also from Tirol. Vespula ingrica “(Birula)” Bequaert, 1932, Entomol. Am. (n. s.) 12 (2): 89, footnote. Available under Articles 10.2, 23.3.4 and 50.3.1 of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature. Distribution: Norway; Sweden; Finland; Denmark; Germany; Belgium; Netherlands; Luxembourg; France; Spain; Italy; Malta; Czech Republic; Austria; Liechtenstein; Poland; Hungary; Croatia; Slovenia; Slovakia; Serbia; Bulgaria; Albania; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Macedonia; Greece; Estonia; Latvia; Lithuania; Belarus; Ukraine; Moldova; Romania; Switzerland; Russia: European Russia, Altai, Siberia; Kazakhstan; Azerbaijan; Georgia. omissa Spp#A Turkey; Iran. Genus Dolichovespula Rohwer 1916 Dolichovespula Rohwer, 1916, Conn. State Geol. Nat. Hist. Surv. Bull. 22: 642, subgenus of Vespula Thomson. Type species: Vespa maculata Linnaeus, 1763, by original designation. flora Archer 1987 Dolichovespula flora Archer, 1987, Entomol. Mon. Mag. 123: 27, female - “Burma, Adung Valley” (London); also from China. Distribution: Myanmar; China: Gansu, Yunnan, Shaanxi, Liaoning, Sichuan. kuami Kim & Yoon 1996 Dolichovespula kuami Kim and Yoon, 1996, Korean J. Syst. Zool. 12 (3): 199, figs. 1, 2, female - “Korea: Chungcheongbuk-do Province, Sokrisan” (Seoul); also from Kyeonggi-do Prov. Distribution: Korea. maculata Linnaeus (1763) Vespa maculata Linnaeus, 1763, Amoenit. Acad. 6: 412 - [U. S. A.] “Pensylvania” (lectotype female Stockholm). Vespa maculata americana Christ, 1791, Naturgesch. Ins.: 239 - “mitternachtlichen Amerika” (destroyed). Junior primary homonym of Vespa americana Fabricius, 1775. Distribution: Canada: Yukon Terr., N. W. T., B. C., Alta., Sask., Man., Ont., Que., N. B., Nova Scotia; P. E. I., Newfoundland; U. S. A.: AK, WA, OR, CA, NV, ID, MT, WY, UT, CO, AZ, NM, ND, SD, MN, IA, NE, KS, OK,TX, LA, AR, MS, AL, TN, KY, MO, WI, IL, MI, IN, OH, PA, NY, VT, NH, ME, MA, RI, CT, NJ, DE, MD, VA, WV, NC, SC, GA, FL. Introduced into New Zealand: (Dunedin, Christchurch). media Retzius (1783) Vespa crabro medius Retzius, 1783, C. Degeer Gen. Spec. Ins.: 63 (type depository unknown). Vespa geerii Lepeletier, 1836, Hist. Nat. Ins. Hym. 1: 510, female, male - “La Suède et les environs de Paris,Versailles, dans la forêt de Saint-Germain-en-Laye” (type depository unknown). Vespa crassa Herrich-Schäffer, 1841, Fauna Ins. Germ. 179: 33, fig. 179.4, male (destroyed). Vespa similis Schenck, 1853, Jahrb. Ver. Naturk. Nassau 9 (1): 15 (key), 24, female, male - [Germany] “Weilburg” (Marburg?). Vespa rufoscutellata Schenck, 1853, Jahrb. Ver. Naturk. Nassau 9 (1): 15 (key), 28, male - [Germany] “Wiesbaden” (Marburg?). Vespa flavicincta Schenck, 1853, Jahrb. Ver. Naturk. Nassau 9 (1): 16 (key), 27, female - [Germany] “Weilburg” (Marburg?). Junior primary homonym of Vespa flavicincta Gravenhorst, 1807. Vespa media var. lineolata Pérez, 1910, Actes Soc. Linn. Bordeaux 64: 17, female - [France] “Millau” (Paris). Vespula media media var. lugubris Birula, 1927, Ann. Mus. Zool. Acad. Sci. U. R. S. S. 28: 80, female - “Nord-und Mittelteilen Ost-Europas, Norden” (St. Petersburg). Unavailable under Article 45.5 of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature. Dolichovespula media var. conjugens Paul, 1943, Stettin. Entomol. Ztg. 104: 142 - [Poland] “Stettin: Eckerberger Wald” (type depository unknown). Dolichovespula borealis Lee, 1986, Sinozool. 10 (4): 195, 196, figs. 1(2), 2(3), female - [China] “Hengdaohezi, Heilongjiang province” (Beijing). Junior secondary homonym of Vespa borealis Kirby, 1837, and Vespa borealis Zetterstedt, 1838. Distribution: Norway; Sweden; Finland; Denmark; Belgium; Netherlands; Luxembourg; Germany; Czech Republic; France; Great Britain; Spain; Italy; Switzerland; Austria; Liechtenstein; Poland; Hungary; Croatia; Serbia; Slovakia; Slovenia; Estonia; Latvia; Lithuania; Belarus; Ukraine; Moldova; Romania; Bulgaria; Albania; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Macedonia; Greece; Turkey; Georgia; Azerbaijan; Syria; North Africa: Morocco; Russia: European Russia south to steppe belt, Altai, Caucasus, Siberia, Yakutia, east to the Sea of Okhotsk, Kamchatka, Lake Baikal, Amur, Primor’ye; Sakhalin Island; Kurile Islands: Iturup, Kunashir; Kazakhstan; Mongolia; China: Heilongjiang, Liaoning, Jilin; Korea; Japan: Hokkaido. Introduced into U.K.: (England, Wales, Scotland, Isle of Man); New Zealand: (Raglan). Dolichovespula media sugare Ishikawa, 1969 Dolichovespula media sugare Ishikawa, 1969, Bull. Nat. Sci. Mus. Tokyo 12 (2): 180, figs. 1-3, female, male - “Japan (Honshu), Tsuta, Towada, Aomori Pref.” (holotype female Shinjuku, Tokyo); also from numerous other localities on Honshu. Distribution: Japan: Honshu. Subgenus Boreovespula Bluthgen 1943 Boreovespula Blüthgen, 1943, Stettin. Entomol. Ztg. 104: 149, subgenus of Dolichovespula Rohwer. Type species: “Dolichovespula norwegica (F.)” [= Vespa norwegica Fabricius, 1781], by original designation. albida Sladen (1918) Vespa marginata Kirby, 1837, Fauna Bor.-Am. 4, Ins.: 265, pl. VI fig. 2, female - [Canada] “Taken in the Route from New York, and again in Lat. 65°” (type depository unknown). Junior primary homonym of Vespa marginata Gmelin,1790. Vespa albida Sladen, 1918, Ottawa Nat. 32: 71, male, female - [U. S. A.] “Alaska” (lectotype male Ottawa). Distribution: Canada: Yukon Terr., N. W. T., B. C., Alta., Sask., Man., Ont., Que., N. B., Nova Scotia, P. E. I., Newfoundland; NU, Including Baffin Island; U. S. A.: AK, ME. alpicola Eck 1984 Dolichovespula alpicola “Wagner” Eck, 1984, Entomol. Abhand. Staat. Mus. Tierk. Dresden 48 (4): 40 (key), fig. 3L, female - “westliches Nordamerika”; 1987, Entomol. Abhand. Staat. Mus. Tierk. Dresden 50 (10): 191 (lectotype female from “WYO Albany County, Medicine Bow Nat. For.” in Dresden). Distribution: Canada: Yukon Terr., B. C., Alta.; U. S. A.: AK, WA, OR, MT, WY, CO, UT, NM, AZ. arenaria Fabricius (1775) Vespa arenaria Fabricius, 1775, Syst. Entomol.: 365 - “in America arenosis” (London). Vespa borealis Kirby, 1837, Fauna Bor.-Am. 4, Ins.: 264 - [Canada] “Lat. 65°” (type depository unknown). Vespa diabolica de Saussure, 1854, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2: 138, worker, queen - [U. S. A.] “L’Amérique du Nord, Philadelphie” (Torino). Vespa fernaldi Lewis, 1897, Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 24: 171 (key), 173, female - [U. S. A.] “Colorado” (Philadelphia?). Distribution: France: St. Pierre et Miquelon; Canada: Yukon Terr., N. W. T., B. C., Alta., Sask., Man., Ont., Que., N. B., Nova Scotia; P. E. I., Newfoundland; Anticosti Island; U. S. A.: AK, WA, OR, CA, NV, ID, MT, WY, UT, CO, AZ, NM, NE, ND, SD, MN, IA, WI, IL, MI, IN, OH, PA, NY, VT, NH, ME, MA, RI, CT, NJ, DE, MD, VA, WV, KY, TN, AL, NC, SC, GA. Introduced into Bermuda. lama du Buysson (1905) Vespa lama du Buysson, 1903, Bull. Soc. Entomol. Fr. 1903: 175, female - [India] “Sikkim” (Paris). Dolichovespula nyalamensis Lee, 1986, Sinozool. 10 (4): 195, 197, figs. 1(4), 2(2), female - [China] “Nelam, Xizang (Tibet), 3300 m” (Beijing). Distribution: India: Uttarakhand, Sikkim; Nepal; China: Tibet. loekenae Eck 1980 Dolichovespula loekenae Eck, 1980, Reichenbachia 18 (30): 213, female, male - [Norway] “Espeland, HOy: Alversund” (Bergen); also from Sweden; Finland. Distribution: Norway; Sweden; Finland; Russia: northwestern region, Ob’ River to east of Lake Baikal, Altai, Ural, Siberia, Amur, Primor’ye, Kamchatka; Kazakhstan; Kyrgyzstan; Mongolia; Korea. norvegicoides Sladen (1918) Vespa norvegicoides Sladen, 1918, Ottawa Nat. 32: 71, male, female - [Canada] “N.S. to B.C.” (lectotype female from “Amherst, Nova Scotia” in Ottawa). Distribution: France: St. Pierre et Miquelon; Canada: Yukon Terr., N. W. T., B. C., Alta., Sask., Man., Ont., Que., N. B., Nova Scotia; P. E. I., Newfoundland; U. S. A.: AK, WA, OR, CA, ID, MT, WY, ND, MN, WI, MI, NY, VT, NH, ME, MA, RI, CT, NJ, PA, MD, VA, WV, KY, TN, NC, SC, GA. norwegica Fabricius (1781) Vespa norwegica Fabricius, 1781, Spec. Ins. 1: 460 - “in Norwegia” (Kobenhavn). Vespa norvegica Olivier, 1792, Encycl. Méthod. Ins. 6: 674; Smith, 1858, Cat. Br. Fossor. Hym., Form. Vesp.: 220. Unjustified emendation of Vespa norwegica Fabricius. Vespa britannica Leach, 1814, Zool. Misc. 1: 112, pl. 50, female, male - “in Britannia; in Anglia rarius, in Caledonia vulgatissime” (London). Vespa borealis Zetterstedt, 1838, Ins. Lappon. Descr.: 454, female - “Lapponia” (? Lund). Junior primary homonym of Vespa borealis Kirby, 1837. Vespa saxonica var. arctica Friese, 1919, Mém. Acad. Sci. Russ. (8) 28 (15): 1, female, male - [Russia] “Chanema-Fluss, Sobj-Tal, Longot-johan-Tal, Berezov” (St. Petersburg). Junior secondary homonym of Dolichovespula arctica (Rohwer, 1916). Dolichovespula norwegica var. Zetterstedti Blüthgen, 1937, Mitt. Entomol. Ges. Halle 15: 37. Replacment name for Vespa saxonica var. arctica Friese. Distribution: Iceland; Norway; Sweden; Finland; Denmark; Netherlands; Luxembourg; France; U. K.: England, Wales including Bardsey Island, Isle of Man, Scotland including Orkney and Shetland (Fair Isle); Ireland; Spain; Belgium; Germany; Switzerland; Liechtenstein; Italy, including Sardinia; Austria; Hungary; Croatia; Serbia; Romania; Slovakia; Poland; Czech Republic; Bulgaria; Slovenia; Albania; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Macedonia; Greece; Ukraine; Estonia; Belarus; Moldova; Latvia; Lithuania; Russia: European Russia, Altai, Caucasus, Siberia east to Chukotka and Kamchatka; Georgia; Turkey; Kazakhstan; Kyrgyzstan; Mongolia. norwegica peruana Saussure (1867) Vespa peruana de Saussure, 1867, Reise Novara., Zool. 2 (1), Hym.: 18, female – “Peru altior; Quito” [error] (Genève). Distribution: Russia: Altai; Siberia east to Chukotka and Kamchatka; Sakhalin Island; Kazakhstan; Kyrgyzstan; China: Xinjiang; Mongolia. pacifica Birula (1930) Vespula norvegica pacifica Birula, 1930, Ann. Mus. Zool. Acad. Sci. U. S. S. R. 31: 295, 317, female, male - [Russia] “Im Küstengebiete des Pazifischen Ozeans und auf den naheliegeneden Inseln” (lectotype female from “Insel Sachalin” in St. Petersburg). Distribution: Russia: Kurile Islands: Paramushir, Shikotan, Kunashir, Iturup; Sakhalin Island; Japan: Hokkaido, Honshu, Shikoku. panda Archer 1980 Dolichovesupula [!] panda Archer, 1981 (1980), Entomon 5 (4): 341, fig. 1, female [male = worker] - “CHINA, Szechuen, 14.4 km south-west Tarsienlu, 2600-4000 m” (Washington); also from other localities in Sichuan. Distribution: China: Sichuan, Ningxia, Tibet. saxonica Fabricius (1793) Vespa saxonica Fabricius, 1793, Entomol. Syst. 2: 256 - “in Germania” (type depository unknown). Vespa bavarica von Schrank, 1802, Fauna Boica 2 (2): 350, female - [Germany] “Waldungen” (type depository unknown). Vespa tridens Schenck, 1853, Jahrb. Ver. Naturk. Nassau 9 (1): 18 (key), 38, female, male - [Germany] “in der Gegend von Wiesbaden” (Marburg?). Vespula norvegica saxonica morpha monticola Birula, 1930, Ann. Mus. Zool. Acad. Sci. U. R. S. S. 31 (2): 313 - [Russia] “Gebirgen des Kaukasus” (St. Petersburg). Unavailable under Article 45.5 of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature. Distribution: Norway; Sweden; Finland; Denmark; Germany; Netherlands; Luxembourg; Belgium; France; Spain; Switzerland; Austria; Liechtenstein; Slovenia; Bulgaria; Italy; Greece; Poland; Hungary; Czech Republic; Slovakia; Croatia; Serbia; Estonia; Romania; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Macedonia; Albania; Latvia; Lithuania; Belarus; Ukraine; Moldova; Russia: European Russia; Altai, Ural, Siberia east to Upper Kolyma, Amur, Primor'ye; Azerbaijan; Georgia; Turkey. Introduced into U.K.: England, Wales. saxonica nipponica Yamane 1975 Dolichovespula saxonica nipponica Yamane, 1975, Kontyû 43 (3): 349, female - [Japan] “Hokkaido. Otoineppu” (Sapporo); also from elsewhere in Hokkaido, and Honshu. Distribution: Japan: Hokkaido, Honshu; Russia: Kurile Islands: Kunishir. saxonica kamtschatkensis Eck 1983 Dolichovespula saxonica kamtschatkensis Eck, 1983, Entomol. Abhand. Staat. Mus. Tierk. Dresden 46 (8): 171, female, male - [Russia] “Petropawlowsk, Flußtal Poganka, Kamtschatka” (holotype female St. Petersburg); also from elsewhere in Kamchatka. Distribution: Russia: Kamchatka, Komandorski Island; Kurile Islands: Paramushir. saxonica nigrescens Eck 1983 Dolichovespula saxonica nigrescens Eck, 1983, Entomol. Abhand. Staat. Mus. Tierk. Dresden 46 (8): 172, female - [Russia] “Primorje, Umgeb. Anisimowka” (Dresden); also from elsewhere in Russia; Mongolia; Korea. Distribution: Kazakhstan; Mongolia; China: Xinjiang, Gansu, Heilongjiang, Ningxia, Qinghai, Sichuan, Jilin, Liaoning, Shaanxi; Korea; Russia: Altai, Ural, Siberia east to Upper Kolyma, Amur, Primor'ye, Kurile Islands: Kunashir; Sakhalin Island. stigma Lee 1986 Dolichovespula stigma Lee, 1986, Sinozool. 10 (4): 195, 198, figs. 1(3), 2(1), female - [China] “Mt. Emei, Sichuan Province, 1800-2100 m” (Beijing); also from 1800-1900 m. Dolichovespula baileyi Archer, 1987, Entomol. Mon. Mag. 123: 30, female - “China, Szechwan, Lin Yang, 2500 m” (Edinburgh); also from another locality in Sichuan. Dolichovespula sinensis Archer, 1987, Entomol. Mon. Mag. 123: 29, female - “China, Szechwan, Suifu” (Washington); also from Xinjiang. Distribution: China: Sichuan, Xinjiang, Shaanxi. xanthicincta Archer 1980 Dolichovespula pacifica xanthicincta Archer, 1981 (1980), Entomon 5 (4): 341, 343, female [male = female] - “China-Tibet border, near Tang Gu, 4300 m” (Washington); also from Tibet; Myanmar. Distribution: Bhutan; China: Sichuan, Tibet; Myanmar. Subgenus Metavespula Bluthgen 1943 Metavespula Blüthgen, 1943, Stettin. Entomol. Ztg. 104: 149, subgenus of Dolichovespula Rohwer. Type species: “Dolichovespula silvestris (Scop.)” [!] [= Vespa sylvestris, Scopoli, 1763], by original designation. intermedia Birula (1930) Vespula sylvestris var. intermedia Birula, 1930, Ann. Mus. Zool. Acad. Sc. U. S. S. R. 31: 330, 331, female, male - [Uzbekistan] “Zeravschan-Tal und der östlichen Buchara” (lectotype female from “Ost- Buchara, im Gebirgsrücken Peter des Grossen, Engpass Kamtschirák” in St. Petersburg). Dolichovespula asiatica Archer, 1981, Entomol. Scand. 12: 187, 189. Unnecessary replacement name for Vespula sylvestris var. intermedia Birula, incorrectly stated to be a junior primary homonym of Vespa rufa var. intermedia du Buysson, 1905. Distribution: Afghanistan; Turkmenistan; Uzbekistan; Tajikistan; Kazakhstan; Kyrgyzstan; Russia: Altai; Pakistan; India: Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir; Mongolia; China: Xinjiang, Gansu. sylvestris Scopoli (1763) Vespa sylvestris Scopoli, 1763, Entomol. Carniol.: 309 - [Slovenia] “Carnioliae” (destroyed?). Vespa parietum Harris, 1776, Exposit. Eng. Ins.: 128, pl. XXXVII fig. 4, male - “English” (destroyed). Junior primary homonym of Vespa parietum Linnaeus, 1758. Vespa holsatica Fabricius, 1793, Entomol. Syst. 2: 257 - [Germany] “Kiliae” (Kobenhavn). Vespa frontalis Latreille, 1802, Ann. Mus. Hist. Nat. 1: 290, pl. XXI fig. 7 - [France] “Chartreaux de Paris” (type depository unknown). Vespa campanaria Fowler, 1833, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. 6: 536, 538, fig. 69 (type depository unknown). Vespa anglica “Leach” Smith, 1843, Zoologist 1: 168, as a synonym of Vespa holsatica Fabricius, 1793. Available under Article 11.6.1 of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature. Vespa pilosella Costa, 1858, Ric. Entomol. Monti Partenii: 20, 28, female, male - [Italy] “Monti Partenii” (type depository unknown). Junior primary homonym of Vespa pilosella Gravenhorst, 1807. Dolichovespula xinjiangensis Lee, 1986, Sinozool. 10 (4): 195, 199, figs. 1(1), 2(4), female, male - [China] “Xinyuan, Xinjiang Uygur Aut. Reg., 850-1200 m” (holotype female Beijing); also from Altay. Distribution: Norway; Sweden; Finland; Denmark; Netherlands; Luxembourg; Germany including Mellum Island; Belgium; France; U. K.: England: including Isle of Man, Isles of Scilly, and the Channel Islands, Wales, Scotland including Outer Hebrides; Ireland; Portugal; Spain; Italy; Malta; Czech Republic; Switzerland; Austria; Liechtenstein; Slovenia; Slovakia; Greece; Poland; Hungary; Croatia; Serbia; Albania; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Macedonia; Bulgaria; Estonia; Latvia; Lithuania; Belarus; Ukraine; Moldova; Romania; Russia: European Russia, Altai, Caucasus, Siberia to Transbaikalia, Primor’ye; Georgia; Azerbaijan; Syria; North Africa: Morocco; Turkey; Armenia; Iran; Afghanistan; Uzbekistan; Turkmenistan; Tajikistan; Pakistan; India: Kashmir; Kazakhstan; Kyrgyzstan; Mongolia; China: Xinjiang, Gansu, Fujian, Shanghai, Heilongjiang. sylvestris sumptuosa Buysson (1905) Vespa silvestris [!] var. sumptuosa du Buysson, 1905 (1904), Ann. Soc. Entomol. Fr. 73 (3): 493 (key), 603, female - “Perse centrale” (Wien). Distribution: Turkey; Iran; Armenia; Afghanistan; Uzbekistan; Turkmenistan; Tajikistan. Genus Vespula Thompson 1869 Vespula Thomson, 1869, Opusc. Entomol. 1: 79, subgenus of Vespa (8 species). Type species: Vespa austriaca Panzer, 1799, by subsequent designation of Ashmead, 1902, Can. Entomol. 34: 164. Pseudovespa Schmiedeknecht, 1881, Entomol. Nachr. 7: 314, subgenus of Vespa Linnaeus. Type species: Vespa austriaca Panzer, 1799, by monotypy. austriaca Panzer (1799) Vespa austriaca Panzer, 1799, Faunae Ins. German. 63: 2, fig. 2, male - “Viennae Austr.” (destroyed). Vespa biloba Schilling, 1850, Jahresber. Schles. Ges. Vaterländ. Kultur 28: 77 - [Poland] “Schlesien” (type depository unknown). Distribution: Norway; Sweden; Finland; Denmark; Germany; Belgium; Netherlands; Luxembourg; France; Spain; Italy; Switzerland; Liechtenstein; Austria; Czech Republic; Hungary; Croatia; Serbia; Bulgaria; Greece; Albania; Bosnia and Hezegovina; Macedonia; Poland; Estonia; Latvia; Lithuania; Belarus; Ukraine; Moldova; Romania; Slovenia; Slovakia; Turkey; Georgia; Russia: European Russia, north to Arkhangel’sk, south to Moscow, Altai, Caucasus, Siberia, Kamchatka, Ussuriland; Amur, Primore’ye; Sakhalin Island; Kazakhstan; Kyrgyzstan; Mongolia; Korea. austriaca arborea Smith (1849) Vespa borealis Smith, 1843, Zoologist 1: 170, fig., female - “Yorkshire, the north of Scotland” (London). Junior primary homonym of Vespa borealis Kirby, 1837, and of Vespa borealis Zetterstedt, 1840. Vespa arborea Smith, 1849, Zoologist 7, App.: lx. Replacement name for Vespa borealis Smith. Distribution: U. K.: England, Wales, Scotland; Ireland. austriaca spp #A Vespula shinanoensis: Takamizawa, 2005, The Japanese Social Wasps and Bees: 147, 148 (in subgenus Vespula). Nomen nudum, described without mentioning repository of the holotype (Articles 13 and 16.4 of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature). Distribution: Japan: Hokkaido, Honshu; Russia: Kurile Islands: Iturup, Kunashir. austriaca spp #B Distribution: Pakistan; India: Jammu and Kashmir; China: Hebei, Xinjiang, Shanghai, Liaoning, Shaanxi. infernalis de Saussure (1854) Vespa infernalis de Saussure, 1854, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2: 139, worker [female] - [U. S. A.] “L’Amérique du Nord. Philadelphie” (Torino). Vespa tripunctata Packard, 1870, Trans. Chicago Acad. Sci. 2: 26, pl. II fig. 11, female - [U. S. A.] “Kutleet” (type depository unknown). Junior primary homonym of Vespa tripunctata Fabricius, 1787, and of Vespa tripunctata Schenck, 1861. Distribution: Canada: Yukon Terr., N. W. T., B. C., Alta., Sask., Man., Ont., Que., N. B., Nova Scotia, P. E. I., Newfoundland; U. S. A.: AK, WA, OR, CA, ID, MT, CO, UT, AZ, NM, MN, ND, NM, WI, MI, NY, NJ, VT, NH, ME, MA, RI, CT. Genus Allovespula Bluthgen 1943 Allovespula Blüthgen, 1943, Stettin. Entomol. Ztg. 104: 149, subgenus of Paravespula Blüthgen. Type species: “Paravespula rufa (Linné)” [= Vespa rufa Linnaeus, 1758], by monotypy. acadica Sladen (1918) Vespa rufa var. americana du Buysson, 1905 (1904), Ann. Soc. Entomol. Fr. 63: 499 (key), 592, male - “Canada, Lévis près Québec” (type depository unknown). Junior primary homonym of Vespa americana Fabricius, 1775, and of Vespa maculata americana Christ, 1791. Vespa acadica Sladen, 1918, Ottawa Nat. 32: 72, male, female - [Canada] “Ottawa” (lectotype female Ottawa) also from Nova Scotia, N.B., B.C. Vespula rufa var. sladeni Bequaert, 1932, Entomol. Am. (n. s.) 12 (2): 80 (key), 98, 102, female, male - [U. S. A.] “Washington State” (holotype female Cambridge); also from OR, CA, WY, UT, CO; Canada: BC. Distribution: Canada: Yukon Terr., N. W. T., B. C., Alta., Sask., Man., Ont., Que., N. B., Nova Scotia; P. E. I., Newfoundland; U. S. A.: AK, WA, OR, CA, NV, ID, MT, WY, UT, CO, AZ, NM, NE, SD, ND, MN, WI, MI, PA, NY, VT, NH, ME, MA, RI, CT, NJ, MD, VA, WV, NC. atropilosa Sladen (1918) Vespa atropilosa Sladen, 1918, Ottawa Nat. 22: 72, female - [Canada] “Lethbridge, Alta.” (lectotype Ottawa); also from B.C. Distribution: Canada: B. C., Alta., Sask.; U. S. A.: WA, OR, CA, NV, ID, MT, ND, NE, WY, UT, CO, AZ, NM; Mexico: Tiajuana, Baja California. consobrina de Saussure (1854) Vespa consobrina de Saussure, 1854, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2: 141, worker - [Canada] “L’île de Terre-Neuve” (Paris). Vespa arenaria de Saussure, 1854, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2: 134, worker - [North America]. Junior primary homonym of Vespa arenaria Fabricius 1775. Vespa scelesta McFarland, 1888, Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 15: 297 (key), 298, female, male - [U. S. A.] “Montana” (lectotype female Philadelphia); also from PA, VA, NH, CO, ME, WA, MA. Vespa sulcata; Howard, 1901, Insect Book: pl. VI fig. 18. Lapsus for Vespa scelesta McFarland. Distribution: France: St. Pierre et Miquelon; Canada: Yukon Terr., N. W. T., B. C., Alta., Sask., Man., Ont., Que., N. B., Nova Scotia, P. E. I., Newfoundland; U. S. A.: AK, WA, OR, CA, ID, MT, WY, UT, CO, ND, MN, WI, IL, MI, IN, OH, PA, NY, VT, NH, ME, MA, RI, CT, NJ, DE, MD, VA, WV, KY, TN, NC, SC, GA. intermedia du Buysson (1905) Vespa rufa var. intermedia du Buysson, 1905 (1904), Ann. Soc. Entomol. Fr. 73: 499 (key), 591, female, male - “Mandchourie, région du lac Hanka; Amérique du Nord: Hudson’s Bay” (Paris?, London). Distribution: Canada: Yukon Terr., N. W. T., B. C., Alta., Sask., Man., Ont., Que., N. B., Nova Scotia, P. E. I., Newfoundland; U. S. A.: AK, ME, VT, NY. kingdonwardi Archer 1981 Vespula kingdonwardi Archer, 1981, Kontyû 49 (1): 54, 57 (key), 60, fig. 4C-D, female, male - [China] “Tibet, 28.25 N 97.55 E” (holotype female London); also from other localities in Tibet; Myanmar. Vespula hirsuta Lee, 1986, Sinozool. 10 (4): 201, 204, 206, fig. 4, female - [China] “Markham County, Xizang (Tibet) Aut. Reg., 3300 m” (Beijing). Distribution: China: Tibet, Xizang; Nepal; Myanmar. nursei Archer 1981 Vespula nursei Archer, 1981, Kontyû 49 (1): 54, 57, fig. 4A-B, female - “India, Kashimir, 8-9,000 ft” (London); also from other localities in Kashmir, Punjab, Himachal Pradesh; China; Philippines. Distribution: India: Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Punjab; Pakistan; China: Hebei, Fujian. Introduced into Philippines: (Luzon). rufa Linnaeus (1758) Vespa rufa Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat., Ed. 10, 1: 572 - “in Europa” (lectotype female, Linnaean Society, London). Distribution: Iceland; Norway; Sweden; Finland; Denmark; Germany; Netherlands; Belgium; Luxembourg; Liechtenstein; Slovenia; Slovakia; France; Spain; Italy; Switzerland; Austria; Czech Republic; Poland; Hungary; Croatia; Serbia; Bulgaria; Albania; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Macedonia; Greece; Estonia; Latvia; Lithuania; Belarus; Moldova; Romania; Ukraine; Georgia; Azerbaijan; Turkey; Russia: European Russia north to Kola Peninsula, Arkhangel’sk and river Pechora, south to Volgograd and Orenberg. rufa grahami Archer 1981 Vespula rufa grahami Archer, 1981, Kontyû 50 (1): 54, 62, female, male - “China, Szechuen, 30 miles north of Tatsienku” (Washington); also from elsewhere in Sichuan. Vespula obscura Lee, 1986, Sinozool. 10 (4): 201, 205, 206, fig. 5, female - [China] “Zogang County, Xizang (Tibet) Aut. Reg., 3800 m” (Beijing); also from another locality in Tibet. Vespula yulongensis Dong and Wang, 2002, in Dong et al., J. Southwest Agric. Univ. 24 (5): 396, figs. 1- 5, female - “Yunnan China” (Yunnan). Distribution: China: Yunnan, Sichuan, Tibet. rufa spp #A Distribution: Iceland; Norway; Sweden; Finland; Denmark; France; Russia: European Russia north to Kola Peninsula, Arkhangel’sk and river Pechora, south to Volgograd and Orenberg; Altai, Caucasus, Siberia, Kamchatka, Ussuriland, Amur, Primor’ye; Kazakhstan. rufa ssp #B Distribution: U. K.: England including Isle of Man and the Channel Islands, Wales including Bardsey Island, Scotland including the Outer Hebrides; Ireland. schrenckii Radoszkowski (1861) Vespa schrenckii Radoszkowski, 1861, Horae Soc. Entomol. Ross. 1: 84, figs. 4-5 - [Russia] “Amur” (type depository unknown). Vespa sibirica André, 1884, Spec. Hym. Europe Algér. 2: 599, female, male - [Russia] “Sibérie” (Paris). ? Vespula yichunensis Lee, 1986, Sinozool. 10 (4): 202, 203, 206, fig. 3, female - [China] “Yichun City, Heilongjiang Province” (Beijing). Distribution: Russia: Altai, Caucasus, Siberia, Kamchatka, Ussuriland, Amur, Primor’ye, Sakhalin Island; Kazakhstan; Kyrgyzstan; Mongolia; China: Manchuria, Xinjiang, Yunnan, Sichuan, Heilongjiang, Hebei, Liaoning, Shaanxi, Tibet; Korea; Including Ulleungdo Island. schrenkii spp #A Distribution: Japan: Shikoku, Hokkaido, Honshu; Russia: Kurile Islands: Urup, Iturup, Kunashir. schrenkii spp # B Distribution: Taiwan. schrenkii ssp #C Distribution: Russia: Siberia, Kamchatka, Ussuriland, Amur; Kazakhstan; Kyrgyzstan; Afghanistan; Tajikistan; Uzbekistan; Mongolia; China: Manchuria. vidua de Saussure (1854) Vespa vidua de Saussure, 1854, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2: 136, worker - [U. S. A.] “La Caroline” (Paris). Distribution: Canada: Man., Ont., Que, N. B., Nova Scotia; U. S. A.: ND, SD, MN, IA, WI, IL, MI, IN, OH, PA, NY, VT, NH, ME, MA, RI, CT, NJ, DE, MD, VA, WV, KY, TN, AL, NC, SC, GA. (New Genus) Lineovespula Daglio Lineovespula Daglio, Type species: Vespula squamosa Drury 1773, by original designation. squamosa Drury (1773) Vespa squamosus Drury, 1773, Illustr. Nat. Hist. 2: Index to vol. I [pl. XLIII fig. 7 in Vol. 1, female - “New York”] (destroyed?). Vespa lineata Fabricius, 1775, Syst. Entomol.: 365 - “in America” (type depository unknown). Sphex conchacea Christ, 1791, Naturgesch. Ins.: 259, pl. 25 fig. 5 - [U. S. A.] “Neuiork” (destroyed). Vespa cuneata Fabricius, 1804, Syst. Piez.: 258 - [U. S. A.] “in Carolina” (Kobenhavn). Vespa cruciata Lepeletier, 1836, Hist. Nat. Ins. Hym. 1: 514. Unjustified emendation of Vespa cuneata Fabricius. Vespa bistriata McFarland, 1888, Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 15: 297 (key), 298, female - “North America” (Philadelphia) Junior primary homonym of Vespa bistriata Fabricius, 1804. Vespa macfarlandi Lewis, 1897, Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 24: 172 (key), 180. Replacement name for Vespa bistriata McFarland. Distribution: Canada: Ontario; U. S. A.: TX, LA, AR, MS, AL, OK, NE, KS, MO, IA, WI, IL, IN, MI, OH, KY, TN, WV, VA, PA, NY, NJ, DE, MD, NC, SC, GA, AL, FL; Mexico: Guerrero, Oaxaca,Tamaulipas, Chihuahua. Introduced into: Dutch Carribean: (Curacao; St. Eustatius). squamosa michoacana Bequaert 1941 Vespula squamosa var. (or subsp.) michoacana Bequaert, 1941, Entomol. News 52: 249, female - “Tancitaro, 6600 ft., State of Michoacan, Mexico” (Cambridge). Distribution: Mexico: Nuevo León,Vera Cruz, Michoacan, Chiapas, Hidalgo, Zacatecas, Puebla, México, San Luis Potosí; Guatemala; Honduras. sulphurea de Saussure (1854) Vespa sulphurea de Saussure, 1854, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2: 137, queen - [U. S. A.] “La Californie” (London). Distribution: U. S. A.: CA, OR, NV, AZ; Mexico: Tiajuana, Baja California. Genus Paravespula Bluthgen Paravespula Blüthgen, 1938 (1937), Konowia 16: 271, subgenus of Dolichovespula Rohwer. Type species: Vespa vulgaris Linnaeus, 1758, by original designation. akrei Landolt 2010 Vespula akrei Landolt, 2010, in Landolt et al., Zootaxa 2629: 61, 62, figs. 1A-D, female, male - “Guatemala, Zacapa, 12 km north of San Lorenzo, N15°06.86’ W89°40.82’, 2200 m. elev.” (holotype female Guatemala City); also from four other localities. Distribution: Guatemala. alascensis Packard (1870) Vespa alascensis Packard, 1870, Trans. Chicago Acad. Sci. 2: 27, pl. II fig. 10, female - [U. S. A.] “Lower Yukon” (type depository unknown). Vespa westwoodii Shipp, 1893, Psyche 6: 450 - “N. Amer. Bor.” (holotype female Oxford). Distribution: France: St. Pierre et Miquelon; Canada: Yukon Terr., N. W. T., B. C., Alta., Sask., Man., Ont., Que., N. B., Nova Scotia, P. E. I., Newfoundland; U. S. A.: AK, WA, OR, CA, NV, ID, MT, WY, CO, UT, AZ, NM, KS, SD, ND, MN, WI, NE, IA, IL, IN, MI, OH, PA, NY, VT, NH, ME, MA, RI, CT, NJ, DE, MD, VA, WV, KY, TN, NC, SC, GA; Mexico: Durango, Michoacan, México, Oaxaca. Introduced into Hawaii: (Maui) (U.S.A.); Cuba: (Mayari Arriba). flaviceps Smith (1870) Vespa flaviceps Smith, 1870, in Horne and Smith, Trans. Zool. Soc. Lond. 7 (3): 174, 191, pl. XXI figs. 10-11, female - “Binsur, Kumaon, North-west Provinces of India” (London). Vespa vulgaris var. flavior Stolfa, 1934, Bull. Soc. Venez. Stor. Nat. 1: 49, female - “India: Bagarkote 8000 piedi. Kumaon W. Himalaia, Dal, sopra Dharmsala, 5500 piedi Punjab, Pindi Point, Murree 7242 piedi. Punjab, Rive del fiume Deo Gad e Foresta S. O. di Pinath, 7 miglia da Kausani Distr. Almora” (type depository unknown). Vespula japonica pionganensis Giordani Soika, 1976, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 68: 287, 290, female (in subgenus Vespula) - [Korea] “Za-mo san, 60 km NE from Pyongyan” (Budapest); also from other localities in Korea. Vespula gracilia Lee, 1986, Sinozool. 10 (4): 201, 203, 206, fig. 2, female - “Zhoushan, Zhejiang Province” (Beijing); also from Fujian. Distribution: Pakistan; India: Jammu and Kashmir, Punjab, Meghalaya, Manipur, Uttarakhand, Uttar Pradesh, Himachal Pradesh, Assam, Sikkim; Nepal; Myanmar; Thailand; Laos; Vietnam; China: Tibet, Sichuan, Hunan, Hebei, Hubei, Guizhou, Liaoning, Henan, Yunnan, Shaanxi, Heilongjiang, Jilin, Jiangsu, Beijing, Fujian, Zhejiang, Guangdong, Hong Kong; Russia: Amur, Primor’ye, Sakhalin Island; Korea, Including Ulleungdo Island. flaviceps lewisii Cameron (1903) Vespa japonica de Saussure, 1858, Rev. Mag. Zool. (2) 10: 261, female - “Japon.” (Genève). Junior primary homonym of Vespa japonica Radoszkowski, 1857. Vespa lewisii, Smith, 1873, Trans. Entomol. Soc. Lond. 1873 (2): 198. Nomen nudum. Vespa lewisii, Saus. MS.” Cameron, 1903, Entomologist 36: 280, as a synonym of Vespa japonica de Saussure, 1858. Available under Article 11.6.1 of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature. Vespa saussurei Schulz, 1906, Spolia Hym.: 231. Replacement name for Vespa japonica de Saussure. Distribution: Japan: Kyushu, Shikoku, Honshu, Hokkaido, Ryukyu Islands: Amami Island. flaviceps karenkona Sonan (1929) Vespa karenkona Sonan, 1929, Trans. Nat. Hist. Soc. Formosa. 19 (101): 137 (key), 148, female - [Taiwan] “Karenkô” (Taichung). Vespa 4-maculata Sonan, 1929, Trans. Nat. Hist. Soc. Formosa. 19 (101): 137 (key), 148, female - [Taiwan] “Arisan” (coll. M. Maki). Distribution: Taiwan. flavopilosa Jacobson 1978 Vespula flavopilosa Jacobson, 1978, in Jacobson et al., Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 71: 299, 301 (key), 303, figs. 1a, 2c, ra, 5c-d, j, 8-9, 17, 22-29, table 1 (electrophoretic data), female, male - [U. S. A.] “Ithaca, Tompkins Co., NY” (holotype female Washington); also from elsewhere in eastern U.S. and Canada. Distribution: Canada: Man., Ont., Nova Scotia; NB; U. S. A.: ND, SD, NE, MN, IA, MO, WI, IL, IN, MI, OH, PA, NY, VT, NH, ME, MA, CT, KY, NJ, DE, MD, DC, VA, WV, KY, TN, NC, SC, GA. germanica Fabricius (1793) Vespa germanica Fabricius, 1793, Entomol. Syst. 2: 256 - [Germany] “Kiliae” (type depository unknown). Distribution: Norway; Sweden; Finland; Denmark; Spain including Canary Islands; Portugal including Azores; Malta; Netherlands; Belgium; Luxembourg; Germany; U. K.: England including Channel Islands and Isles of Scilly, Wales, Scotland including Shetland; Ireland; Scotland; France; Switzerland; Austria; Liechtenstein; Czech Republic; Hungary; Slovenia; Slovakia; Croatia; Serbia; Bulgaria; Albania; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Macedonia; Italy; Greece; Poland; Estonia; Lithuania; Moldova; Romania; Belarus; Ukraine; Russia: European Russia, Altai, Caucasus, Siberia, Amur, Primor’ye; Sakhalin Island; North Africa: Morocco, Algeria, Mayotte, Tunisia; Syria; Israel; Lebenon; Jordan; Turkey; Iraq; Iran; Afghanistan; Georgia; Azerbaijan; Armenia; Turmenistan; Uzbekistan; Tajikistan; Kazakhstan; Kyrgyzstan; Pakistan; India: Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir; Nepal; Mongolia; Nei Menggu; China: Manchuria, Gansu, Hebei, Heilongjiang, Qinghai, Ningxia, Yunnan, Beijing, Liaoning, Xinjiang, Shaanxi; Korea. Introduced into Iceland; New Zealand; Australia (N. S. W., A. C. T., W. A., Vic., Tasmania); Ascension Island; South Africa; Chile; Argentina (Neuquén, Rio Negro, Chubut); Canada (Man., Ont., Que.); U. S. A. (NJ, NY, VT, MA, CT, DE, MD, PA, MN, MT, OH, IN, MI, WI, ND, SD, VA, NC, WA, OR, CA, AZ). inexspectata Eck 1994 Vespula inexspectata Eck, 1994, Entomol. Abhand. Staat. Mus. Tierk. Dresden 56 (6): 125, female, figs. 1-6, 7 - “W. slope, Popocatepetl, Mx. MEX, 10000’“ (Ithaca); also from two other localities in México, and Michoacan. Distribution: Mexico: México, Michoacan, Chiappas. maculifrons du Buysson (1905) Vespa maculifrons “S.” Harris, 1853, in Hitchcock, Rept. Geol. Mineral. Bot. Mass.: 589. Nomen nudum. Vespa communis de Saussure, 1857, Stettin. Entomol. Ztg. 18: 116 (key), 117, female - “America septentr.” (Genève, Paris). Junior primary homonym of Vespa communis von Schrank, 1785. Vespa maculifrons “H.” du Buysson, 1905 (1904), Ann. Soc. Entomol. Fr. 73: 608, female - [U. S. A.] “Delaware, Wilmington” (London), as a synonym of Vespa communis de Saussure, 1857. Available under Article 11.6.1 of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature. Vespa communis var. flavida Sladen, 1918, Ottawa Nat. 32: 71, female - “Common in eastern Canada, More southern range.” (type lost?). Distribution: Canada: Man., Ont., Que., N. B., Nova Scotia; U. S. A.: MT, WY, CO, NM, TX, LA, MS, AL, AR, OK, KS, NE, ND, SD, MN, IA, MO, WI, IL, IN, MI, OH, PA, NY, VT, NH, ME, MA, CT, KY, NJ, DE, MD, VA, WV, KY, TN, NC, SC, GA, AL, FL; Mexico: Tamaulipas, Hidalgo, Nuevo León. pensylvanica de Saussure (1857) Vespa pensylvanica de Saussure, 1857, Stettin. Entomol. Ztg. 18: 116, 117, female - “America septentr., in Canada, et in montibus mexicanis” (lectotype from New Mexico, in Genève). Vespa occidentalis Cresson, 1874, Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 5: 100, female, “male” [worker] - [U. S. A.] “Nevada” (lectotype female Philadelphia); also from NM. Junior primary homonym of Vespa occidentalis Olivier, 1792. Distribution: Canada: B. C., Alta., Sask., Man.; U. S. A.: WA, OR, CA, NV, ID, MT, ND, SD, NE, MN, WI, WY, CO, UT, AZ, NM, TX; Mexico: Tiajuana, Baja California, Sonora, México, Michoacan. Introduced into U. S. A. (HI); Australia: (Melbourne). shidai Ishikawa, Yamane and Wagner 1980 Vespula shidai Ishikawa, Yamane and Wagner, 1980, Ins. Matsum. 19: 1, 44, fig. 135A, female, male - “Sapporo, Hokkaidô, Japan” (holotype male Entomological Institute, Hokkaido University); also from other localities in Japan; and Russia. Distribution: China: Heilongjiang, Liaoning, Manchuria; Korea; Russia: Amur, Primor’ye, Kurile Islands: Kunashir; Japan: Kyushu, Including Yakushima Island, Shikoku, Honshu, Hokkaido, Ryukyu Islands: Amami Island. shidai amamiana Yamane 1987 Vespula shidai amamiana Yamane, 1987, Kontyû 55 (4): 634 (key), 635, female, male - [Japan] “Naze, Amami-ôshima” (type depository unknown); also from elsewhere on Amami, and Kakeroma. Distribution: Japan: Ryukyu Islands: Amami Island. structor Smith (1870) Vespa structor Smith, 1870, in Horne and Smith, Trans. Zool. Soc. Lond. 7 (3): 191, pl. XXI fig. 12, female - “Binsur, Kumaon, North-west Provinces of India” (London). Vespa orbata var. aurulenta du Buysson, 1905 (1904), Ann. Soc. Entomol. Fr. 73 (3): 579, female - “Chine, Mon-pin; Amur” (Paris, Wien?). Vespa structrix Schulz, 1906, Spolia Hym.: 231. Unjustified emendation of Vespa structor Smith. Vespula gongshanensis Dong 2005, in Dong et al., Entotaxonomia 27 (1): 65, female, male – “China, Gongshan, Yunnan Province, alt. 2,950” (Holotype female (Yunnan). Distribution: India: Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Uttar Pradesh,West Bengal, Sikkim, Assam; Nepal; China: Gansu, Sichuan, Fujian, Shaanxi, Yunnan, Henan, Ningxia, Tibet; Myanmar; Thailand; Laos. vulgaris Linnaeus (1758) Vespa vulgaris Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1: 572 - “in Europa” (lectotype female, Linnaean Society, London). Vespa sexcincta Panzer, 1799, Fauna Ins. German. 63: 1, fig. 1, male - “Viennae Austr.” (destroyed). Vespa vulgaris var. pseudogermanica Stolfa, 1932, Mem. Soc. Entomol. Ital. 11 (1): 26 (key), female - [Italy] “Lago superiore di Weissenfels (Tarvisio) Senosecchia” (type depository unknown). Distribution: Iceland; Norway; Sweden; Finland; Denmark; Germany; Netherlands; Belgium; Luxembourg; France, including Corsica; U. K.: England including Orkney Island, Isle of Man; Wales, Scotland including Shetland; Ireland; Spain; Portugal; Italy; Switzerland; Austria; Liechtenstein; Czech Republic; Hungary; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Slovenia; Albania; Romania; Macedonia; Greece; Croatia; Serbia; Bulgaria; Slovakia; Moldova; Poland; Belarus; Ukraine; Lithuania; Latvia; Estonia; Russia: European Russia to the Kola Peninsula, Altai, Caucasus, Siberia, Amur, Primor’ye; Azerbaijan; Georgia; Syria; Isreal; Turkey; Iran; Kazakhstan; Kyrgyzstan. China: Manchuria; Introduced into Iceland; New Zealand; Australia: (Victoria, Tasmania); Chile, Including Navarino Island; Argentina; South Africa: (Cape Town, St Helena); French Polynesia: (Tahiti Island). vulgaris rufosignata Eck 1998 Vespula rufosignata Eck, 1998, Reichenbachia 32 (43): 299, female, figs. 1A, C, 2 - “India: Kashmir, Gulmarg, 2900 m” (type depository not stated; London); also from two other localities. Distribution: India: Jammu and Kashmir; Pakistan. vulgaris vetus Eck 1999 Vespula vulgaris vetus Eck, 1999, Entomol. Abhand. Staat. Mus. Tierk. Dresden 58: 309, 329, female, male - “China, Quinghai Prov., Datong-Tal, 120 km NE Xinging, 2360 m” (holotype female Dresden); also from five other localities. Vespula yunlongensis Dong and Wang, 2003, in Dong et al., J. Southwest Agric. Univ. 25(3): 212, fig. 1, female [?] - “Yunnan, China” (Yunnan). Distribution: Mongolia; Nei Menggu; China: Qinghai, Gansu, Sichuan, Shaanxi, Ningzia, Yunnan, Xinjiang, Heilongjiang, Beijing, Hebei, Liaoning. vulgaris spp #A Distribution: Japan: Hokkaido, Honshu. Russia: Sakhalin Island; Kurile Islands: Iturup, Kunashir. Subgenus Rugovespula Archer 1982 Rugovespula Archer, 1982, Kontyû 50 (2): 261, 264, subgenus of Vespula Thomson. Type species: Vespa koreensis Radoszkowski, 1887, by original designation. arisana Sonan (1929) Vespa arisana Sonan, 1929, Trans. Nat. Hist. Soc. Formosa. 19 (101): 137 (key), 147, female - [Taiwan] “Fuukiko” (Taichung); also from elsewhere on Taiwan. Distribution: Taiwan. koreensis Radoszkowski (1887) Vespa koreensis Radoszkowski, 1887, Horae Soc. Entomol. Ross. 21: 432, male, female - “Korée” (lectotype female London). Pseudovespa birulai Gussakovskii, 1932, Ark. Zool. 24A (10): 52, female - [Russia] “Ussuri-Geb.: Tigrovaja; Sutshan, Sedanka, Kreis Chabarowsk, Wladiwostok” (Stockholm). Distribution: N. China; Korea; Russia: Siberia, Amur, Primor’ye. koreensis stizoides Buysson (1905) Vespa germanica var. stizoides du Buysson, 1905 (1904), Ann. Soc. Entomol. Fr. 73: 494 (key), 615, female - “Nord de l’Inde” (London). Distribution: India: Sikkim, Assam, Meghalaya; Laos; China: Yunnan. koreensis salebrosa Archer 1982 Vespula koreensis salebrosa Archer, 1982, Kontyû 50 (2): 261, 267, female - “China: Szechuen, Suifu” (London); also from numerous other localities in China. Vespula hainanensis Lee, 1986, Sinozool. 10 (4): 201, 202, 206, fig. 1, female - [China] “Hainan Island, Guangdong Province” (Beijing). Distribution: Myanmar; Thailand; Laos; Vietnam; China: Anhui, Sichuan, Yunnan, Heilongjiang, Beijing, Hubei, Hunan, Henan, Jiangxi, Liaoning, Zhejiang, Fujian, Shaanxi, Guangdong, Hong Kong, Hainan Island; Taiwan. orbata du Buysson (1902) Vespa orbata du Buysson, 1902, Bull. Soc. Entomol. Fr. 1902: 140, female - [India] “Dardjiling” (lectotype Paris); also from Sikkim; China. Vespa minuta Dover, 1925 (1924), J. Asiat. Soc. Bengal (n. s.) 20: 304, fig. 9, female - [Myanmar] “Tenasserim” (London). Junior primary homonym of Vespa minuta Linnaeus, 1767. Distribution: India: Assam, Uttarakhand, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal; Nepal; Myanmar; Laos; Thailand; Vietnam; China: Tibet, Zhejiang, Hubei, Yunnan, Hainan Island, Fujian, Sichuan, Hunan, Heibei. orbata nujiangensis Dong & Wang 2004 Vespula nujiangensis Dong and Wang, 2004, in Dong et al., J. Southwest Agric. Univ. (Nat. Sci.) 26 (2): 146, female, figs. 1-5 - [China] “Nujiang Liuku, Yunnan, Alt. 1,100m. 25°58’ N. 98°65’ E.” (Yunnan). Distribution: China: Yunnan.
  5. Checklist of the Subfamily Vespinae Latreille, 1802 Genus Dolichovespula Rohwer Dolichovespula Rohwer, 1916, Conn. State Geol. Nat. Hist. Surv. Bull. 22: 642, subgenus of Vespula Thomson. Type species: Vespa maculata Linnaeus, 1763, by original designation. Pseudovespula Bischoff, 1931 (1930), Sitz.-Ber. Ges. Naturf. Freunde Berl.: 346, subgenus of Pseudovespa Schmiedeknecht. Type species: “Ps. adulterina Buyss.” [= Vespa norwegica var. adulterina du Buysson, 1905], by original designation. Boreovespula Blüthgen, 1943, Stettin. Entomol. Ztg. 104: 149, subgenus of Dolichovespula Rohwer. Type species: “Dolichovespula norwegica (F.)” [= Vespa norwegica Fabricius, 1781], by original designation. Metavespula Blüthgen, 1943, Stettin. Entomol. Ztg. 104: 149, subgenus of Dolichovespula Rohwer.Type species: “Dolichovespula silvestris (Scop.)” [!] [= Vespa sylvestris, Scopoli, 1763], by original designation. adulterina (du Buysson) Vespa norwegica var. adulterina du Buysson, 1905 (1904), Ann. Soc. Entomol. Fr. 73 (3): 499 (key), 600, 628, female - “Europe: Piémont; Vosges, Remiremont; Suisse, Engadine, Rosegethal, Amérique; Orégon, Corvallis” “Mongolie; Ile Sakhaline. Village de Lasevo, pès de la station de Viterbsk, Russie” (Paris, München, Washington, St.Petersburg). Vespa norvegica saxonica natio colchica Birula, 1930, Ann. Mus. Zool. Acad. Sci. U. R. S. S. 31 (2): 314, male - [Georgia] “Adsharien (Batum-Gebiet, Alpenwiesen, s. g. Jailag, bei Sarytschair auf der Höhe von etwa 2300 m ü. d. M)” (St. Petersburg). Unavailable under Article 45.5 of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature. Dolichovespula adulterina montivaga Yamane, 1982, Trans. Shikoku Entomol. Soc. 16: 109, 110, female, male, fig.1., - “Mt. Kariba (1500 m alt.), Hokkaido, Japan” (holotype female Kagoshima); also from Honshu. Distribution: Norway; Sweden; Finland; Denmark; Belgium; Spain, Netherlands; France; Luxembourg; Switzerland; Italy; Germany; Austria; Liechtenstein; Hungary; Croatia; Czech Republic; Poland; Slovakia; Greece; Serbia; Albania; Slovenia; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Macedonia; Romania; Moldova; Belarus; Lithuania; Latvia; Estonia; Ukraine; Russia: European Russia, Kola Peninsula, Altai, Caucasus to Siberia to Chutkotka Peninsula, Amur; Primor’ye; Sakhalin Island; Kurile Islands: Kunashir; Georgia; Turkey; Kazakhstan; Kyrgyzstan; Mongolia; China: Sichuan, Shaanxi; Japan: Hokkaido, Honshu. albida (Sladen) Vespa marginata Kirby, 1837, Fauna Bor.-Am. 4, Ins.: 265, pl. VI fig. 2, female - [Canada] “Taken in the Route from New York, and again in Lat. 65°” (type depository unknown). Junior primary homonym of Vespa marginata Gmelin,1790. Vespa albida Sladen, 1918, Ottawa Nat. 32: 71, male, female - [U. S. A.] “Alaska” (lectotype male Ottawa). Distribution: Canada: Yukon Terr., N. W. T., B. C., Alta., Sask., Man., Ont., Que., N. B., Nova Scotia, P. E. I., Newfoundland; NU: including Baffin Island; U. S. A.: AK, ME. alpicola Eck Dolichovespula alpicola “Wagner” Eck, 1984, Entomol. Abhand. Staat. Mus. Tierk. Dresden 48 (4): 40 (key), fig. 3L, female - “westliches Nordamerika”; 1987, Entomol. Abhand. Staat. Mus. Tierk. Dresden 50 (10): 191 (lectotype female from “WYO Albany County, Medicine Bow Nat. For.” in Dresden). Distribution: Canada: Yukon Terr., B. C., Alta.; U. S. A.: AK, WA, OR, MT, WY, CO, UT, NM, AZ. arctica (Rohwer) Vespa borealis; Lewis, 1897, Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 24: 171 (key), 174 (female, male; “United States, New York, Mt. Washington, British Columbia; Amherst, Mass.”). Misidentification. Vespula arctica Rohwer, 1916, Conn. State Geol. Nat. Hist. Surv. Bull. 22: 642 (key; in subgenus Dolichovespula).New name for Vespa borealis sensu Lewis. Distribution: Canada: Yukon Terr., N. W. T., B. C., Alta., Sask., Man., Ont., Que., N. B., Nova Scotia; P. E. I., Newfoundland; Anticosti Island; U. S. A.: AK, WA, OR, CA, NV, ID, MT, WY, UT, CO, AZ, NM, ND, MN, WI, IL, MI, IN, OH, PA, NY, VT, NH, ME, MA, RI, CT, NJ, DE, MD, VA, WV, KY, TN, NC, SC, GA. arenaria (Fabricius) Vespa arenaria Fabricius, 1775, Syst. Entomol.: 365 - “in America arenosis” (London). Vespa borealis Kirby, 1837, Fauna Bor.-Am. 4, Ins.: 264 - [Canada] “Lat. 65°” (type depository unknown). Vespa diabolica de Saussure, 1854, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2: 138, worker, queen - [U. S. A.] “L’Amérique du Nord, Philadelphie” (Torino). Vespa fernaldi Lewis, 1897, Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 24: 171 (key), 173, female - [U. S. A.] “Colorado” (Philadelphia?). Distribution: France: St. Pierre et Miquelon; Canada: Yukon Terr., N. W. T., B. C., Alta., Sask., Man., Ont., Que., N. B., Nova Scotia; P. E. I., Newfoundland; Anticosti Island; U. S. A.: AK, WA, OR, CA, NV, ID, MT, WY, UT, CO, AZ, NM, NE, ND, SD, MN, IA, WI, IL, MI, IN, OH, PA, NY, VT, NH, ME, MA, RI, CT, NJ, DE, MD, VA, WV, AL, KY, TN, NC, SC, GA. Introduced into Bermuda. flora Archer Dolichovespula flora Archer, 1987, Entomol. Mon. Mag. 123: 27, female - “Burma, Adung Valley” (London); also from China. Dolichovespula kuami Kim and Yoon, 1996, Korean J. Syst. Zool. 12 (3): 199, figs. 1, 2, female - “Korea: Chungcheongbuk-do Province, Sokrisan” (Seoul); also from Kyeonggi-do Prov. Distribution: Myanmar; China: Gansu, Yunnan, Shaanxi, Liaoning, Sichuan; Korea. intermedia (Birula) Vespula sylvestris var. intermedia Birula, 1930, Ann. Mus. Zool. Acad. Sc. U. S. S. R. 31: 330, 331, female, male - [Uzbekistan] “Zeravschan-Tal und der östlichen Buchara” (lectotype female from “Ost- Buchara, im Gebirgsrücken Peter des Grossen, Engpass Kamtschirák” in St. Petersburg). Dolichovespula asiatica Archer, 1981, Entomol. Scand. 12: 187, 189. Unnecessary replacement name for Vespula sylvestris var. intermedia Birula, incorrectly stated to be a junior primary homonym of Vespa rufa var. intermedia du Buysson, 1905. Distribution: Afghanistan; Turkmenistan; Uzbekistan; Tajikistan; Kazakhstan; Kyrgyzstan; Russia: Altai; Pakistan; India: Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir; Mongolia; China: Xinjiang, Gansu. lama (du Buysson) Vespa lama du Buysson, 1903, Bull. Soc. Entomol. Fr. 1903: 175, female - [India] “Sikkim” (Paris). Dolichovespula nyalamensis Lee, 1986, Sinozool. 10 (4): 195, 197, figs. 1(4), 2(2), female - [China] “Nelam, Xizang (Tibet), 3300 m” (Beijing). Distribution: India: Uttarakhand, Sikkim; Nepal; Bhutan; China: Tibet. maculata (Linnaeus) Vespa maculata Linnaeus, 1763, Amoenit. Acad. 6: 412 - [U. S. A.] “Pensylvania” (lectotype female Stockholm). Vespa maculata americana Christ, 1791, Naturgesch. Ins.: 239 - “mitternachtlichen Amerika” (destroyed). Junior primary homonym of Vespa americana Fabricius, 1775. Distribution: Canada: Yukon Terr., N. W. T., B. C., Alta., Sask., Man., Ont., Que., N. B., Nova Scotia; P. E. I., Newfoundland; U. S. A.: AK, WA, OR, CA, NV, ID, MT, WY, UT, CO, AZ, NM, ND, SD, MN, IA, NE, KS, OK, TX, LA, AR, MS, AL, TN, KY, MO, WI, IL, MI, IN, OH, PA, NY, VT, NH, ME, MA, RI, CT, NJ, DE, MD, VA, WV, NC, SC, GA, FL. Introduced into New Zealand: (Dunedin, Christchurch). media (Retzius) Vespa crabro medius Retzius, 1783, C. Degeer Gen. Spec. Ins.: 63 (type depository unknown). Vespa geerii Lepeletier, 1836, Hist. Nat. Ins. Hym. 1: 510, female, male - “La Suède et les environs de Paris,Versailles, dans la forêt de Saint-Germain-en-Laye” (type depository unknown). Vespa crassa Herrich-Schäffer, 1841, Fauna Ins. Germ. 179: 33, fig. 179.4, male (destroyed). Vespa similis Schenck, 1853, Jahrb. Ver. Naturk. Nassau 9 (1): 15 (key), 24, female, male - [Germany] “Weilburg” (Marburg?). Vespa rufoscutellata Schenck, 1853, Jahrb. Ver. Naturk. Nassau 9 (1): 15 (key), 28, male - [Germany] “Wiesbaden” (Marburg?). Vespa flavicincta Schenck, 1853, Jahrb. Ver. Naturk. Nassau 9 (1): 16 (key), 27, female - [Germany] “Weilburg” (Marburg?). Junior primary homonym of Vespa flavicincta Gravenhorst, 1807. Vespa media var. lineolata Pérez, 1910, Actes Soc. Linn. Bordeaux 64: 17, female - [France] “Millau” (Paris). Vespula media media var. lugubris Birula, 1927, Ann. Mus. Zool. Acad. Sci. U. R. S. S. 28: 80, female - “Nord-und Mittelteilen Ost-Europas, Norden” (St. Petersburg). Unavailable under Article 45.5 of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature. Dolichovespula media var. conjugens Paul, 1943, Stettin. Entomol. Ztg. 104: 142 - [Poland] “Stettin: Eckerberger Wald” (type depository unknown). Dolichovespula media sugare Ishikawa, 1969, Bull. Nat. Sci. Mus. Tokyo 12 (2): 180, figs. 1-3, female, male - “Japan (Honshu), Tsuta, Towada, Aomori Pref.” (holotype female Shinjuku, Tokyo); also from numerous other localities on Honshu. Dolichovespula borealis Lee, 1986, Sinozool. 10 (4): 195, 196, figs. 1(2), 2(3), female - [China] “Hengdaohezi, Heilongjiang province” (Beijing). Junior secondary homonym of Vespa borealis Kirby, 1837, and Vespa borealis Zetterstedt, 1838. Distribution: Norway; Sweden; Finland; Denmark; Belgium; Netherlands; Luxembourg; Germany; Czech Republic; France; Great Britain; Spain; Italy; Switzerland; Austria; Liechtenstein; Poland; Hungary; Croatia; Serbia; Slovakia; Slovenia; Estonia; Latvia; Lithuania; Belarus; Ukraine; Moldova; Romania; Bulgaria; Albania; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Macedonia; Greece; Turkey; Georgia; Azerbaijan; Syria; North Africa: Morocco; Russia: European Russia south to steppe belt, Altai, Caucasus, Siberia, Yakutia, east to the Sea of Okhotsk, Kamchatka, Lake Baikal, Amur, Primor’ye; Sakhalin Island; Kurile Islands: Iturup, Kunashir; Kazakhstan; Mongolia; China: Heilongjiang, Liaoning, Jilin; Korea; Japan: Hokkaido, Honshu. Introduced into U.K.: (England, Wales, Scotland, Isle of Man); New Zealand: (Raglan) norvegicoides (Sladen) Vespa norvegicoides Sladen, 1918, Ottawa Nat. 32: 71, male, female - [Canada] “N.S. to B.C.” (lectotype female from “Amherst, Nova Scotia” in Ottawa). Distribution: France: St. Pierre et Miquelon; Canada: Yukon Terr., N. W. T., B. C., Alta., Sask., Man., Ont., Que., N. B., Nova Scotia; P. E. I., Newfoundland; U. S. A.: AK, WA, OR, CA, ID, MT, WY, ND, MN, WI, MI, NY, VT, NH, ME, MA, RI, CT, NJ, PA, MD, VA, WV, KY, TN, NC, SC, GA. norwegica (Fabricius) Vespa norwegica Fabricius, 1781, Spec. Ins. 1: 460 - “in Norwegia” (Kobenhavn). Vespa norvegica Olivier, 1792, Encycl. Méthod. Ins. 6: 674; Smith, 1858, Cat. Br. Fossor. Hym., Form. Vesp.: 220. Unjustified emendation of Vespa norwegica Fabricius. Vespa britannica Leach, 1814, Zool. Misc. 1: 112, pl. 50, female, male - “in Britannia; in Anglia rarius, in Caledonia vulgatissime” (London). Vespa borealis Zetterstedt, 1838, Ins. Lappon. Descr.: 454, female - “Lapponia” (? Lund). Junior primary homonym of Vespa borealis Kirby, 1837. Vespa peruana de Saussure, 1867, Reise Novara., Zool. 2 (1), Hym.: 18, female – “Peru altior; Quito” [error] (Genève). Vespa saxonica var. arctica Friese, 1919, Mém. Acad. Sci. Russ. (8) 28 (15): 1, female, male - [Russia] “Chanema-Fluss, Sobj-Tal, Longot-johan-Tal, Berezov” (St. Petersburg). Junior secondary homonym of Dolichovespula arctica (Rohwer, 1916). Dolichovespula norwegica var. Zetterstedti Blüthgen, 1937, Mitt. Entomol. Ges. Halle 15: 37. Replacment name for Vespa saxonica var. arctica Friese. Distribution: Iceland; Norway; Sweden; Finland; Denmark; Netherlands; Luxembourg; France; U. K.: England, Wales including Bardsey Island, Isle of Man, Scotland including Orkney and Shetland (Fair Isle); Ireland; Spain; Belgium; Germany; Switzerland; Liechtenstein; Italy, including Sardinia; Austria; Hungary; Croatia; Serbia; Romania; Slovakia; Poland; Czech Republic; Bulgaria; Slovenia; Albania; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Macedonia; Greece; Ukraine; Estonia; Belarus; Moldova; Latvia; Lithuania; Russia: European Russia, Altai, Caucasus, Siberia east to Chukotka and Kamchatka; Sakhalin Island; Georgia; Turkey; Kazakhstan; Kyrgyzstan; China: Xinjiang; Mongolia. omissa (Bischoff) Vespa tripunctata Schenck, 1861, Jahrb. Ver. Naturk. Nassau 16: 17 (key), 25, female - [Germany] “Bamberg” (München). Junior primary homonym of Vespa 3-punctata Fabricius, 1787. Vespula norvegica saxonica morpha ingrica Birula, 1930, Ann. Mus. Zool. Acad. Sci. U. R. S. S. 31 (2): 309, female - “Leningrader Gouvernement” (lectotype from “Leningrad, Kaipolova” in St. Petersburg). Unavailable under Article 45.5 of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature. Vespa omissa Bischoff, 1931, Mitt. Deutsch. Entomol. Ges. 2 (1): 6, female - [Austria] “Thüringen” (Berlin); also from Tirol. Vespula ingrica “(Birula)” Bequaert, 1932, Entomol. Am. (n. s.) 12 (2): 89, footnote. Available under Articles 10.2, 23.3.4 and 50.3.1 of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature. Distribution: Norway; Sweden; Finland; Denmark; Germany; Belgium; Netherlands; Luxembourg; France; Spain; Italy; Malta; Czech Republic; Austria; Liechtenstein; Poland; Hungary; Croatia; Slovenia; Slovakia; Serbia; Bulgaria; Albania; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Macedonia; Greece; Estonia; Latvia; Lithuania; Belarus; Ukraine; Moldova; Romania; Switzerland; Russia: European Russia, Altai, Siberia; Kazakhstan; Azerbaijan; Georgia; Turkey; Iran. pacifica (Birula) Vespula norvegica pacifica Birula, 1930, Ann. Mus. Zool. Acad. Sci. U. S. S. R. 31: 295, 317, female, male - [Russia] “Im Küstengebiete des Pazifischen Ozeans und auf den naheliegeneden Inseln” (lectotype female from “Insel Sachalin” in St. Petersburg). Dolichovespula loekenae Eck, 1980, Reichenbachia 18 (30): 213, female, male - [Norway] “Espeland, HOy: Alversund” (Bergen); also from Sweden; Finland. Distribution: Norway; Sweden; Finland; Russia: northwestern region, Ob’ River to east of Lake Baikal, Altai, Ural, Siberia, Amur, Primor’ye, Kamchatka; Kurile Islands: Paramushir, Shikotan, Kunashir, Iturup; Sakhalin Island; Kazakhstan; Kyrgyzstan; Mongolia; Korea; Japan: Hokkaido, Honshu, Shikoku. panda Archer Dolichovesupula [!] panda Archer, 1981 (1980), Entomon 5 (4): 341, fig. 1, female [male = worker] - “CHINA, Szechuen, 14.4 km south-west Tarsienlu, 2600-4000 m” (Washington); also from other localities in Sichuan. Distribution: China: Sichuan, Ningxia, Tibet. saxonica (Fabricius) Vespa saxonica Fabricius, 1793, Entomol. Syst. 2: 256 - “in Germania” (type depository unknown). Vespa bavarica von Schrank, 1802, Fauna Boica 2 (2): 350, female - [Germany] “Waldungen” (type depository unknown). Vespa tridens Schenck, 1853, Jahrb. Ver. Naturk. Nassau 9 (1): 18 (key), 38, female, male - [Germany] “in der Gegend von Wiesbaden” (Marburg?). Vespula norvegica saxonica morpha monticola Birula, 1930, Ann. Mus. Zool. Acad. Sci. U. R. S. S. 31 (2): 313 - [Russia] “Gebirgen des Kaukasus” (St. Petersburg). Unavailable under Article 45.5 of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature. Dolichovespula saxonica nipponica Yamane, 1975, Kontyû 43 (3): 349, female - [Japan] “Hokkaido. Otoineppu” (Sapporo); also from elsewhere in Hokkaido, and Honshu. Dolichovespula saxonica kamtschatkensis Eck, 1983, Entomol. Abhand. Staat. Mus. Tierk. Dresden 46 (8): 171, female, male - [Russia] “Petropawlowsk, Flußtal Poganka, Kamtschatka” (holotype female St. Petersburg); also from elsewhere in Kamchatka. Dolichovespula saxonica nigrescens Eck, 1983, Entomol. Abhand. Staat. Mus. Tierk. Dresden 46 (8): 172, female - [Russia] “Primorje, Umgeb. Anisimowka” (Dresden); also from elsewhere in Russia; Mongolia; Korea. Distribution: Norway; Sweden; Finland; Denmark; Germany; Netherlands; Luxembourg; Belgium; France; Spain; Switzerland; Austria; Liechtenstein; Slovenia; Bulgaria; Italy; Greece; Poland; Hungary; Czech Republic; Slovakia; Croatia; Serbia; Estonia; Romania; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Macedonia; Albania; Latvia; Lithuania; Belarus; Ukraine; Moldova; Russia: European Russia, Altai, Siberia east to Upper Kolyma and Kamchatka, Komandorski Island; Kurile Islands: Kunashir; Sakhalin Island: Paramushir; Azerbaijan; Georgia; Turkey; Kazakhstan; Mongolia; China: Xinjiang, Gansu, Heilongjiang, Ningxia, Qinghai, Sichuan, Jilin, Liaoning, Shaanxi; Korea; Japan: Hokkaido, Honshu. Introduced into U.K.: England, Wales. stigma Lee Dolichovespula stigma Lee, 1986, Sinozool. 10 (4): 195, 198, figs. 1(3), 2(1), female - [China] “Mt. Emei, Sichuan Province, 1800-2100 m” (Beijing); also from 1800-1900 m. Dolichovespula baileyi Archer, 1987, Entomol. Mon. Mag. 123: 30, female - “China, Szechwan, Lin Yang, 2500 m” (Edinburgh); also from another locality in Sichuan. Dolichovespula sinensis Archer, 1987, Entomol. Mon. Mag. 123: 29, female - “China, Szechwan, Suifu” (Washington); also from Xinjiang. Distribution: China: Hubei, Ningxia, Sichuan, Xinjiang, Shaanxi. sylvestris (Scopoli) Vespa sylvestris Scopoli, 1763, Entomol. Carniol.: 309 - [Slovenia] “Carnioliae” (destroyed?). Vespa parietum Harris, 1776, Exposit. Eng. Ins.: 128, pl. XXXVII fig. 4, male - “English” (destroyed). Junior primary homonym of Vespa parietum Linnaeus, 1758. Vespa holsatica Fabricius, 1793, Entomol. Syst. 2: 257 - [Germany] “Kiliae” (Kobenhavn). Vespa frontalis Latreille, 1802, Ann. Mus. Hist. Nat. 1: 290, pl. XXI fig. 7 - [France] “Chartreaux de Paris” (type depository unknown). Vespa campanaria Fowler, 1833, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. 6: 536, 538, fig. 69 (type depository unknown). Vespa anglica “Leach” Smith, 1843, Zoologist 1: 168, as a synonym of Vespa holsatica Fabricius, 1793. Available under Article 11.6.1 of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature. Vespa pilosella Costa, 1858, Ric. Entomol. Monti Partenii: 20, 28, female, male - [Italy] “Monti Partenii” (type depository unknown). Junior primary homonym of Vespa pilosella Gravenhorst, 1807. Vespa silvestris [!] var. sumptuosa du Buysson, 1905 (1904), Ann. Soc. Entomol. Fr. 73 (3): 493 (key), 603, female - “Perse centrale” (Wien). Dolichovespula xinjiangensis Lee, 1986, Sinozool. 10 (4): 195, 199, figs. 1(1), 2(4), female, male - [China] “Xinyuan, Xinjiang Uygur Aut. Reg., 850-1200 m” (holotype female Beijing); also from Altay. Distribution: Norway; Sweden; Finland; Denmark; Netherlands; Luxembourg; Germany including Mellum Island; Belgium; France; U. K.: England including Isle of Man, Isles of Scilly, and the Channel Islands, Wales, Scotland including Outer Hebrides; Ireland; Portugal; Spain; Italy; Malta; Czech Republic; Switzerland; Austria; Liechtenstein; Slovenia; Slovakia; Greece; Poland; Hungary; Croatia; Serbia; Albania; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Macedonia; Bulgaria; Estonia; Latvia; Lithuania; Belarus; Ukraine; Moldova; Romania; Russia: European Russia, Altai, Caucasus, Siberia to Transbaikalia, Primor’ye; Georgia; Azerbaijan; Syria; North Africa: Morocco; Turkey; Armenia; Iran; Afghanistan; Uzbekistan; Turkmenistan; Tajikistan; Pakistan; India: Kashmir; Kazakhstan; Kyrgyzstan; Mongolia; China: Xinjiang, Gansu, Fujian, Shanghai, Heilongjiang. xanthicincta Archer Dolichovespula pacifica xanthicincta Archer, 1981 (1980), Entomon 5 (4): 341, 343, female [male = female] - “China-Tibet border, near Tang Gu, 4300 m” (Washington); also from Tibet; Myanmar. Distribution: Bhutan; China: Sichuan, Tibet; Myanmar. Genus Provespa Ashmead Provespa Ashmead, 1903, Entomol. News 14: 182, genus. Type species: Vespa dorylloides de Saussure, 1854 [= Vespa anomala de Saussure, 1854], by original designation. anomala (de Saussure) Vespa anomala de Saussure, 1854, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2: 112, pl. XIV fig. 2-2a, female - [Indonesia] “l’ile de Java” (Torino, London). Vespa dorylloïdes de Sausssure, 1854, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2: 256, Errata [unnecessary replacement name for Vespa anomala de Saussure]; 1855, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2: pl. I (doryloides [!]). Distribution: India: Arunachal Pradesh, Meghalaya, Sikkim, Uttarakhand, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal; Myanmar; Thailand; Malaysia: Peninsular Malaysia, Sarawak, Sabah; Brunei; Pulau; Lankawi; Singapore; Indonesia: Sumatra, Bangka, Batu, Durian, Karimun Lingga, Padang, Java, Kalimantan, Laut; Borneo. barthelemyi (du Buysson) Vespa barthelemyi du Buysson, 1905 (1904), Ann. Soc. Entomol. Fr. 73: 492 (key), 618, pl. V figs. 3-4, female, male - “Cambodge, Pnom-penh” (lectotype female Paris): also from India; Vietnam; Myanmar. Distribution: India: Sikkim, Assam, Manipur, Meghalaya, Arunachal Pradesh, Manipur, Mizoram, Nagaland, Tripura, West Bengal; Bhutan; China: Tibet, Yunnan, Guangxi; Myanmar; Thailand; Laos; Cambodia; Vietnam; Malaysia: Peninsular Malaysia. Introduced into Kazakhstan. nocturna van der Vecht Provespa nocturna van der Vecht, 1935, Entomol. Meded. Ned. Indië 1: 41, fig. 1, female, male - [Indonesia] “Sumatra, Palembangsche Bovenlanden” (holotype female Leiden); also from Borneo; Sulawesi. Distribution: Malaysia: Peninsular Malaysia, Sarawak, Sabah, Riau; Thailand; Indonesia: Sumatra, Bangka, Kalimantan; Borneo. Introduced into Vietnam; Australia: Queensland Genus Vespa Linnaeus Vespa Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1: 343, 572, genus (17 species). Type species: “Vespa crabro, Fab.” [= Vespa crabro Linnaeus,1758], by subsequent designation of Latreille, 1810, Consid. Gén. Crust. Arachn. Ins.: 438. Macrovespa Dalla Torre, 1904, Genera Ins. 19: 64, group of genus Vespa Linnaeus Type species: Vespa crabro Linnaeus, 1758, by subsequent designation of Bequaert, 1930, Bull. Brooklyn Entomol. Soc. 25: 64. Nyctovespa van der Vecht, 1959, Zool. Meded., Leiden 36 (13): 210, subgenus of Vespa Linnaeus. Type species: Vespa binghami du Buysson, 1905, by original designation. affinis (Linnaeus) Apis affinis Linnaeus, 1764, Mus. Ludov. Ulricae: 417 - “in Calidis regionibus” (holotype female Uppsala). Vespa affinis Fabricius, 1787, Mant. Ins. 1: 287 - “in China” (Kobenhavn). Junior secondary homonym of Vespa affinis (Linnaeus, 1764). Vespa unifasciata Olivier, 1792, Encycl. Méthod. Ins. 6: 677 - “Indes orientales” (type depository unknown). Junior primary homonym of Vespa unifasciata Gmelin, 1790. Vespa alduini Guérin-Méneville, 1831, in Duperrey, Voyage Coquille, Zool., Ins. Hym. Atlas: pl. 9 fig. 6; 1838, Texte 2 (2): 264 - [Indonesia] “l’île de Bourou, l’une des Moluques” (Genova). Vespa bimaculata Guérin-Méneville, 1838, in Duperrey, Voyage Coquille, Zool., Ins. Hym. Texte 2 (2): 264. Unnecessary replacement name for Vespa alduini Guérin- Méneville. Junior primary homonym of Vespa bimaculata Geoffroy, 1785, and of Vespa bimaculata Olivier, 1792. Vespa nigripennis de Saussure, 1854, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2: 156 - “Les Philippines” (London). Junior primary homonym of Vespa nigripennis Degeer, 1773. Vespa cincta var. picea du Buysson, 1905 (1904), Ann. Soc. Entomol. Fr. 73: 488 (key), 537, female - “Nouvelle-Guinée, Tupuseleia; Ile Yule; Nlle-Guinée, Kapa-Kapa” (lectotype Genova). Vespa indosinensis Pérez, 1910, Act. Soc. Linn. Bordeaux 64: 8, female - “Cochinchine; Annam (M. Boutan); Malacca; Célèbes septentrionalis; India” (lectotype Paris). Vespa formosana Sonan, 1927, Trans. Nat. Hist. Soc. Formosa 17 (89): 125, female, male - [Taiwan] “Taihoku, Kagi, Takezaki, Nanto, Daimokko, Maruyama” (lectotype female, from Taihoku, in Taichung). Vespa affinis var. continentalis Bequaert, 1936, Treubia 15 (4): 346 (key), 350, female - “India: Mangalore” (Washington); also from another locality in India; Myanmar; Sri Lanka; Thailand. Vespa affinis var. hainanensis Bequaert, 1936, Treubia 15 (4): 347 (key), 349, female - “China: Hainan Island (2 miles south of Nodoa)” (Cambridge). Vespa affinis nigriventris van der Vecht, 1957, Zool. Verh., Leiden 34: 28 (key), 29, female - [Philippines] “Palawan, Puerto Princesa” (Gainesville); also from another locality on Palawan. Vespa affinis rufonigrans van der Vecht, 1957, Zool. Verh., Leiden 34: 28 (key), 29, female, male - [Indonesia] “Palu, North West Celebes” (holotype female Leiden); also from elsewhere on Sulawesi, nearby islands, Borneo, northern Moluccas, Misool, Salawati, Waigeo, New Guinea. Vespa affinis archboldi van der Vecht, 1957, Zool. Verh., Leiden 34: 28 (key), 32, female - [Indonesia] “Hollandia” (Leiden); also from elsewhere in New Guinea. Vespa affinis moluccana van der Vecht, 1957, Zool. Verh., Leiden 34: 28 (key), 32, female, male - [Indonesia] “Saparua I. near Amboina” (holotype female Leiden); also from southern Moluccas, Kai, Aru, New Guinea. Vespa affinis alticincta van der Vecht, 1957, Zool. Verh., Leiden 34: 28 (key), 33, female, male - “New Britain” (holotype female London). Distribution: India: Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Maharashtra, Karnataka, Bihar, West Bengal, Sikkim, Bangledesh; Assam; Arunchal Pradesh; Himichal Pradesh; Meghalaya; Nagaland; Tripura; Utturakhand; Uttar Pradesh; Sri Lanka; China: Hubei, Hunan, Shanghai, Zhejiang, Anhui, Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Hainan Island, Hong Kong; Taiwan; Orchid Island; Japan: Ryukyu Islands.; Cambodia; Vietnam; Laos; Myanmar; Thailand; Malaysia: Peninsular Malaysia, Sabah, Sarawak; Singapore; Indonesia: Sumatra, Nias, Bangka, Java, Borneo (Kalimantan), Sulawesi, Talaud Island, Buton, Salayar, Sunda Islands, Timor, Moluccas (Morotai, Ternate, Tidore, Halmahera, Bacan, Buru, Ambon, Saparua, Haruku, Ceram), Aru, Kai, Misool, Salawati, Waigeo, Sorong, Yapen, New Guinea (Irian Jaya); Papua New Guinea, including New Britain and New Ireland; Philippine Islands: Palawan, Dumaran, Labuan, Mindanao, Samar, Luzon. Introduced into Australia: Queensland: (Thursday Island); New Zealand: (Arrowtown); U.S.A.: (California). analis Fabricius Vespa analis Fabricius, 1775, Syst. Entomol.: 363 - “in Cap. B. S.” [error; probably Java] (London). Vespa crabro sphinx Christ, 1791, Naturgesch. Ins.: 217, pl. 18 fig. 5, female (destroyed). Vespa tyrannica Smith, 1857, Cat. Hym. Br. Mus. 5, Vesp.: 119, female - “Singapore” (lectotype London). Vespa japonica Smith, 1868, Entomol. Mon. Mag. 4: 279, male - “Hakodadi, in Japan” (London). Junior primary homonym of Vespa japonica Radoszkowski, 1857, and of Vespa japonica de Saussure, 1858. Vespa parallela André, 1884, Ann. Soc. Entomol. Fr. (6) 4, Bull.: lxi, female - [Russia] “Wladivostock, sur l’Amour, Sibérie orientale” (Paris?). Vespa insularis Dalla Torre, 1894, Cat. Hym. 9: 147. Replacement name for Vespa japonica Smith. Vespa tridentata Cameron, 1903, Entomologist 36: 278, female - “Japan” (London). Vespa nigrans du Buysson, 1903, Bull. Soc. Entomol. Fr. 1903: 175, male - [China] “Yun-nam, Tsé- kou” (Paris). Vespa parallela var. biroi du Buysson, 1905 (1904), Ann. Soc. Entomol. Fr. 73: 487 (key), 513, female - “Singapore” (lectotype Paris). Vespa analis var. tenebrosa du Buysson, 1905 (1904), Ann. Soc. Entomol. Fr. 73: 516, female - [Indonesia] “Java, Goban, Gondang” (lectotype Paris). Vespa analis var. (or subsp.) barbouri Bequaert, 1939, Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 65: 38 (key), 40, female - [India] “Teesta Valley, Sikkim” (Cambridge). Vespa analis var. (or subsp.) kuangsiana Bequaert, 1939, Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 65: 38 (key), 42, female - “Kwangsi, China” (Cambridge). Vespa analis eisa Yamane, 1987, Kontyû 55 (4): 628 (key), 631, female - [Japan] “Yona, Okinawa-jima” (Kagoshima); also from elsewhere on Okinawa, and central Ryukyus. Vespa analis nagatomii Yamane, 1987, Kontyû 55 (4): 628 (key), 632, female - [Japan] “Koza-dake, Iriomote-jima” (Kagoshima); also three other localties on Iriomote. Vespa maguanensis Dong, 2001, J. Southwest. Agric. Univ. 23 (1): 82, figs. 1-5, female, male - “Yunnan China” (Yunnan). Vespa hekouensis Dong and Wang, 2003, J. Southwest. Agric. Univ. 25 (5): 407, fig. 2, female (Yunnan). Distribution: India: Jammu and Kashmir, Arunchal Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Uttar Pradesh, Meghalaya, Tamil Nadu, West Bengal, Sikkim, Assam; Nepal; China: Yunnan, Sichuan, Hubei, Zhejiang, Guangxi, Fujian, Hubei, Heilonjiang, Shaanxi, Jianxi, Liaoning, Tibet, Henan, Hong Kong, Hainan Island; Taiwan; Korea; Japan, including Ryukyu Is.; Russia: Ussuriland, Amur, Primor’ye; Myanmar; Thailand; Laos; Vietnam; Malaysia: Peninsular Malaysia; Singapore; Indonesia: Sumatra, Bangka, Sunda Islands: (Sebesi, Sangijiang, Sebuku, Sertung, Legundi, Rakata, Krakatau, Panaitan, Deli), Madura, Java, Bawean, Bali, Lombok; Phillipines. basalis Smith Vespa basalis Smith, 1852, Trans. Entomol. Soc. Lond. (n. s.) 2 (2): 46, female - “Nepaul” (London). - Dover, 1929, Bull. Raffles Mus. 2: 48 (basilis [!]). Vespa obliterata Smith, 1852, Trans. Entomol. Soc. Lond. (n. s.) 2 (2): 47, female - “Northern India” (London). Distribution: Pakistan; India: Arunchal Pradesh, Mizoram, Orissa, Uttarakhand, Uttar Pradesh, Himachal Pradesh, West Bengal, Meghalaya, Sikkim, Assam; Nepal; China: Yunnan, Hubei, Sichuan, Zhejiang, Fujian, Shaanxi; Henan; Taiwan; Myanmar; Bhutan,Thailand; Laos; Vietnam; Indonesia: Sumatra. bellicosa de Saussure Vespa bellicosa de Saussure, 1854, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2: 146, pl. XIV fig. 10, female - “Java” [error; Sumatra or Borneo] (lectotype Torino). Distribution: Indonesia: Sumatra, Bengkalis, Borneo: (Kalimantan); Malaysia: Sarawak. bicolor Fabricius Vespa bicolor Fabricius, 1787, Mant. Ins. 1: 288 - “in China” (Kobenhavn). Vespa lutea Coquebert, 1804, Illustr. Iconogr. Insect. 3: 94, pl. XXI fig. 10 - “Massiliae lecta, in navi ex India” (type depository unknown). Vespa auraria var. citriventris du Buysson, 1905 (1904), Ann. Soc. Entomol. Fr. 73: 552, female - [India] “Sikkim, de Padamtsin à Lingtou” (lectotype Paris); also from West Bengal; and China. Distribution: India: Arunchal Pradesh, Manipur, Uttarakhand, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal, Meghalaya, Sikkim, Assam; Bhutan; Nepal; China: Hainan Island, Sichuan, Guangdong, Zhejiang, Shanghai, Hebei, Beijing, Yunnan, Guangxi, Jiangxi, Fujian, Shaanxi, Hong Kong, Tibet; Myanmar; Thailand; Laos; Cambodia; Vietnam. Introduced into Taiwan: (Miaoli County). binghami du Buysson Vespa binghami du Buysson, 1905 (1904), Ann. Soc. Entomol. Fr. 73: 488 (key), 523, female - [Myanmar] “Tenasserim, Taungoo Hills” (lectotype Paris); also from China; and “Indes orientales.” Vespa suprunenkoi Birula, 1925 (1924), Arch. Naturgesch. (Abt. A) 90 (12): 89 (key), 92, female - [Russia] “Insel Sachalin” (St. Petersburg); also from Korea. Distribution: India: Arunchal Pradesh, Sikkim, Meghalaya, West Bengal, Bhutan, Assam; Myanmar; Bhutan; Thailand; Laos; Vietnam; China: Tibet, Yunnan, Sichuan, Jiangsu, Fujian, Shanghai, Jiangxi, Shaanxi; Russia: Amur, Primor’ye; Sakhalin Island; Korea. Note: Zhang, 1989, Fossil Ins. Shanwang, Shandong, China: 312 has reported the presence of Vespa binghami in Miocene deposits in Shandong, China. This identification remains to be verified. crabro Linnaeus Vespa crabro Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1: 572 - “in Europae” (holotype female, Linnaean Society, London). Vespa vexator Harris, 1776, Exposit. Eng. Ins.: 128, pl. XXXVII figs. 2-3, female - “English” (destroyed). Vespa crabro major Retzius, 1783, C. Degeer Gen. Spec. Ins.: 63 - (type depository unknown). ? Vespa pratensis Geoffroy, 1785, in Fourcroy, Entomol. Paris 2: 437 - [France] “in Agro Parisiensi” (type depository unknown). Vespa crabro germana Christ, 1791, Naturgesch Ins.: 215, pl. 18 fig. 3 (destroyed). Vespa crabroniformis Smith, 1852, Trans. Entomol. Soc. Lond. (n. s.) 2 (2): 40, female, male - “North China” (London). Vespa crabro var. borealis Radoszkowski, 1863, Horae Soc. Entomol. Ross. 2: 128, pl. XVI fig. 15, female, male - [Russia] “Pargolova i Osinovoa Roshchi” (type depository unknown). Junior primary homonym of Vespa borealis Kirby, 1837, Vespa borealis Zetterstedt, 1840, and of Vespa borealis Smith, 1843. Vespa crabro var. anglica Gribodo, 1892 (1891), Bull. Soc. Entomol. Ital. 23: 242, female - “Inghilterra” (Genova). Junior primary homonym of Vespa anglica Smith, 1843. Vespa oberthuri du Buysson, 1902, Bull. Soc. Entomol. Fr. 1902: 140, female - “Chine: Se-tchouen, Siao-Lou” (lectotype Paris); also from Ta-tsien-lou. Vespa flavo-fasciata Cameron, 1903, Entomologist 36: 280, female - “Japan, Nügata (Shinanogawa)” (London). Vespa crabro var. tartarea du Buysson, 1905 (1904), Ann. Soc. Entomol. Fr. 73 (3): 492 (key), 506, female - “Japon: Yokohama, Columbia” (Budapest, coll. Martinez Escalera). Vespa crabro var. Altaica Pérez, 1910, Actes Soc. Linn. Bordeaux 64: 5, female - “Altaï” (Paris). Vespa crabro var. Caspica Pérez, 1910, Actes Soc. Linn. Bordeaux 64: 6, female - [Azerbaijan] “Talysch et Lenkoran, région Caspienne” (Paris). Vespa crabro nigra Birula, 1925, Compt. Rend. Acad. Sci. Russ. 1925: 55 - West Siberia from Urals to Enisei and slightly after Enisei [in Russian] (St. Petersburg). Junior primary homonym of Vespa nigra Geoffroy, 1785. Vespa crabro vulgata Birula, 1925, Compt. Rend. Acad. Sci. Russ. 1925: 55 - West Europe to the west border of the former race [=Vespa crabro crabro, extending to the line between West Dvina mouth and Dnepr mouth] southern part of the Ussuri Regions, North Manchuria and Korea [in Russian] (St. Petersburg). Vespa crabro meridionalis Birula, 1925, Compt. Rend. Acad. Sci. Russ. 1925: 55 - Transcaucasia, North Persia, western part of the Transcapian region, probably also south peninsulas of West Europe [in Russian] (St. Petersburg). Vespa crabro chinensis Birula, 1925, Compt. Rend. Acad. Sci. Russ. 1925: 55 - Middle and South China [in Russian] (St. Petersburg). Junior primary homonym of Vespa chinensis Fabricius, 1793. Vespa crabro var. birulai Bequaert, 1931, Konowia 10 (2): 105. Replacement name for Vespa crabro chinensis Birula. Vespa crabro var. gribodoi Bequaert, 1931, Konowia 10 (2): 105. Replacement name for Vespa crabro var. anglica Gribodo. Distribution: Norway; Sweden; Finland; Denmark; Germany; France; Netherlands; U. K.: England including Isles of Scilly, Isle of Wright, and the Channel Islands, Wales, Scotland; Spain; Belgium; Italy; Algeria; Switzerland; Austria; Liechtenstein; Hungary; Bulgaria; Albania; Greece; Croatia; Slovakia; Czech Republic; Poland; Serbia; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Macedonia; Estonia; Lithuania; Latvia; Belarus; Moldova; Romania; Slovenia; Ukraine; Georgia; Azerbaijan; Turkey; Turkmenistan; Iran; Russia: European Russia, Altai, Caucasus, Siberia, Amur, Primor’ye; Sakhalin Island; Kazakhstan; Mongolia; China: Manchuria; Heilongjiang, Laioning, Heibei, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Henan, Guangxi, Gansu, Sichuan, Xizang, Yunnan, Shaanxi, Fujian; Tianjin, Shandong, Zhejiang, Shanghai, Hubei, Jilin, Beijing; Taiwan; Korea; Japan, including southern Kyushu. Introduced into Canada: (Ont., Que.); U. S. A. (ME, NH, VT, MA, RI, CT, NY, NJ, PA, DE, MD, DC,VA, NC, SC, GA, AL, MS, LA, AR, WV, OH, MI, IN, IL, KY, TN, MO, WI, MN, IA, ND, SD); Guatemala: (Guatemala City). ducalis Smith Vespa ducalis Smith, 1852, Trans. Entomol. Soc. Lond. (n. s.) 2 (2): 39, female, male - [China] “Tein- tung, near Nigo-po-foo” (London). Vespa ducalis var. pulchra du Buysson, 1905 (1904), Ann. Soc. Entomol. Fr. 73: 519, female - “Japon: Yokohama” (lectotype Paris); also from Korea. Vespa matsumurai Sonan, 1935, Trans. Nat. Hist. Soc. 25 (145): 370, figs. 1-3, female - [Japan] “Tokyo” (Taichung). Vespa esakii Sonan, 1935, Trans. Nat. Hist. Soc. Formosa 25 (145): 371, figs. 4-6, female - [Japan] “Izuhara in Tsushima Island” (Fukuoka). Vespa tropica loochooensis Bequaert, 1936, Treubia 15 (4): 336 (key), 343, female - [Japan] “Iriomote Island, in the Loo-Choo (or Riu-Kiu) Archiplelago” (Cambridge). Vespa tropica pseudosoror van der Vecht, 1959, Zool. Meded., Leiden 36 (13): 224, female - [Vietnam] “Indo-China: Annam, Lién-Chién près Tourane, 1000 m” (Paris); also from elsewhere in Vietnam; and Taiwan. Distribution: India: Meghalaya, Sikkim; Nepal; Myanmar; Thailand; Laos; Vietnam; China: Sichuan, Gansu, Hunan, Liaoning, Jiangsu, Guangdong, Shanghai, Fujian, Hong Kong, Shandong, Shaanxi, Heilongiang; Hainan Island; Taiwan; Orchid Island; Mongolia: Nei Menggu; Russia: Amur, Primor’ye; Korea; Tsushima Island; Japan, including Ryukyu Islands. dybowskii André Vespa dybowskii “Rad. in litt.” André, 1884, Spec. Hym. Europe Algér. 2: 582, female - [Russia] “Sibérie” (Paris?). Vespa walkeri du Buysson, 1905 (1904), Ann. Soc. Entomol. Fr. 73 (3): 490 (key), 539, female, male - “Chine: Haï-ning” (London, Paris). Vespa dybowskii mutata Ma, 1937, Ent. Phytopath. 5 (2): 30, male (in subgenus Vespa) - [China] “Hangchow” (Hangzhou, destroyed?). Distribution: Myanmar; China: Tibet, Zhejiang, Liaoning, Shaanxi; Thailand; Russia: Transbaikalia, Amur; Primor’ye; Korea; Japan. fervida Smith Vespa fervida Smith, 1858, J. Proc. Linn. Soc Lond. 3: 23, female - [Indonesia] “Celebes” (London). Distribution: Indonesia: Sulawesi, Salayar, Buton. fumida van der Vecht Vespa variabilis du Buysson, 1905 (1904), Ann. Soc. Entomol. Fr. 73: 490 (key), 522, 627, female - “Chine: Mou-pin” (lectotype Paris); also from elsewhere in China; and Indonesia [error]. Junior primary homonym of Vespa variabilis Fabricius, 1781. Vespa variabilis fumida van der Vecht, 1959, Zool. Meded., Leiden 36 (13): 228, female - “India, ‘British Bootan’, Padong” (Paris); also from Darjeeling. Distribution: India: Arunachal Pradesh, West Bengal, Sikkim, Assam; Bhutan; Nepal; Myanmar; China: Sichuan, Shaanxi, Yunnan, Hubei, Fujian, Tibet. luctuosa de Saussure Vespa luctuosa de Saussure, 1854, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2.: 143, male - “Les Philippines” (London). Vespa bellicosa var. Semperi du Buysson, 1905 (1904), Ann. Soc. Entomol. Fr. 63: 542, female - “Comigu” [Philippines: ?Camiguin] (lectotype Wien); also from Mindanao, Lubang, Luzon. Vespa luctuosa luzonensis Bequaert, 1934, Bull. Mus. R. Hist. Nat. Belg. 10 (28): 3 (key), 5, female - “Luzon, Philippines” (Berlin). Vespa luctuosa negrosensis Kojima and Tano, 1985, Philipp. Entomol. 6 (4): 436, female - [Philippines] “Mambucal, Negros Is.” (Tokyo). Distribution: Philippine Islands: Cebu, Leyte, Samar, Mindanao, Panaon, Negros, Biliran, Mindoro, Panay, Lubang, Luzon. mandarinia Smith Vespa mandarinia Smith, 1852, Trans. Entomol. Soc. Lond. (n. s.) 2 (2): 38, pl. VIII fig. 1, female - [China] “Tein-tung, near Ning-po-foo, amongst the mountains” (London). Vespa magnifica Smith, 1852, Trans. Entomol. Soc. Lond. (n. s.) 2 (2): 45, female - “Nepaul” (London, Oxford). Vespa japonica Radoszkowski, 1857, in Motschulsky, Ét. Entomol. 6: 410 - “Japon” (St. Petersburg). Vespa bellona Smith, 1871, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond.: 248, pl. XVIII fig. 6, female - [China] “Yunnan” (London). Vespa magnifica var. latilineata Cameron, 1903, Entomologist 36: 278, female - “Japan, Hitoyoshi” (London?). Vespa magnifica var. nobilis Sonan, 1929, Trans. Nat. Hist. Soc. Formosa. 19 (101): 137 (key), 140, female - [Taiwan] “Musha” (Taichung); also from other localities on Taiwan. Vespa magnifica sonani Matsumura, 1930, Illus. Thousand Ins. Japan 2: 1, pl. 1 figs. 2, 5, female - “Taiwan, Sina” (Sapporo). Distribution: Pakistan; India: Arunchal Pradesh, Manipur, Mizoram, Uttarakhand, Uttaranchal, Uttar Pradesh, Himachal Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, West Bengal, Meghalaya, Sikkim, Assam; Sri Lanka; Bhutan; Nepal; Myanmar; Thailand; Laos; Vietnam; Malaysia: Peninsular Malaysia; China: Guangxi, Liaoning, Sichuan, Yunnan, Fujian, Shanghai, Jiangsu, Hunan, Zhejiang. Hubei, Jiangxi, Shaanxi, Hong Kong, Tibet; Taiwan; Russia: Ussuriland, Amur, Primor’ye; Korea; Japan, (including Yaku-shima Island and Tanega-shima Island) in Ryukyu Islands. Note: Zhang, 1989, Fossil Ins. Shanwang, Shandong, China: 312 has reported the presence of Vespa magnifica in Miocene deposits in Shandong, China. This identification remains to be verified. mocsaryana du Buysson Vespa mocsaryana du Buysson, 1905 (1904), Ann. Soc. Entomol. Fr. 73: 490 (key), 537, pl. VII fig. 3, female, male - “Presqu’ile de Malacca: Pérak; Sikkim; Assam: Khasia Hills; Tenasserim: Thagatâ” (Budapest, Wien, London, Genova). Distribution: India: Meghalaya, Sikkim, Assam; China: Sichuan, Anhui, Jiangxi, Yunnan, Zhejiang, Fujian, Shaanxi, Hong Kong; Myanmar; Thailand; Laos; Vietnam; Malaysia: Peninsular Malaysia; Indonesia: Sumatra. multimaculata Pérez Vespa annulata Smith, 1858, J. Proc. Linn. Soc. Lond., Zool. 2 (6): 116, female - [Malaysia] “Borneo (Sarawak). Malacca.” (lectotype Oxford). Junior primary homonym of Vespa annulata Rossi, 1790. Vespa multimaculata Pérez, 1910, Actes Soc. Linn. Bordeaux 64: 14, female - “Brunei (Java)” [Borneo] (lectotype Paris). Vespa luctuosa var. malayana Bequaert, 1934, Bull. Mus. R. Hist. Nat. Belg. 10 (28): 3 (key), 4. Replacement name for Vespa annulata Smith. Vespa multimaculata pendleburyi van der Vecht, 1957, Zool. Verh., Leiden 34: 43, 44, female, male - “Catchment Area near Jitra, Kedah, N. Malaya” (holotype female Leiden); also from elsewhere in Peninsular Malaysia; Thailand; Singapore; Indonesia: Sumatra. Distribution: Thailand; Laos; Malaysia: Peninsular Malaysia, Sarawak, Sabah; Brunei; Singapore; Indonesia: Sumatra, Kalimantan; Borneo. orientalis Linnaeus Vespa orientalis Linnaeus, 1771, Mant. Plant. 2: 540 - “Oriente” (holotype female, Linnaean Society, London). Vespa turcica Drury, 1773, Illustr. Nat. Hist. 2: 74, pl. XXXIX fig. 1, index - [Turkey] “Smyrna” (destroyed?). Vespa quadripunctata Forskål, 1775, Descr. Anim.: 84 - [Egypt] “Kahirae” (Kobenhavn?). Vespa crabro fusca Christ, 1791, Naturgesch. Ins.: 216 - [Turkey] “Smirna” (destroyed). Vespa AEgyptiaca Vallot, 1802, Concord. Syst.: 170 - “Égypte” (type depository unknown). Vespa nilotica Vallot, 1802, Concord. Syst.: 170 - “Égypte” (type depository unknown). Vespa jurinei de Saussure, 1854, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2: 133 - “L’Albanie” (lectotype female London). Vespa orientalis var. aegyptiaca André, 1884, Spec. Hym. Europe Algér. 2: 584 - [Egypt] “Le Caire, Alexandrie” (Paris). Junior primary homonym of Vespa aegyptiaca Vallot, 1802. Vespa indica; Wroughton, 1889, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 4: 35. Lapsus for Vespa orientalis Linnaeus. Vespa orientalis var. zavattarii Guiglia and Capra, 1933, Mem. Soc. Entomol. Ital. 12: 168, female - “Fezzan, Ubari [Libya] Oued Tizzi (Algeria)” (Genova). Vespa orientalis var. somalica Giordani Soika, 1934, Boll. Soc. Entomol. Ital. 66 (8): 184, female - “Somalia italiana, di Carim” (lectotype Venezia); also from Bender Cassim. Vespa orientalis arabica Giordani Soika, 1957, Br. Mus. (Nat. Hist.) Exp. S. W. Arabia 1 (31): 482, female, male - “Western Aden Protectorate: Al Milah, 1600 ft.” (holotype female London); also from elsewhere in Yemen; and Oman. Distribution: Algeria; Libya; Egypt; Ethiopia; Somalia; Chad; Sudan; Malta; Italy, including Sicily; Croatia; Bosnia & Herzegovina; Montenegro; Albania; Macedonia; Romania; Greece, including Crete; Bulgaria; Russia; Turkey; Israel; Jordan, Armenia; Syria; Lebanon; Iran; Iraq; Saudi Arabia; Yemen; Oman; U. A. E., Bahrein; Georgia; Azerbaijan; Kazakhstan; Kyrgyzstan; Turkmenistan; Uzbekistan; Tajikistan, Afghanistan; Pakistan; India: Jammu and Kashmir, Jarkand, Orissa, Uttarakhand; Punjab, Bihar, Haryana, Maharashtra, Rajasthan, Andhra Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan, Uttaranchal, West Bengal, Delhi; Nepal; China: Xinjiang. Introduced into China: (Fujian); U.K. (England); Czech Republic; Belgium: (Cyprus); Spain; Madagascar; Mexico: (Cozumel); U. S. A.: (N.Y.). philippinensis de Saussure Vespa philippinensis de Saussure, 1854, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2: 148, male - “Les Philippines” (London). Distribution: Philippine Islands: Negros, Leyte, Samar, Luzon. simillima Smith Vespa simillima Smith, 1868, Entomol. Mon. Mag. 4: 280, female - “Japan, Hakodadi” (London). Vespa mongolica André, 1884, Ann. Soc. Entomol. Fr. (6) 4, Bull.: lix, male, female - [Russia] “Wladivostock, sur l’Amour, dans la Sibérie orientale” (Paris?). Vespa xanthoptera Cameron, 1903, Entomologist 36: 278, male - “Japan, Michzusawa” (London). Vespa micado Cameron, 1903, Entomologist 36: 279, female - “Japan, Nagasaki” (London). Vespa mongolica var. sexpunctata Pérez, 1905, Bull. Mus. Hist. Nat. 11: 24 (sex- punctata), 79, female - [Japan] “Yokohama” (Paris). Vespa mongolica var. flavata Pérez, 1910, Actes Soc. Linn. Bordeaux 64: 17, female - “Chine” (Paris). Distribution: China: Jilin, Liaoning; Manchuria, Russia: Ussuriland, Amur, Primor’ye, Kamchatka, Sakhalin Island, Kurile Islands: Kunishir; Korea; Ulleungdo Island; Japan, including Ryukyu Islands: (Yaku-shima Island). Introduced into Canada (B. C.); Taiwan: (Chiayi County). soror du Buysson Vespa ducalis var. soror du Buysson, 1905 (1904), Ann. Soc. Entomol. Fr. 73: 490 (key), 519, female - “Chine, Kiang-si” (lectotype Paris); also from elsewhere in China; India; Vietnam. Distribution: India: Arunachal Pradesh, Meghalaya, Nagaland; China: Yunnan, Fujian, Jiangxi, Zhejiang, Hunan, Guangdong, Hong Kong, Hainan Island; Myanmar; Thailand; Laos; Vietnam. tropica (Linnaeus) Sphex tropica Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1: 571 - “in Indiis” (holotype female Uppsala). Vespa cincta Fabricius, 1775, Syst. Entomol.: 362 - [India] “ad littora Malabarica” (Kobenhavn) [junior primary homonym of Vespa cincta Drury, 1773, and of Vespa cincta Degeer 1773]. - Wroughton, 1889, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 4: 35 (cinta [!]). Vespa crabro tenebrionis Christ, 1791, Naturgesch. Ins.: 216, pl. 18 fig. 4 (destroyed). Vespa deusta Lepeletier, 1836, Hist. Nat. Ins. Hym. 1: 506, female - “Patrie inconnue” (lectotype Torino). Vespa unicolor Smith, 1863, J. Proc Linn. Soc. Lond., Zool. 7: 44, female - [Indonesia] “Bouru” (Oxford). Vespa eulemoides du Buysson, 1905 (1904), Ann. Soc. Entomol. Fr. 73: 491 (key), 530, female - [India] “Ile Andaman: port de Blair” (Genova). Vespa affinis var. trisignata Pérez, 1910, Actes Soc. Linn. Bordeaux 64: 8, female - [Indonesia] “Timor” (Paris). Vespa rubricans Pérez, 1910, Actes Soc. Linn. Bordeaux 64: 10, female - “Lindi (Afrique orientale allemande)” (lectotype Paris). Vespa tropica var. anthracina Bequaert, 1936, Treubia 15 (4): 335 (key), 341, female, male - “Phillipine Islands: Sibuwan” (holotype female Washington); also from other localities in the Philippines. Vespa tropica var. haematodes Bequaert, 1936, Treubia 15 (4): 336 (key), 338, female, male - “India: Kooloo” (holotype female Cambridge); also from six other localities in India; Sri Lanka; Myanmar; Vietnam; China. Vespa tropica leefmansi van der Vecht, 1957, Zool. Verh., Leiden 34: 19, female, male - [Indonesia] “Solok, Padang, Sumatra” (holotype female Leiden); also from Vietnam; Thailand; Malaysia; and other islands in Indonesia. Vespa tropica trimeres van der Vecht, 1957, Zool. Verh., Leiden 34: 19 (key), 22, female - [Indonesia] “Palu, West Celebes” (Leiden). Vespa tropica cebuana Kojima and Reyes, 1984, Kontyû 52 (2): 260, female - [Philippines] “Cebu City” (Tokyo); also from Talisay. Distribution: Afghanistan; Pakistan; India: Assam, Uttar Pradesh, Arunchal Pradesh, Haryana, Manipur, Mizoram, Nagaland, Orissa, Pondicherry, Uttarakhand, Bihar, Kerala, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Chhattisgarh, Maharashtra, Himachal Pradesh, West Bengal, Meghalaya, Sikkim, Assam, Andaman and Nicobar Islands; Sri Lanka; Bhutan; Nepal; China: Tibet, Hubei, Henan, Guizhou, Sichuan, Shaanxi, Zhejiang, Jiangxi, Guangdong, Guangxi, Yunnan, Fujian, Hong Kong; Myanmar; Thailand; Laos; Cambodia; Vietnam; Singapore, Malaysia: Peninsular Malaysia, Sabah, Sarawak; Indonesia: Anambas Islands, Sumatra, Nias, Batu, Enggano, Bangka, Belitung, Sunda Islands: (Sangijiang, Sebesi, Sebuku, Legundi, Krakatau, Panaitan), Java, Bawean, Madura, Kangean Islands, Bali, Lombok, Komodo, Sumbawa, Sumba, Flores, Wetar, Timor, Sulawesi, Salayar, Sula Islands, Borneo: (Kalimantan), Brunei, Moluccas: (Morotai, Halmahera, Ternate, Tidore, Bacan, Obi, Buru, Ambon, Haruku, Seram), Banda, Waigeo, Aru, New Guinea: (Irian Jaya); Papua New Guinea, including New Britain, New Ireland; Philippines: Palawan, Jolo, Basilan, Mindanao, Cebu, Negros, Panay, Sibuyan, Mindoro, Lubang, Luzon. Introduced into Guam. velutina Lepeletier Vespa velutina “De Haan” Lepeletier, 1836, Hist. Nat. Ins. Hym. 1: 507, female - [Indonesia] “Inde: Java” (Torino?). Vespa auraria Smith, 1852, Trans. Entomol. Soc. Lond. (n. s.) 2 (2): 46, pl. VIII fig. 8, female - “Northern India” (London, Oxford?). Vespa crabro var. immaculata Morawitz, 1889, Horae Soc. Entomol. Ross. 23: 161, female - [China] “Kansu. Nanpin.” (St. Petersburg). Junior primary homonym of Vespa immaculata Gmelin, 1790. Vespa fruhstorferi Stadelmann, 1894, Sitz.-Ber. Ges. Naturf. Freunde Berl. 1894 )3): 89, female - [Indonesia] “in den alpinen Theilen von West-Java auf dem Gunung-Gede, in einer Höhe von 8000 Fuss” (Berlin?). Vespa velutina var. ardens du Buysson, 1905 (1904), Ann. Soc. Entomol. Fr. 73: 550, female, male - [Indonesia] “Lombok, Sapit (2000’ ); I. Sumbawa, près Java” (Wien, Budapest, München, Paris). Vespa auraria var. nigrithorax du Buysson, 1905 (1904), Ann. Soc. Entomol. Fr. 73: 553, female, male - [India] “Dardjiling” (lectotype female Paris); also from Sikkim; and Bhutan; China; Indonesia: Sumatra, Sulawesi. Vespa velutina var. Celebensis Pérez, 1910, Actes Soc. Linn. Bordeaux 64: 12, female - [Indonesia] “Bua-Kraeng (Sud-Célèbes)” (Paris). Vespa velutina var. Megei Pérez, 1910, Actes Soc. Linn. Bordeaux 64: 13, female - “Koueï-Tchéou (Chine centrale)” (Paris). Vespa mongolica var. divergens Pérez, 1910, Actes Soc. Linn. Bordeaux 64: 16, female - [Malaysia] “Perak” (lectotype Paris). Vespa flavitarsus Sonan, 1929, Trans. Nat. Hist. Soc. Formosa 19 (101): 137 (key), 142, female - [Taiwan] “Taiko-san (Kagi)” (coll. M. Kato); also from other localities on Taiwan. Vespa velutina sumbana van der Vecht, 1957, Zool. Verh., Leiden 34: 34 (key), 40, female, male - [Indonesia] “Kananggar, E. Sumba, 700 m” (holotype female Leiden); also from elsewhere on Sumba. Vespa velutina variana van der Vecht, 1957, Zool. Verh., Leiden 34: 35 (key), 37, female - “North Siam, Doi Hua Mot, 3000’“ (Leiden); also from elsewhere in Thailand; Laos; Vietnam. Vespa velutina karnyi van der Vecht, 1957, Zool. Verh., Leiden 34: 35 (key), 38, female, male - [Indonesia] “Bandar Buru, Deli” (holotype female Leiden); also from elsewhere in Sumatra. Vespa velutina timorensis van der Vecht, 1957, Zool. Verh., Leiden 34: 35 (key), 40, female - [Indonesia] “Mollo, 1350 m, Timor” (Basel); also from another locality on Timor. Vespa velutina floresiana van der Vecht, 1957, Zool. Verh., Leiden 34: 35 (key), 40, female - [Indonesia] “Labuan Badjo, Fores” (Leiden); also from elsewhere on Flores, and Komodo. Vespa velutina pruthii van der Vecht, 1959, Zool. Meded., Leiden 36 (13): 228, female - [India] “Kashmir, Srinagar” (Calcutta); also from Pakistan. Distribution: Afghanistan; Pakistan; India: Jammu and Kashmir, Uttarakhand, Arunchal Pradesh, Jharkhand, Madhya Pradesh, Mizoram, Nagaland, Tripura, Punjab, Himachal Pradesh, Uttaranchal, Uttar Pradesh, Meghalaya, Chhattisgarh, West Bengal, Sikkim, Assam; Bhutan; Nepal; China: Tibet, Sichuan, Jiangxi, Shaanxi, Yunnan, Fujian, Zhejiang, Hubei, Henan, Guizhou, Guangdong, Guangxi, Hong Kong; Taiwan; Myanmar; Thailand; Laos; Vietnam; Singapore; Malaysia: Peninsular Malaysia; Indonesia: Sumatra, Java, Bali, Lombok, Sumbawa, Komodo, Sumba, Flores, Timor, Sulawesi. Introduced into Korea; Japan: (Tsushima Island); France; Spain; Portugal; Netherlands; Belgium; Germany; Italy; Bosnia & Herzegovina; Yemen. vivax Smith Vespa vivax Smith, 1870, in Horne and Smith, Trans. Zool. Soc. Lond. 7 (3): 190, pl. XXI fig. 9, female - “Binsur, Kumaon, North-west Provinces of India” (London, Oxford?). Vespa velutina var. mediozonalis Pérez, 1910, Actes Soc. Linn. Bordeaux 64: 14, female - [India] “Sikkim” (Paris). Vespa wilemani Meade-Waldo, 1911, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (8) 7: 104, female - “Formosa” (London). Distribution: India: Jammu and Kashmir, Uttarakhand, Himachal Pradesh, Uttaranchal, Uttar Pradesh, Sikkim, West Bengal; Nepal; Myanmar; Bhutan; Thailand; China: Sichuan, Shaanxi, Yunnan; Tibet; Taiwan. Genus Vespula Thompson Vespula Thomson, 1869, Opusc. Entomol. 1: 79, subgenus of Vespa (8 species). Type species: Vespa austriaca Panzer, 1799, by subsequent designation of Ashmead, 1902, Can. Entomol. 34: 164. Pseudovespa Schmiedeknecht, 1881, Entomol. Nachr. 7: 314, subgenus of Vespa Linnaeus. Type species: Vespa austriaca Panzer, 1799, by monotypy. Paravespula Blüthgen, 1938 (1937), Konowia 16: 271, subgenus of Dolichovespula Rohwer. Type species: Vespa vulgaris Linnaeus, 1758, by original designation. Allovespula Blüthgen, 1943, Stettin. Entomol. Ztg. 104: 149, subgenus of Paravespula Blüthgen. Type species: “Paravespula rufa (Linné)” [= Vespa rufa Linnaeus, 1758], by monotypy. Rugovespula Archer, 1982, Kontyû 50 (2): 261, 264, subgenus of Vespula Thomson.Type species: Vespa koreensis Radoszkowski, 1887, by original designation. acadica (Sladen) Vespa rufa var. americana du Buysson, 1905 (1904), Ann. Soc. Entomol. Fr. 63: 499 (key), 592, male - “Canada, Lévis près Québec” (type depository unknown). Junior primary homonym of Vespa americana Fabricius, 1775, and of Vespa maculata americana Christ, 1791. Vespa acadica Sladen, 1918, Ottawa Nat. 32: 72, male, female - [Canada] “Ottawa” (lectotype female Ottawa) also from Nova Scotia, N.B., B.C. Vespula rufa var. sladeni Bequaert, 1932, Entomol. Am. (n. s.) 12 (2): 80 (key), 98, 102, female, male - [U. S. A.] “Washington State” (holotype female Cambridge); also from OR, CA, WY, UT, CO; Canada: BC. Distribution: Canada: Yukon Terr., N. W. T., B. C., Alta., Sask., Man., Ont., Que., N. B., Nova Scotia; P. E. I., Newfoundland; U. S. A.: AK, WA, OR, CA, NV, ID, MT, WY, UT, CO, AZ, NM, NE, SD, ND, MN, WI, MI, PA, NY, VT, NH, ME, MA, RI, CT, NJ, MD, VA, WV, NC. akrei Landolt Vespula akrei Landolt, 2010, in Landolt et al., Zootaxa 2629: 61, 62, figs. 1A-D, female, male - “Guatemala, Zacapa, 12 km north of San Lorenzo, N15°06.86’ W89°40.82’, 2200 m. elev.” (holotype female Guatemala City); also from four other localities. Distribution: Guatemala. alascensis (Packard) Vespa alascensis Packard, 1870, Trans. Chicago Acad. Sci. 2: 27, pl. II fig. 10, female - [U. S. A.] “Lower Yukon” (type depository unknown). Vespa westwoodii Shipp, 1893, Psyche 6: 450 - “N. Amer. Bor.” (holotype female Oxford). - Dalla Torre, 1904, Gen. Ins. 19: 66 (Westwoodi [!]). Distribution: France: St. Pierre et Miquelon; Canada: Yukon Terr., N. W. T., B. C., Alta., Sask., Man., Ont., Que., N. B., Nova Scotia, P. E. I., Newfoundland; U. S. A.: AK, WA, OR, CA, NV, ID, MT, WY, CO, UT, AZ, NM, KS, SD, ND, MN, WI, NE, IA, IL, IN, MI, OH, PA, NY, VT, NH, ME, MA, RI, CT, NJ, DE, MD, VA, WV, KY, TN, NC, SC, GA; Mexico: Durango, Michoacan, México, Oaxaca. Introduced into Hawaii: (Maui) (U.S.A.); Cuba: (Mayari Arriba)? Note: A single specimen labeled as “Vespula vulgaris (L.)” has been collected from Cuba. It is in the collection of the Landes Museum, Austria. The specimen is labeled: “Kuba, Mayari Arriba, 7/5/2001, Coll: J. Oehlke, Eberswalde 20’25’N, 75’32’ W, (Genauigkeit 1000m)”, Fundnummer: 10132345. It has not been determined if this is a specimen of V. vulgaris (Linneaus) or V. alascensis (Packard). This specimen is most likely an accidental introduction, as V. alascensis or V. vulgaris populations have not been reported from Cuba. arisana (Sonan) Vespa arisana Sonan, 1929, Trans. Nat. Hist. Soc. Formosa. 19 (101): 137 (key), 147, female - [Taiwan] “Fuukiko” (Taichung); also from elsewhere on Taiwan. Distribution: Taiwan. atropilosa (Sladen) Vespa atropilosa Sladen, 1918, Ottawa Nat. 22: 72, female - [Canada] “Lethbridge, Alta.” (lectotype Ottawa); also from B.C. Distribution: Canada: B. C., Alta., Sask.; U. S. A.: WA, OR, CA, NV, ID, MT, ND, NE, WY, UT, CO, AZ, NM; Mexico: Tiajuana, Baja California. austriaca (Panzer) Vespa austriaca Panzer, 1799, Faunae Ins. German. 63: 2, fig. 2, male - “Viennae Austr.” (destroyed). Vespa borealis Smith, 1843, Zoologist 1: 170, fig., female - “Yorkshire, the north of Scotland” (London). Junior primary homonym of Vespa borealis Kirby, 1837, and of Vespa borealis Zetterstedt, 1840. Vespa arborea Smith, 1849, Zoologist 7, App.: lx. Replacement name for Vespa borealis Smith. Vespa biloba Schilling, 1850, Jahresber. Schles. Ges. Vaterländ. Kultur 28: 77 - [Poland] “Schlesien” (type depository unknown). Vespula shinanoensis Takamizawa, 2005, The Japanese Social Wasps and Bees: 147, 148 (in subgenus Vespula). Nomen nudum, described without mentioning repository of the holotype (Articles 13 and 16.4 of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature). Distribution: Norway; Sweden; Finland; Denmark; Germany; Belgium; Netherlands; Luxembourg; France; U. K.: England, Wales, Scotland; Ireland; Spain; Italy; Switzerland; Liechtenstein; Austria; Czech Republic; Hungary; Croatia; Serbia; Bulgaria; Greece; Albania; Bosnia and Hezegovina; Macedonia; Poland; Estonia; Latvia; Lithuania; Belarus; Ukraine; Moldova; Romania; Slovenia; Slovakia; Turkey; Georgia; Russia: European Russia, north to Arkhangel’sk, south to Moscow, Altai, Caucasus, Siberia, Kamchatka, Ussuriland; Amur, Primore’ye; Sakhalin Island; Kurile Islands: Iturup, Kunashir; Pakistan; India: Jammu and Kashmir; Kazakhstan; Kyrgyzstan; Mongolia; China: Hebei, Xinjiang, Shanghai, Liaoning, Shaanxi; Korea; Japan: Hokkaido, Honshu. consobrina (de Saussure) Vespa consobrina de Saussure, 1854, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2: 141, worker - [Canada] “L’île de Terre-Neuve” (Paris). Vespa arenaria de Saussure, 1854, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2: 134, worker - [North America]. Junior primary homonym of Vespa arenaria Fabricius 1775. Vespa scelesta McFarland, 1888, Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 15: 297 (key), 298, female, male - [U. S. A.] “Montana” (lectotype female Philadelphia); also from PA, VA, NH, CO, ME, WA, MA. Vespa sulcata; Howard, 1901, Insect Book: pl. VI fig. 18. Lapsus for Vespa scelesta McFarland. Distribution: France: St. Pierre et Miquelon; Canada: Yukon Terr., N. W. T., B. C., Alta., Sask., Man., Ont., Que., N. B., Nova Scotia, P. E. I., Newfoundland; U. S. A.: AK, WA, OR, CA, ID, MT, WY, UT, CO, ND, MN, WI, IL, MI, IN, OH, PA, NY, VT, NH, ME, MA, RI, CT, NJ, DE, MD, VA, WV, KY, TN, NC, SC, GA. flaviceps (Smith) Vespa japonica de Saussure, 1858, Rev. Mag. Zool. (2) 10: 261, female - “Japon.” (Genève). Junior primary homonym of Vespa japonica Radoszkowski, 1857. Vespa flaviceps Smith, 1870, in Horne and Smith, Trans. Zool. Soc. Lond. 7 (3): 174, 191, pl. XXI figs. 10-11, female - “Binsur, Kumaon, North-west Provinces of India” (London). “Vespa lewisii, Sauss. Guêpes Soc. (MS.)” Smith, 1873, Trans. Entomol. Soc. Lond. 1873 (2): 198. Nomen nudum. Vespa “lewisii, Saus. MS.” Cameron, 1903, Entomologist 36: 280, as a synonym of Vespa japonica de Saussure, 1858. Available under Article 11.6.1 of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature. Vespa saussurei Schulz, 1906, Spolia Hym.: 231. Replacement name for Vespa japonica de Saussure. Vespa karenkona Sonan, 1929, Trans. Nat. Hist. Soc. Formosa. 19 (101): 137 (key), 148, female - [Taiwan] “Karenkô” (Taichung). Vespa 4-maculata Sonan, 1929, Trans. Nat. Hist. Soc. Formosa. 19 (101): 137 (key), 148, female - [Taiwan] “Arisan” (coll. M. Maki). Vespa vulgaris var. flavior Stolfa, 1934, Bull. Soc. Venez. Stor. Nat. 1: 49, female - “India: Bagarkote 8000 piedi. Kumaon W. Himalaia, Dal, sopra Dharmsala, 5500 piedi Punjab, Pindi Point, Murree 7242 piedi. Punjab, Rive del fiume Deo Gad e Foresta S. O. di Pinath, 7 miglia da Kausani Distr. Almora” (type depository unknown). Vespula japonica pionganensis Giordani Soika, 1976, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 68: 287, 290, female (in subgenus Vespula) - [Korea] “Za-mo san, 60 km NE from Pyongyan” (Budapest); also from other localities in Korea. Vespa vulgaris var. flavitor; Das and Gupta, 1984 (1983), Orient. Ins. 17: 449. Incorrect spelling of Vespa vulgaris var. flavior Stolfa, 1934. Vespula gracilia Lee, 1986, Sinozool. 10 (4): 201, 203, 206, fig. 2, female - “Zhoushan, Zhejiang Province” (Beijing); also from Fujian. Distribution: Pakistan; India: Jammu and Kashmir, Punjab, Meghalaya, Manipur, Uttarakhand, Uttar Pradesh, Himachal Pradesh, Assam, Sikkim; Nepal; Bhutan; Myanmar; Thailand; Laos; Vietnam; China: Tibet, Sichuan, Hunan, Hebei, Hubei, Guizhou, Liaoning, Henan, Yunnan, Shaanxi, Heilongjiang, Jilin, Jiangsu, Beijing, Fujian, Zhejiang, Guangdong, Hong Kong; Taiwan; Russia: Amur, Primor’ye; Sakhalin Island; Korea; Ulleungdo Island; Japan: Kyushu, Shikoku, Honshu, Hokkaido. flavopilosa Jacobson Vespula flavopilosa Jacobson, 1978, in Jacobson et al., Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 71: 299, 301 (key), 303, figs. 1a, 2c, ra, 5c-d, j, 8-9, 17, 22-29, table 1 (electrophoretic data), female, male - [U. S. A.] “Ithaca, Tompkins Co., NY” (holotype female Washington); also from elsewhere in eastern U.S. and Canada. Distribution: Canada: Man., Ont., Nova Scotia; NB; U. S. A.: ND, SD, NE, MN, IA, MO, WI, IL, IN, MI, OH, PA, NY, VT, NH, ME, MA, CT, KY, NJ, DE, MD, DC, VA, WV, KY, TN, NC, SC, GA. germanica (Fabricius) Vespa germanica Fabricius, 1793, Entomol. Syst. 2: 256 - [Germany] “Kiliae” (type depository unknown). Distribution: Norway; Sweden; Finland; Denmark; Spain including Canary Islands; Portugal including Azores; Malta; Netherlands; Belgium; Luxembourg; Germany; U. K.: England including Channel Islands and Isles of Scilly, Wales, Scotland including Shetland; Ireland; Scotland; France; Switzerland; Austria; Liechtenstein; Czech Republic; Hungary; Slovenia; Slovakia; Croatia; Serbia; Bulgaria; Albania; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Macedonia; Italy; Greece; Poland; Estonia; Lithuania; Moldova; Romania; Belarus; Ukraine; Russia: European Russia, Altai, Caucasus, Siberia, Amur, Primor’ye; Sakhalin Island; North Africa: Morocco, Algeria, Mayotte, Tunisia; Syria; Israel; Lebenon; Jordan; Turkey; Iraq; Iran; Afghanistan; Georgia; Azerbaijan; Armenia; Turmenistan; Uzbekistan; Tajikistan; Kazakhstan; Kyrgyzstan; Pakistan; India: Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir; Nepal; Mongolia; Nei Menggu; China: Manchuria, Gansu, Hebei, Heilongjiang, Qinghai, Ningxia, Yunnan, Beijing, Liaoning, Xinjiang, Shaanxi; Korea. Introduced into Iceland; New Zealand; Australia (N. S. W., A. C. T., W. A., Vic., Tasmania); Ascension Island; South Africa; Chile; Argentina (Neuquén, Rio Negro, Chubut); Canada (Man., Ont., Que.); U. S. A. (NJ, NY, VT, MA, CT, DE, MD, PA, OH, IN, MI, WI, MN, MT, ND, SD, VA, NC, WA, OR, CA, AZ). inexspectata Eck Vespula inexspectata Eck, 1994, Entomol. Abhand. Staat. Mus. Tierk. Dresden 56 (6): 125, female, figs. 1-6, 7 - “W. slope, Popocatepetl, Mx. MEX, 10000’“ (Ithaca); also from two other localities in México, and Michoacan. Distribution: Mexico: México, Michoacan, Chiapas. infernalis (de Saussure) Vespa infernalis de Saussure, 1854, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2: 139, worker [female] - [U. S. A.] “L’Amérique du Nord. Philadelphie” (Torino). Vespa tripunctata Packard, 1870, Trans. Chicago Acad. Sci. 2: 26, pl. II fig. 11, female - [U. S. A.] “Kutleet” (type depository unknown). Junior primary homonym of Vespa tripunctata Fabricius, 1787, and of Vespa tripunctata Schenck, 1861. Distribution: Canada: Yukon Terr., N. W. T., B. C., Alta., Sask., Man., Ont., Que., N. B., Nova Scotia, P. E. I., Newfoundland; U. S. A.: AK, WA, OR, CA, ID, MT, CO, UT, AZ, NM, MN, ND, NM, WI, MI, NY, NJ, VT, NH, ME, MA, RI, CT. intermedia (du Buysson) Vespa rufa var. intermedia du Buysson, 1905 (1904), Ann. Soc. Entomol. Fr. 73: 499 (key), 591, female, male - “Mandchourie, région du lac Hanka; Amérique du Nord: Hudson’s Bay” (Paris?, London). Distribution: Canada: Yukon Terr., N. W. T., B. C., Alta., Sask., Man., Ont., Que., N. B., Nova Scotia, P. E. I., Newfoundland; U. S. A.: AK, VT, NY. kingdonwardi Archer Vespula kingdonwardi Archer, 1981, Kontyû 49 (1): 54, 57 (key), 60, fig. 4C-D, female, male - [China] “Tibet, 28.25 N 97.55 E” (holotype female London); also from other localities in Tibet; Myanmar. Vespula hirsuta Lee, 1986, Sinozool. 10 (4): 201, 204, 206, fig. 4, female - [China] “Markham County, Xizang (Tibet) Aut. Reg., 3300 m” (Beijing). Distribution: China: Tibet, Xizang; Nepal; Myanmar. koreensis (Radoszkowski) Vespa koreensis Radoszkowski, 1887, Horae Soc. Entomol. Ross. 21: 432, male, female - “Korée” (lectotype female London). Vespa germanica var. stizoides du Buysson, 1905 (1904), Ann. Soc. Entomol. Fr. 73: 494 (key), 615, female - “Nord de l’Inde” (London). Pseudovespa birulai Gussakovskii, 1932, Ark. Zool. 24A (10): 52, female - [Russia] “Ussuri-Geb.: Tigrovaja; Sutshan, Sedanka, Kreis Chabarowsk, Wladiwostok” (Stockholm). Vespula koreensis salebrosa Archer, 1982, Kontyû 50 (2): 261, 267, female - “China: Szechuen, Suifu” (London); also from numerous other localities in China. Vespula hainanensis Lee, 1986, Sinozool. 10 (4): 201, 202, 206, fig. 1, female - [China] “Hainan Island, Guangdong Province” (Beijing). Distribution: Myanmar; India: Sikkim, Assam, Meghalaya; Thailand; Laos; Vietnam; China: Anhui, Sichuan, Yunnan, Heilongjiang, Beijing, Hubei, Hunan, Henan, Jiangxi, Liaoning, Zhejiang, Fujian, Shaanxi, Guangdong, Hainan Island; Korea; Russia: Siberia, Amur, Primor’ye. maculifrons (du Buysson) Vespa maculifrons “S.” Harris, 1853, in Hitchcock, Rept. Geol. Mineral. Bot. Mass.: 589. Nomen nudum. Vespa communis de Saussure, 1857, Stettin. Entomol. Ztg. 18: 116 (key), 117, female - “America septentr.” (Genève, Paris). Junior primary homonym of Vespa communis von Schrank, 1785. Vespa maculifrons “H.” du Buysson, 1905 (1904), Ann. Soc. Entomol. Fr. 73: 608, female - [U. S. A.] “Delaware, Wilmington” (London), as a synonym of Vespa communis de Saussure, 1857. Available under Article 11.6.1 of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature. Vespa communis var. flavida Sladen, 1918, Ottawa Nat. 32: 71, female - “Common in eastern Canada, More southern range.” (type lost?). Distribution: Canada: Man., Ont., Que., N. B., Nova Scotia; U. S. A.: MT, WY, CO, NM, TX, LA, MS, AL, AR, OK, KS, NE, ND, SD, MN, IA, MO, WI, IL, IN, MI, OH, PA, NY, VT, NH, ME, MA, CT, KY, NJ, DE, MD, VA, WV, KY, TN, NC, SC, GA, AL, FL; Mexico: Tamaulipas, Hidalgo, Nuevo León. nursei Archer Vespula nursei Archer, 1981, Kontyû 49 (1): 54, 57, fig. 4A-B, female - “India, Kashimir, 8-9,000 ft” (London); also from other localities in Kashmir, Punjab, Himachal Pradesh; China; Philippines. Distribution: India: Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Punjab; Pakistan; Bhutan; China: Hebei, Fujian. Introduced into Philippines: (Luzon). orbata (du Buysson) Vespa orbata du Buysson, 1902, Bull. Soc. Entomol. Fr. 1902: 140, female - [India] “Dardjiling” (lectotype Paris); also from Sikkim; China. Vespa minuta Dover, 1925 (1924), J. Asiat. Soc. Bengal (n. s.) 20: 304, fig. 9, female - [Myanmar] “Tenasserim” (London). Junior primary homonym of Vespa minuta Linnaeus, 1767. Vespula nujiangensis Dong and Wang, 2004, in Dong et al., J. Southwest Agric. Univ. (Nat. Sci.) 26 (2): 146, female, figs. 1-5 - [China] “Nujiang Liuku, Yunnan, Alt. 1,100m. 25°58’ N. 98°65’ E.” (Yunnan). Distribution: India: Assam, Uttarakhand, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal; Nepal; Myanmar; Laos; Thailand; Vietnam; China: Tibet, Zhejiang, Hubei, Yunnan, Hainan Island, Fujian, Sichuan, Hunan, Heibei. pensylvanica (de Saussure) Vespa pensylvanica de Saussure, 1857, Stettin. Entomol. Ztg. 18: 116, 117, female - “America septentr., in Canada, et in montibus mexicanis” (lectotype from New Mexico, in Genève). Vespa occidentalis Cresson, 1874, Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 5: 100, female, “male” [worker] - [U. S. A.] “Nevada” (lectotype female Philadelphia); also from NM. Junior primary homonym of Vespa occidentalis Olivier, 1792. Distribution: Canada: B. C., Alta., Sask., Man.; U. S. A.: WA, OR, CA, NV, ID, MT, ND, SD, NE, MN, WI, WY, CO, UT, AZ, NM, TX; Mexico: Tiajuana, Baja California, Sonora, México, Michoacan. Introduced into U. S. A. (HI); Australia: (Melbourne). rufa (Linnaeus) Vespa rufa Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat., Ed. 10, 1: 572 - “in Europa” (lectotype female, Linnaean Society, London). Vespa schrenckii Radoszkowski, 1861, Horae Soc. Entomol. Ross. 1: 84, figs. 4-5 - [Russia] “Amur” (type depository unknown). Vespa sibirica André, 1884, Spec. Hym. Europe Algér. 2: 599, female, male - [Russia] “Sibérie” (Paris). Vespula rufa grahami Archer, 1981, Kontyû 50 (1): 54, 62, female, male - “China, Szechuen, 30 miles north of Tatsienku” (Washington); also from elsewhere in Sichuan. Vespula obscura Lee, 1986, Sinozool. 10 (4): 201, 205, 206, fig. 5, female - [China] “Zogang County, Xizang (Tibet) Aut. Reg., 3800 m” (Beijing); also from another locality in Tibet. ? Vespula yichunensis Lee, 1986, Sinozool. 10 (4): 202, 203, 206, fig. 3, female - [China] “Yichun City, Heilongjiang Province” (Beijing). Vespula yulongensis Dong and Wang, 2002, in Dong et al., J. Southwest Agric. Univ. 24 (5): 396, figs. 1- 5, female - “Yunnan China” (Yunnan). Distribution: Iceland; Norway; Sweden; Finland; Denmark; Germany; Netherlands; Belgium; Luxembourg; Liechtenstein; Slovenia; Slovakia; France; U. K.: England including Isle of Man and the Channel Islands, Wales including Bardsey Island, Scotland including the Outer Hebrides; Ireland; Spain; Italy; Switzerland; Austria; Czech Republic; Poland; Hungary; Croatia; Serbia; Bulgaria; Albania; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Macedonia; Greece; Estonia; Latvia; Lithuania; Belarus; Moldova; Romania; Ukraine; Georgia; Azerbaijan; Turkey; Russia: European Russia north to Kola Peninsula, Arkhangel’sk and river Pechora, south to Volgograd and Orenberg, Altai, Caucasus, Siberia, Kamchatka, Ussuriland, Amur, Primor’ye; Sakhalin Island; Kurile Islands: Urup, Iturup, Kunashir; Kazakhstan; Kyrgyzstan; Afghanistan; Tajikistan; Uzbekistan; Mongolia; China: Manchuria, Xinjiang, Yunnan, Sichuan, Heilongjiang, Hebei, Liaoning, Shaanxi, Tibet; Bhutan; Taiwan; Korea; Ulleungdo Island; Japan: Shikoku, Hokkaido, Honshu. shidai Ishikawa, Yamane and Wagner Vespula shidai Ishikawa, Yamane and Wagner, 1980, Ins. Matsum. 19: 1, 44, fig. 135A, female, male - “Sapporo, Hokkaidô, Japan” (holotype male Entomological Institute, Hokkaido University); also from other localities in Japan; and Russia. Vespula shidai amamiana Yamane, 1987, Kontyû 55 (4): 634 (key), 635, female, male - [Japan] “Naze, Amami-ôshima” (type depository unknown); also from elsewhere on Amami, and Kakeroma. Distribution: China: Heilongjiang, Liaoning, Manchuria; Korea; Russia: Amur, Primor’ye, Kurile Islands: Kunashir; Japan: Kyushu, Including Yakushima Island, Shikoku, Honshu, Hokkaido, Ryukyu Islands: Amami Island. squamosa (Drury) Vespa squamosus Drury, 1773, Illustr. Nat. Hist. 2: Index to vol. I [pl. XLIII fig. 7 in Vol. 1, female - “New York”] (destroyed?). Vespa lineata Fabricius, 1775, Syst. Entomol.: 365 - “in America” (type depository unknown). Sphex conchacea Christ, 1791, Naturgesch. Ins.: 259, pl. 25 fig. 5 - [U. S. A.] “Neuiork” (destroyed). Vespa cuneata Fabricius, 1804, Syst. Piez.: 258 - [U. S. A.] “in Carolina” (Kobenhavn). Vespa cruciata Lepeletier, 1836, Hist. Nat. Ins. Hym. 1: 514. Unjustified emendation of Vespa cuneata Fabricius. Vespa bistriata McFarland, 1888, Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 15: 297 (key), 298, female - “North America” (Philadelphia) Junior primary homonym of Vespa bistriata Fabricius, 1804. Vespa macfarlandi Lewis, 1897, Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 24: 172 (key), 180. Replacement name for Vespa bistriata McFarland. Vespula squamosa var. (or subsp.) michoacana Bequaert, 1941, Entomol. News 52: 249, female - “Tancitaro, 6600 ft., State of Michoacan, Mexico” (Cambridge). Distribution: Canada: Ontario; U. S. A.: TX, LA, AR, MS, AL, OK, NE, KS, MO, IA, WI, IL, IN, MI, OH, KY, TN, WV, VA, PA, NY, NJ, DE, MD, NC, SC, GA, AL, FL; Mexico: Guerrero, Oaxaca, Tamaulipas, Chihuahua, Nuevo León,Vera Cruz, Michoacan, Chiapas, Hidalgo, Zacatecas, Puebla, México, San Luis Potosí; Guatemala; Honduras. Introduced into Dutch Carribean: (Curacao; St. Eustatius). structor (Smith) Vespa structor Smith, 1870, in Horne and Smith, Trans. Zool. Soc. Lond. 7 (3): 191, pl. XXI fig. 12, female - “Binsur, Kumaon, North-west Provinces of India” (London). Vespa orbata var. aurulenta du Buysson, 1905 (1904), Ann. Soc. Entomol. Fr. 73 (3): 579, female - “Chine, Mon-pin; Amur” (Paris, Wien?). Vespa structrix Schulz, 1906, Spolia Hym.: 231. Unjustified emendation of Vespa structor Smith. Vespula gongshanensis Dong 2005, in Dong et al., Entotaxonomia 27 (1): 65, female, male – “China, Gongshan, Yunnan Province, alt. 2,950” (Holotype female (Yunnan). Distribution: India: Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Uttar Pradesh,West Bengal, Sikkim, Assam; Nepal; Bhutan; China: Gansu, Sichuan, Fujian, Shaanxi, Yunnan, Henan, Ningxia, Tibet; Myanmar; Thailand; Laos. sulphurea (de Saussure) Vespa sulphurea de Saussure, 1854, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2: 137, queen - [U. S. A.] “La Californie” (London). Distribution: U. S. A.: CA, OR, NV, AZ; Mexico: Tiajuana, Baja California. vidua (de Saussure) Vespa vidua de Saussure, 1854, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2: 136, worker - [U. S. A.] “La Caroline” (Paris). Distribution: Canada: Man., Ont., Que, N. B., Nova Scotia; U. S. A.: ND, SD, MN, IA, WI, IL, MI, IN, OH, PA, NY, VT, NH, ME, MA, RI, CT, NJ, DE, MD, VA, WV, KY, TN, AL, NC, SC, GA. vulgaris (Linnaeus) Vespa vulgaris Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1: 572 - “in Europa” (lectotype female, Linnaean Society, London). Vespa sexcincta Panzer, 1799, Fauna Ins. German. 63: 1, fig. 1, male - “Viennae Austr.” (destroyed). Vespa vulgaris var. pseudogermanica Stolfa, 1932, Mem. Soc. Entomol. Ital. 11 (1): 26 (key), female - [Italy] “Lago superiore di Weissenfels (Tarvisio) Senosecchia” (type depository unknown). Vespula rufosignata Eck, 1998, Reichenbachia 32 (43): 299, female, figs. 1A, C, 2 - “India: Kashmir, Gulmarg, 2900 m” (type depository not stated; London); also from two other localities. Vespula vulgaris vetus Eck, 1999, Entomol. Abhand. Staat. Mus. Tierk. Dresden 58: 309, 329, female, male - “China, Quinghai Prov., Datong-Tal, 120 km NE Xinging, 2360 m” (holotype female Dresden); also from five other localities. Vespula yunlongensis Dong and Wang, 2003, in Dong et al., J. Southwest Agric. Univ. 25(3): 212, fig. 1, female [?] - “Yunnan, China” (Yunnan). Distribution: Iceland; Norway; Sweden; Finland; Denmark; Germany; Netherlands; Belgium; Luxembourg; France, including Corsica; U. K.: England including Orkney Island, Isle of Man; Wales, Scotland including Shetland; Ireland; Spain; Portugal; Italy; Switzerland; Austria; Liechtenstein; Czech Republic; Hungary; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Slovenia; Albania; Romania; Macedonia; Greece; Croatia; Serbia; Bulgaria; Slovakia; Moldova; Poland; Belarus; Ukraine; Lithuania; Latvia; Estonia; Russia: European Russia to the Kola Peninsula, Altai, Caucasus, Siberia, Amur, Primor’ye, Sakhalin Island; Kurile Islands: Iturup, Kunashir; Azerbaijan; Georgia; Syria; Isreal; Turkey; Iran; India: Jammu and Kashmir; Pakistan; Kazakhstan; Kyrgyzstan; Mongolia; Nei Menggu; Bhutan; China: Manchuria, Qinghai, Gansu, Sichuan, Shaanxi, Ningzia, Yunnan, Xinjiang, Heilongjiang, Beijing, Hebei, Liaoning; Japan: Hokkaido, Honshu. Introduced into New Zealand; Australia: (Victoria, Tasmania); Chile; Argentina; South Africa: (Cape Town, St Helena); French Polynesia: (Tahiti Island).
  6. Tentative Checklist of the Polistine Tribe Epiponini by James M. Carpenter (American Museum of Natural History, New York) Tribe Epiponini Lucas, 1867 Genus Agelaia Lepeletier Agelaia Lepeletier, 1836, Hist. Nat. Ins. Hym. 1: 535, genus. Type species: Agelaia fuscicornis Lepeletier, 1836 [= Polistes testacea Fabricius, 1804], by monotypy. Aglaia Dalla Torre, 1904, Genera Insect. 19: 75. Incorrect spelling of Agelaia Lepeletier. Stelopolybia Ducke, 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 517, genus (13 species). Type species: Polistes angulata Fabricius, 1804, by subsequent designation of Lucas, 1912, Arch. Naturgesch. 77, Bd. 4 (1): 210. Gymnopolybia Ducke, 1914, Zool. Jahrb. (Syst.) 36: 317, 327, genus (10 species). Type species: Polybia vulgaris Ducke, 1904 [= Vespa fulvofasciata DeGeer, 1773], by subsequent designation of Richards, 1943, Proc. R. Entomol. Soc. Lond. (B) 12: 45. acreana Silveira and Carpenter Agelaia acreana Silveira and Carpenter, 1996 (1995), J. New York Entomol. Soc. 103: 69, fig. 1, female - “Brazil: Acre, Rio Branco” (Belém). - Cooper, 2000, Entomol. Mon. Mag. 136: 179 (key), 190 (French Guiana; Ecuador). Distr.: French Guiana; Brazil: Acre; Ecuador: Napo, Sucumbios. angulata (Fabricius) Polistes angulata Fabricius, 1804, Syst. Piez.: 275 - “America meridionali” (Kobenhavn). Polybia angulata; de Saussure, 1854, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2.: 185 (in division Phi). - Fox, 1898, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad.: 450 (Brazil: Amazonas). - Dalla Torre, 1904, Gen. Ins. 19: 76 (cat.). - R. von Ihering, 1904, Rev. Mus. Paul. 6: 192. - Ducke, 1904, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, Pará 4: 343 (key), 352 (Brazil), fig. b. - Zavattari, 1906, Boll. Mus. Zool. Anat. Comp. Torino 21 (529): 15 (Panama; Ecuador). Stelopolybia angulata; Ducke, 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 548 (key), 520 (angulata s. str.; syns.: P. angulicollis Spinola, P. ornata Ducke; female; Mexico; Brazil; Paraguay). - Lucas, 1912, Arch. Naturgesch. 77, Bd. 4 (1): 210 (designation as type species of Stelopolybia). - Bequaert, 1944, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 94: 293 (key), 296. - Araujo, 1946, Papéis Avulsos Dept. Zool. Secr. Agric., São Paulo 7: 169. - Bequaert, 1949 (1948), Bol. Entomol. Venez. 7: 134 (Venezuela localities). - Overal, 1978, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.), Zool. 94: 11 (list). - Raw, 1989, Maracá Rainfor. Proj., Invert. Limnol., Prelim. Rep.: 41 (habitat preference) Megacanthopus ruficornis Cameron, 1912, Timehri (3) 2: 216 (key), 217, female- locality not stated [Guyana] (London). Mischocyttarus ruficornis; Zikán, 1949, Bol. Parq. Nac. Itatiaia 1: 215. Stelopolybia angulata angulata; Araujo, 1960, Studia Entomol. (N. S.) 3: 253 (Brazil: Amapá). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 238 (key), 244. - Raw, 1989, Maracá Rainfor. Proj., Invert. Limnol., Prelim. Rep.: 32 (Brazil), 36 (distr.). - Almeida and Castro, 1991, Acta Biol. Par., Curitiba 20: 48 (coll. list). Stelopolybia angulata bertonii Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 238 (key), 244, female - “PARAGUAY: Pto Bertoni” (London); also from Brazil; Argentina; Bolivia. - Almeida and Castro, 1991, Acta Biol. Par., Curitiba 20: 44 (note on type material; Brazil: Paraná). - Cooper, 2000, Entomol. Mon. Mag. 136: 192 (bertoni [!]; syn. of angulata (Fabricius)). Agelaia angulata; Carpenter and van der Vecht, 1991, Ann. Carnegie Mus. 60 (3): 218 (note on material seen by Fox). - Cooper, 2000, Entomol. Mon. Mag. 136: 180 (key), 191 (nest; syn: bertoni [!] Richards; probably not from west of Andes). Agelaia angulata angulata; Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 360 (list). Agelaia bertonii; Garcete-Barrett, 1999, Avispas Soc. Parag.: 8 (mimics), 39 (key, fig. 1b), 40 (Paraguay). Distr.: Mexico; Panama; Colombia: Amazonas, Caquetá, Magdalena, Meta, Putumayo, Vaupés; Venezuela: Barinas, Delta Amacuro, Mérida; Guyana; Suriname; French Guiana; Ecuador: Napo; Peru: Cuzco, Huánuco, Junín, Loreto; Brazil: Acre, Amapá, Amazonas, Espírito Santo, Maranhão, Mato Grosso, Minas Gerais, Pará, Paraná, Rio de Janeiro, Rondônia, Roraima, Santa Catarina, São Paulo; Bolivia: Cochabamba, La Paz, Pando; Paraguay: Alto Paraná, Canindeyú; Argentina: Misiones. angulicollis (Spinola) Polistes angulicollis Spinola, 1851, preprint of Mem. R. Accad. Sci. Torino (2) 13: 61, female - [Brazil:] “Para” (Torino). Polybia angulicollis; de Saussure, 1854, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2.: 184, pl. XXIII fig. 3 (in division Phi). - du Buysson and Marshall, 1892, Ann. Soc. Entomol. France 61: 59 (Venezuela). - Fox, 1898, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad.: 450 (angulicallis [!]; Brazil). - Dalla Torre, 1904, Gen. Ins. 19: 76 (cat.). - Ducke, 1904, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, Pará 4: 343 (key), 352 (Brazil). - Zavattari, 1906, Boll. Mus. Zool. Anat. Comp. R. Univ. Torino 21 (529): 18 (compared toP. festae n. sp.). Stelopolybia angulata var. angulicollis; Ducke, 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 520 (Brazil). - Bequaert, 1944, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 94: 296. Stelopolybia angulicollis; Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 238 (key), 246. Agelaia angulicollis; Carpenter and van der Vecht, 1991, Ann. Carnegie Mus. 60 (3): 218 (note on material seen by Fox). - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 360 (list). - Cooper, 2000, Entomol. Mon. Mag. 136: 180 (key), 191, fig. 7 (nest; Ecuador). Distr.: Colombia: Amazonas, Huila, Meta, Putumayo, Valle; Venezuela: Aragua, D. F.; Ecuador: Napo, Pichincha; Brazil: Amazonas, Mato Grosso, Pará. areata (Say) Polistes areata Say, 1837, Boston J. Nat. Hist. 1: 388 - “Mexico” (type lost). Polybia areata; de Saussure, 1854, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2.: 210, species dubiae. - Dalla Torre, 1904, Gen. Ins. 19: 76 (cat.). - Ducke, 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 539 (? Stelopolybia or Megacanthopus). Polybia fasciata; Ducke, 1908, Dts. Entomol. Zeitschr.: 697. Misidentification. Stelopolybia sulfureofasciata Ducke, 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 519 (key), 522, female - “Belize” (lectotype Belém); also from Mexico; Guatemala; Nicaragua; Colombia; Venezuela; Ecuador [name for Polybiafasciata sensu Ducke, 1908]. - Bequaert, 1949 (1948), Bol. Entomol. Venez. 7: 134 (syn of areata (Say)). - Overal, 1978, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.), Zool. 94: 7 (designation of lectotype), 11 (list). - Nascimento and Overal, 1979, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.) 95: 11 (list). - Carpenter, 1999, Am. Mus. Novitat. 3259: 5 (notes on types; syn. confirmed). Stelopolybia areata; Araujo, 1946, Papéis Avulsos Dept. Zool. Secr. Agric., São Paulo 7: 169. - Bequaert, 1949 (1948), Bol. Entomol. Venez. 7: 134 (syn.: S. sulfureofasciata Ducke; Venezuela localities). - Jeanne, 1973, Biotropica 5: 183-196 (ethology; Mexico). - Jeanne and Fagen, 1974, Psyche 81: 155-166 (caste polymorphism). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 239 (key), 256, fig. 101. - Almeida and Castro, 1991, Acta Biol. Par., Curitiba 20: 48 (coll. list). Agelaia areata; Starr and Bozzoli, 1990, in Overal, Ethnobiol., Part B, Ethnozool.: 190 (ethnobiology in Costa Rica). - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 360 (list). - West-Eberhard et al., 1995, Hym. Costa Rica: 585, fig. 15.36 (Costa Rica). - O'Donnell, 1995, Biotropica 27: 134 (ethology), 136 (morphology). - Silveira and Carpenter, 1996 (1995), J. New York Entomol. Soc. 103: 72. - Rodríguez-Palafox, 1996, in Llorente-Bousquets et al., Biodiv. Taxon. Biogeogr. Artrópod. México: 482 (list). - O’Donnell and Joyce, 1999, Biol J. Linn. Soc. 66: 510 (Costa Rica). - Cooper, 2000, Entomol. Mon. Mag. 136: 180 (key), 192, figs. 5-6, 21-22 (Venezuela). Distr.: Mexico: Guerrero, Tabasco, Veracruz, Yucatán; Belize; Guatemala; El Salvador; Honduras; Nicaragua; Costa Rica; Panama; Colombia: Cauca, Chocó, Huila, Magdalena, Putumayo, Valle; Venezuela: Aragua, Barinas, Mérida; Ecuador: El Oro, Esmereldas, Napo, Pichincha, Tungurahua. baezae (Richards) Gymnopolybia cornelliana var. baezae Richards, 1943, Proc. R. Entomol. Soc. London (B) 12: 47 (key), 49, female - “EAST ECUADOR: Baeza” (London). Stelopolybia baezae; Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 237 (key), 242, fig. 99. Agelaia baezae; Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 360 (list). - Cooper, 2000, Entomol. Mon. Mag. 136: 180 (key), 193, fig. 19 (possible syn. of cornelliana (Richards); nest; Ecuador). Distr.: Panama; Colombia: Antioquia, Cauca, Huila, Putumayo; Ecuador: Loja, Napo, Pastaza, Tungurahua. brevistigma (Richards) Stelopolybia brevistigma Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 237 (key), 241, fig. 97, female - “ECUADOR: Napo, Limoncocha, 00°24'S, 76°36'W” (London); also from Colombia. Agelaia brevistigma; Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 360 (list). - Fowler, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42: 387 (distr.). - Silveira and Carpenter, 1996 (1995), J. New York Entomol. Soc. 103: 71. - Cooper, 2000, Entomol. Mon. Mag. 136: 179 (key), 190 (note on holotype). Distr.: Colombia: Amazonas; Ecuador: Napo. cajennensis (Fabricius) Vespa cajennensis Fabricius, 1798, Suppl. Entomol. Syst.: 265 - [French Guiana] “Cajennae” (lectotype female Paris). - Coquebert, 1801, Illus. Icon. Ins.: 62, pl. XV fig. 3A-B. - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 240 (designation of lectotype). Polistes cajennensis; Fabricius, 1804, Syst. Piez.: 280. ? Polybia phthisica; de Saussure, 1854, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2.: 186, pl. XXIII figs. 7-8 (in division Phi) [partim]. - Cameron, 1912, Timehri (3) 2: 208 (key), 211 (Guyana). Misidentification. Polybia lignicola Ducke, 1904, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, Pará 4: 349 (key), 355, female - [Brazil:] “Belém do Pará na matta; Rio da Villanova (Anauerapucú)” (Belém, Zürich); 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 524 (syn. of cayennensis [!]). - Overal, 1978, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.), Zool. 94: 11 (note on syntype in Belém). - Nascimento and Overal, 1979, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.) 95: 10 (list). - Carpenter, 1999, Am. Mus. Novitat. 3259: 3 (notes on types; syn. confirmed). Stelopolybia cayennensis [!]; Ducke, 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 518 (key), 524 (syn.: P. lignicola Ducke; female, male, nest; French Guiana; Brazil). - Bequaert, 1944, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 94: 293 (key), 294 (cajennensis). - Araujo, 1946, Papéis Avulsos Dept. Zool. Secr. Agric., São Paulo 7: 168, 169 (cajennensis). - Vesey-Fitzgerald, 1956, Entomol. Mon. Mag. (4) 17: 165 (cajennensis; Guyana). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 237 (key), 240, fig. 96 (cajennensis). - Overal, 1978, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.), Zool. 94: 11 (cajennensis; list). - Raw, 1989, Maracá Rainfor. Proj., Invert. Limnol., Prelim. Rep.: 32 (cajennensis; nest; Brazil), 36 (distr.); 1989, Maracá Rainfor. Proj., Invert. Limnol., Prelim. Rep.: 41, 42 (cajennensis; habitat preference). - Almeida and Castro, 1991, Acta Biol. Par., Curitiba 20: 48 (cajennensis; coll. list). Stelopolybia cajennensis var. obscura Overal, 1978, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.), Zool. 94: 11. Nomen nudum. Agelaia cajennensis; Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 360 (list). - West-Eberhard et al., 1995, Hym. Costa Rica: 585 (Costa Rica). - O'Donnell, 1995, Biotropica 27: 136 (morphology). - Silveira and Carpenter, 1996 (1995), J. New York Entomol. Soc. 103: 71. - Rodríguez-Palafox, 1996, in Llorente-Bousquets et al., Biodiv. Taxon. Biogeogr. Artrópod. México: 482 (list). - Cooper, 2000, Entomol. Mon. Mag. 136: 179 (key), 190 (male compared to timida n. sp.; Colombia). Distr.: Mexico: Tabasco; Belize; Honduras; Costa Rica; Panama; Colombia: Amazonas, I. Gorgona, Magdalena, Meta, Nariño, Putumayo, Valle; Trinidad; Guyana; Suriname; French Guiana; Ecuador: Esmereldas, Napo; Peru: Cuzco, Huánuco, Junín, Loreto; Brazil: Acre, Amapá, Amazonas, Bahia, Mato Grosso, Pará, Roraima, São Paulo; Bolivia: Beni, La Paz, Pando. centralis (Cameron) Polybia pallipes; Fox, 1898, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad.: 450 [partim]. Polybia pallipes var. centralis Cameron, 1907, Invert. Pacif. 1: 184, male [female] - “Belize” (London). - Richards and Richards, 1951, Trans. Entomol. Soc. London 102: 74 (“probably type” listed as Stelopolybia pallipes var. myrmecophila). Stelopolybia vulgaris var. mexicana Ducke, 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 524 - “Mexique (Oaxaca, Bas Mixtèque)” (Paris, Budapest). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 257 (designation of lectotype, female, Paris; syn. of S. myrmecophila (Ducke)). - Nascimento and Overal, 1979, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.) 95: 11 (list). - Carpenter, 1999, Am. Mus. Novitat. 3259: 4 (notes on types; Richards’ lectotype designation not valid; syn. of A. centralis). Stelopolybia pallipes var. (or subsp.) fulvanceps Bequaert, 1944, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 94: 297, female - “COLOMBIA: Rio Frio, Dept. Magdalena” (Cambridge); also from Peru. Stelopolybia pallipes var. bequaerti Richards, 1951, in Richards and Richards, Trans. Entomol. Soc. London 102: 74, female, male - [Guyana] “Marazuni Station” (holotype female London); 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 254 (syn. of S. multipicta multipicta). Stelopolybia pallipes bequaerti; Araujo, 1960, Studia Entomol. (N. S.) 3: 253 (Brazil). Stelopolybia multipicta fulvanceps; Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 239 (key), 255. Stelopolybia myrmecophila; Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 240 (key), 256 [partim; misidentification]. - Rodriguez-Palafox, 1988, Fol. Entomol. Mex. 77: 500 (key), 514, fig. 3.3 (Mexico). - Almeida and Castro, 1991, Acta Biol. Par., Curitiba 20: 48 (coll. list). - Carpenter, 1999, Am. Mus. Novitat. 3259: 4 (myrmecophila sensu Richards partly misidentified). Agelaia myrmecophila; Starr and Bozzoli, 1990, in Overal, Ethnobiol., Part B, Ethnozool.: 190 (ethnobiology in Costa Rica). - Carpenter and van der Vecht, 1991, Ann. Carnegie Mus. 60 (3): 217 (note on material seen by Fox). - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 360 (list). - West-Eberhard et al., 1995, Hym. Costa Rica: 585 (Costa Rica). - O'Donnell, 1995, Biotropica 27: 136 (morphology). - Rodríguez-Palafox, 1996, in Llorente-Bousquets et al., Biodiv. Taxon. Biogeogr. Artrópod. México: 482 (list). Misidentification. Agelaia multipicta fulvanceps; Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 360 (list). Agelaia bequaerti; Garcete-Barrett, 1999, Avispas Soc. Parag.: 8 (mimic), 40 (key, figs. 4aa-bb, 4cc), 41 (Paraguay). Agelaia centralis; Carpenter, 1999, Am. Mus. Novitat. 3259: 1, 3, 4 (syns.: vulgaris var. mexicana Ducke, multipicta fulvanceps Bequaert). - Cooper, 2000, Entomol. Mon. Mag. 136: 182 (key), 195, figs. 23-24, 33-34 (syn.: bequaertiRichards; Colombia). Distr.: Mexico: Chiapas, Guerrero, Jalisco, Michoacán, Morelos, Oaxaca, Tabasco, Veracruz; Belize; Guatemala; Honduras; Nicaragua; Costa Rica; Panama; Colombia: Antioquia, Arauca, Magdalena, Meta, Nariño, Putumayo, Valle; Venezuela: Aragua, D. F.; Guyana*; Ecuador: Esmereldas, Napo, Pichincha; Peru: Huánuco, Junín, Loreto, Pasco; Brazil: Amazonas, Bahia, Espírito Santo, Mato Grosso, Minas Gerais, Pará, Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo; Paraguay: Concepción. constructor (de Saussure) Polybia constructor de Saussure, 1854, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2: 191, pl. XXIII fig. 6, female (in division My) - “L'Amérique méridionale. Cayenne” (Paris). - Dalla Torre, 1904, Gen. Ins. 19: 77 (cat.). Polybia constructrix de Saussure, 1854, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2: 256 [unnecessary emendation]. - Ducke, 1904, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, Pará 4: 346 (key), 352 (Brazil). - Schulz, 1906, Spolia Hym.: 233. Stelopolybia constructrix; Ducke, 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 548 (key), 521 (French Guiana; Brazil).- Bequaert, 1944, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 94: 293 (key), 295. - Araujo, 1946, Papéis Avulsos Dept. Zool. Secr. Agric., São Paulo 7: 169. Stelopolybia constructor; Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 238 (key), 243. - Overal, 1978, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.), Zool. 94: 11 (list). - Almeida and Castro, 1991, Acta Biol. Par., Curitiba 20: 48 (coll. list). Agelaia constructor; Silveira and Carpenter, 1996 (1995), J. New York Entomol. Soc. 103: 72. Distr.: Guyana; French Guiana; Brazil: Amapá, Amazonas, Pará. cornelliana cornelliana (Richards) Gymnopolybia cornelliana Richards, 1943, Proc. R. Entomol. Soc. London (B) 12: 47 (key), 48, figs. 3, 9-10, female - “PERU: Rio Tarna, Huacapistana” (Ithaca). Stelopolybia corneliana [!]; Araujo, 1946, Papéis Avulsos Dept. Zool. Secr. Agric., São Paulo 7: 169. Stelopolybia cornelliana cornelliana; Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 237 (key), 242. Agelaia cornelliana; Cooper, 2000, Entomol. Mon. Mag. 136: 180 (key), 193, fig. 17 (baezae Richards a possible synonym). Distr.: Peru: Junín; Bolivia: La Paz. cornelliana subterranea (Richards) Gymnopolybia “cornelliana nov. var. subterranea Bequaert” Weyrauch, 1943, Bol. Mus. Hist. Nat. Javier Prado 7: 74. Nomen nudum. Stelopolybia cornelliana subterranea Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 238 (key), 242, female - “PERU: Cuzco, Machu Picchu, 2000 m” (London). Distr.: Ecuador: Morona-Santiago, Tungurahua; Peru: Cuzco, Huánuco, Pasco; Bolivia: La Paz. flavipennis (Ducke) Polybia flavipennis Ducke, 1905, Rev. Entomol., Caen 24: 20, female - [Brazil:] “Teffé, État de Amazonas” (lectotype Paris). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 253 (designation of lectotype). - Nascimento and Overal, 1979, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.) 95: 10 (list). Stelopolybia meridionalis var. flavipennis; Ducke, 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 523 (Brazil). Gymnopolybia meridionalis flavipennis; Ducke, 1918, Rev. Mus. Paul. 10: 344. - Araujo, 1940, Arq. Inst. Biol., São Paulo 2: 14. Stelopolybia flavipennis; Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 239 (key), 253. - Almeida and Castro, 1991, Acta Biol. Par., Curitiba 20: 48 (coll. list). Agelaia flavipennis; Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 360 (list). - Silveira and Carpenter, 1996 (1995), J. New York Entomol. Soc. 103: 72. - Carpenter, 1999, Am. Mus. Novitat. 3259: 3 (notes on types). - Cooper, 2000, Entomol. Mon. Mag. 136: 180 (key), 192, figs. 14-15, 20, 25-26 (Bolivia; record from Panama dubious). Distr.: Panama (?); Colombia: Vaupés; Venezuela; Peru: Huánuco, Junín, Loreto, Madre de Dios; Brazil: Amazonas, Goiás, Maranhão, Mato Grosso, Pará, Rondônia; Bolivia. fulvofasciata (DeGeer) Vespa fulvofasciata DeGeer, 1773, Mem. Hist. Ins. 3: 581, pl. 29 fig. 8 - “Surinam” (Stockholm). - Latreille, 1802, Hist. Nat. Crust. Ins. 3: 364 (fulvo-fasciata). - Ducke, 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 540 (? Polybia,Stelopolybia or Megacanthopus). Vespa fasciata Olivier, 1792, Encyc. Méthod. 6 (2): 676 - “Surinam” (type lost). - Latreille, 1802, Hist. Nat. Crust. Ins. 3: 364. ? Vespa ochrosticta Lichtenstein, 1796, Cat. Mus. Zool. Dit. Hamburgi ... Sect. Tertia Ins.: 203 - “America” (type depository unknown). - Weber, 1801, Observ. Entomol.: 103. - Ducke, 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 540 (? Stelopolybia or Megacanthopus). Non Vespa ochrosticta Lichtenstein, 1796: 201. Unavailable; suppressed under the plenary powers of the ICZN (1995, Opinion 1820). Polistes hectica Fabricius, 1804, Syst. Piez.: 278 - “America meridionali” (Kobenhavn). - Ducke, 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 540 (? Stelopolybia or Megacanthopus). Polistes fulvo fasciata; Latreille, 1809, Gen. Crust. Ins. 4: 142. Polistes fasciata; Lepeletier and Serville, 1825, Encyc. Méthod. 10: 172. ? Polybia phthisica; de Saussure, 1854, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2.: 186, pl. XXIII figs. 7-8 (in division Phi) [partim]. Misidentification. Polybia fulvofasciata; Fox, 1898, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad.: 448 (Brazil: Mato Grosso). - Dalla Torre, 1904, Gen. Ins. 19: 77 (syn.: V. fasciata Olivier, V. phthisica Fabricius, V. cayennensis [!] Fabricius, V. ochrosticta “Weber,” hectica Fabricius; cat.). - Schrottky, 1904, Allg. Zeitschr. Entomol. 9: 345 (Paraguay). - Zavattari, 1906, Boll. Mus. Zool. Anat. Comp. Torino 21 (529): 14, 15 (Ecuador). Polybia fasciata; R. von Ihering, 1904, Rev. Mus. Paul. 6: 211. Polybia vulgaris Ducke, 1904, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, Pará 4: 346 (key), 352, female, male - [Brazil:] “Belém do Pará” (lectotype female Paris); also from other localities in Pará, and Amapá. - Richards, 1943, Proc. R. Entomol. Soc. Lond. (B) 12: 45 (designation as type species of Gymnopolybia). - Bequaert, 1944, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 94: 296 (syn. of fulvofasciata (DeGeer)). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 250 (designation of lectotype). - Nascimento and Overal, 1979, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.) 95: 11 (list). - Carpenter, 1999, Am. Mus. Novitat. 3259: 5 (notes on types). Stelopolybia vulgaris; Ducke, 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 519 (key), 523 (female, male, nest; Brazil; Peru). - Overal, 1978, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.), Zool. 94: 11 (list). Stelopolybia fulvo-fasciata; Bequaert, 1944, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 94: 293 (key), 296 (syn.: vulgaris Ducke). - Araujo, 1946, Papéis Avulsos Dept. Zool. Secr. Agric., São Paulo 7: 169. - Bequaert, 1949, Bol. Parq. Nac. Itatiaia 1: 135 (fulvofasciata; Venezuela: Monagas). - Araujo, 1960, Studia Entomol. (N. S.) 3: 253 (Brazil: Amapá). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 239 (key), 250 (fulvofasciata). - Raw, 1988, Entomologist 107: 105 (fulvofasciata; nest site), 106 (role in agriculture); 1989, Maracá Rainfor. Proj., Invert. Limnol., Prelim. Rep.: 32 (fulvofasciata; Brazil), 36 (distr.); 1989, Maracá Rainfor. Proj., Invert. Limnol., Prelim. Rep.: 41, 42 (fulvofasciata; habitat preference). - Almeida and Castro, 1991, Acta Biol. Par., Curitiba 20: 48 (fulvofasciata; coll. list). - Raw, 1996, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (Sér. Zool.) 12 (1): 7 (fulvofasciata; resemblance of Mischocyttarus mamirauae in coloration). Agelaia fulvofasciata; Carpenter and van der Vecht, 1991, Ann. Carnegie Mus. 60 (3): 215 (note on material seen by Fox). - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 360 (list). - O'Donnell, 1995, Biotropica 27: 136 (morphology). - Mejdalani and Felix, 1997, Proc. Entomol. Soc. Wash. 99 (1):159, fig. 14 (mimicry by Lissocarta beckeri (Homoptera: Cicadellidae)). - Cooper, 2000, Entomol. Mon. Mag. 136: 181 (key), 194, figs. 29-30. Distr.: Colombia: Amazonas, Meta, Putumayo; Venezuela: Monagas; Guyana; Suriname; French Guiana; Ecuador: Napo; Peru: Cuzco, Huánuco, Junín, Loreto; Brazil: Acre, Amapá, Amazonas, Maranhão, Mato Grosso, Pará, Rondônia, Roraima; Bolivia: Beni, La Paz, Pando; Paraguay. hamiltoni (Richards) Stelopolybia hamiltoni Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 239 (key), 251, female - “BRAZIL: Acre, Cruzeiro do Sul” (Rio de Janeiro); also from Amazonas, Pará, Rondônia; and Peru; Ecuador; Venezuela; Colombia. Agelaia hamiltoni; Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 360 (list). - O'Donnell, 1995, Biotropica 27: 133-134 (ethology). - Jeanne et al., 1995, J. Kans. Entomol. Soc. 68 (3): 279-289 (foraging; Peru). - Mejdalani and Felix, 1997, Proc. Entomol. Soc. Wash. 99 (1):159 (mimicry by Lissocarta beckeri (Homoptera: Cicadellidae)). - Cooper, 2000, Entomol. Mon. Mag. 136: 181 (key), 194, figs. 31-32 (Peru). Distr.: Colombia: Amazonas, Caquetá; Venzuela: Amazonas; Ecuador: Napo; Peru: Junín, Loreto; Brazil: Acre, Amazonas, Pará, Rondônia. imitatrix Cooper Agelaia imitatrix Cooper, 2001, Entomol. Mon. Mag. 137: 233, 234 (key), figs. 1-2, female, male - “BOLIVIA: La Paz, Coroico 2,250m” (holotype female London). Distr.: Bolivia: La Paz. lobipleura lobipleura (Richards) Stelopolybia lobipleura lobipleura Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 238 (key), 247, fig. 103, female - “PERU: Junín, Valle Chanchamayo, 800 m” (London); also from Cuzco, Huánuco, Loreto, Pasco; and Bolivia; Brazil; Ecuador. Agelaia lobipleura lobipleura; Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 360 (Colombia: Valle; list). Agelaia lobipleura; Silveira and Carpenter, 1996 (1995), J. New York Entomol. Soc. 103: 71. - Cooper, 2000, Entomol. Mon. Mag. 136: 179 (key), 189, fig. 9 (? male, Bolivia). Distr.: Colombia: Valle (?); Ecuador: Napo; Peru: Cuzco, Huánuco, Junín, Loreto, Pasco; Brazil: Mato Grosso; Bolivia: Cochabamba, La Paz (?). lobipleura melanogaster (Richards) Stelopolybia lobipleura melanogaster Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 239 (key), 248, female - “PERU: Loreto, Previsto, 850 m” (London). Distr.: Peru: Loreto. melanopyga Cooper Polybia pallidipes; Ducke, 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 521 [partim: record from Costa Rica]. Gymnopolybia pallidipes; Rau, 1933, Jungle Bees Wasps Barro Col. Is.: 88-94, figs. 43-45 (nest). Stelopolybia areata “dark form”; Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 256 (El Salvador; Costa Rica; Panama; Colombia; Ecuador). Agelaia melanopyga Cooper, 2000, Entomol. Mon. Mag. 136: 182 (key), 188, fig. 13, female, male - “COLOMBIA: Nariño, Barbacoas” (holotype female London); also from Amazonas, Caquetá, Chocó, Putumayo; Ecuador; Panama; Costa Rica. Distr.: El Salvador; Costa Rica; Panama; Colombia: Amazonas, Caquetá, Chocó, Nariño, Putumayo; Ecuador: Morona-Santiago, Napo. multipicta (Haliday) Polistes multipictus Haliday, 1836, Trans. Linn. Soc. London 17: 322, female - [Brazil:] “St. Pauls” (London). Polybia multipicta; de Saussure, 1854, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2.: 188 (in division Phi). - Dalla Torre, 1904, Gen. Ins. 19: 78 (cat.). - Ducke, 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 540 (? Polybia or Stelopolybia). Polybia anceps de Saussure, 1854, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2: 190, female (in division Phi) - “Le Brésil” (London). - Dalla Torre, 1904, Gen. Ins. 19: 76 (cat.). Polybia pallipes; Fox, 1898, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad.: 450 [partim]. Polybia meridionalis R. von Ihering, 1904, Rev. Mus. Paul. 6: 174 (key), 211 - [Brazil:] “Est. S. Paulo e Franca” (lectotype female São Paulo) [name for P. phthisica and P. fasciata sensu de Saussure, 1854]. - Ducke, 1906, Rev. Entomol., Caen 25: 9 (Brazil). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 254 (designation of lectotype; syn. of multipicta (Haliday)). - Carpenter, 1999, Am. Mus. Novitat. 3259: 4 (notes on types). Stelopolybia meridionalis; Ducke, 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 519 (key), 523 (syn.: P. flavipennis Ducke; male, nest; Mexico; Nicaragua; Bolivia; Brazil; Paraguay; Venezuela). - Araujo, 1946, Papéis Avulsos Dept. Zool. Secretar. Agric., São Paulo 7: 169. - Overal, 1978, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.), Zool. 94: 11 (list). Stelolybia pallidipes var. anceps; Ducke, 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 522 (Colombia). Gymnopolybia meridionalis; Ducke, 1918, Rev. Mus. Paul. 10: 344 (? = multipicta). - Araujo, 1940, Arq. Inst. Biol. São Paulo 2: 11, figs. 1-6. Gymnopolybia meridionalis obscura Araujo, 1940, Arq. Inst. Biol. São Paulo 2: 13 (key), 15, female, male - [Brazil:] “Juís de Fora (Minas Gerais)” (holotype female São Paulo). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 255 (syn. of Stelopolybia multipicta multipicta morph anceps). Stelopolybia pallipes var. anceps; Bequaert, 1944, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 94: 297; 1949 (1948), Bol. Entomol. Venez. 7: 134 (Venezuela localities). Stelopolybia anceps; Richards, 1951, in Richards and Richards, Trans. Entomol. Soc. London 102: 74. Stelopolybia pallipes anceps; Willink, 1952, Acta Zool. Lilloana 10: 142, figs. 11-12. Stelopolybia multipicta multipicta morph multipicta; Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 240 (key), 254. Stelopolybia multipicta multipicta morph anceps; Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 240 (key), 255. Stelopolybia multipicta; Raw, 1989, Maracá Rainfor. Proj., Invert. Limnol., Prelim. Rep.: 32 (Brazil), 36 (distr.); 1989, Maracá Rainfor. Proj., Invert. Limnol., Prelim. Rep.: 41, 42 (habitat preference). Stelopolybia multipicta multipicta; Almeida and Castro, 1991, Acta Biol. Par., Curitiba 20: 48 (coll. list). Agelaia multipicta multipicta; Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 360 (list). Agelaia multipicta; Carpenter and van der Vecht, 1991, Ann. Carnegie Mus. 60 (3): 217 (note on material seen by Fox). - Sarmiento, 1993, Bol. Mus. Entomol. Univ. Valle 1 (2): 5 (nest; Colombia). - O'Donnell, 1995, Biotropica 27: 134 (ethology) , 136 (morphology). - Jeanne et al., 1995, J. Kans. Entomol. Soc. 68 (3): 279-289 (foraging; Venezuela). - West-Eberhard et al., 1995, Hym. Costa Rica: 585 (Costa Rica). - Garcete-Barrett, 1999, Avispas Soc. Parag.: 8 (mimics), 40 (key, figs. 3a, 3b-g, 3c, 3d, 3e, 3f-h), 41 (Paraguay). - Cooper, 2000, Entomol. Mon. Mag. 136: 182 (key), 194 (“A. m. multipicta recorded by Richards from Central America is A. yepocapa and specimens placed under A. m. multipicta in the BMNH from Choco, Colombia are A. melanopyga”). Distr.: Colombia: Amazonas, Antioquia, Arauca, Boyacá, Magdalena, Meta, Nariño; Venezuela: Barinas, Guárico, Mérida, Monagas; Trinidad; Guyana; Suriname; Peru: Huánuco, Loreto; Brazil: Amapá, Amazonas, D. F., Espírito Santo, Goiás, Mato Grosso, Minas Gerais, Pará, Paraná, Rio de Janeiro, Rio Grande do Sul, Roraima, Santa Catarina, São Paulo; Bolivia: Beni, Cochabamba, La Paz, Santa Cruz; Paraguay: Canindeyú, Alto Paraná, Itapúa, Paraguarí; Uruguay; Argentina: Jujuy, Misiones, Salta, Santa Fé, Tucumán. myrmecophila (Ducke) Polybia myrmecophila Ducke, 1905, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, Pará 4: 684, female, male - [Brazil:] “Teffé” (lectotype female Paris); also from Barcellos, lower Rio Japurá; and Pará. - du Buysson, 1906, Ann. Soc. Entomol. France 75: 362, pl. 17 fig. 1. - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 256 (designation of lectotype; syn.: S. vulgaris var. mexicana). - Nascimento and Overal, 1979, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.) 95: 10 (list). Polybia pallidipes; Ducke, 1907, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, Pará 5: 182 [partim]. Stelolybia pallidipes var. myrmecophila; Ducke, 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 522 (nest; syn.: centralis Cameron). Gymnopolybia pallidipes; Ducke, 1918, Rev. Mus. Paul. 10: 343 [partim]. Stelopolybia pallipes var. myrmecophila; Bequaert, 1944, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 94: 298. Stelopolybia myrmecophila; Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 240 (key), 256 [partim]. - Raw, 1996, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (Sér. Zool.) 12 (1): 8 (resemblance of Mischocyttarus mamirauae in coloration). Agelaia myrmecophila; Carpenter, 1999, Am. Mus. Novitat. 3259: 4 (notes on types; vulgaris var. mexicana not a syn.). - Cooper, 2000, Entomol. Mon. Mag. 136: 180 (key), 196, figs. 8, 27 (Colombia; Ecuador; Peru; Brazil; Bolivia). Distr.: Colombia; Peru: Huánuco; Ecuador; Brazil: Amazonas, Mato Grosso, Pará; Bolivia: Santa Cruz*. nebularum Cooper Agelaia nebularum Cooper, 2000, Entomol. Mon. Mag. 136: 181 (key), 185, fig. 28, female - “BOLIVIA: La Paz, Zongo Valley at Cuticucho 2,700m ... upper limit of cloud forest” (London); also from 2000 m, and Chulumani. Distr.: Bolivia: La Paz. nigrescens Cooper Agelaia nigrescens Cooper, 2001, Entomol. Mon. Mag. 137: 234, female - “ECUADOR: Napo, Pañacocha, primary forest” (London); also from four other localities in Ecuador; and Peru; Colombia. Distr.: Ecuador: Morona-Santiago, Napo; Peru: Junin; Colombia: Putumayo. ornata (Ducke) Polybia ornata Ducke, 1905, Rev. Entomol., Caen 24: 20, female - [Brazil:] “Teffé (État d'Amazonas)” (lectotype Belém). - Overal, 1978, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.), Zool. 94: 7 (designation of lectotype). - Nascimento and Overal, 1979, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.) 95: 10 (list). Stelopolybia angulata var. ornata; Ducke, 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 520 (Brazil; Bolivia). - Bequaert, 1944, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 94: 296. Stelopolybia ornata; Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 238 (key), 245. - Overal, 1978, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.), Zool. 94: 11 (list). - Raw, 1989, Maracá Rainfor. Proj., Invert. Limnol., Prelim. Rep.: 32 (Brazil), 37 (distr.); 1989, Maracá Rainfor. Proj., Invert. Limnol., Prelim. Rep.: 41 (habitat preference). - Almeida and Castro, 1991, Acta Biol. Par., Curitiba 20: 48 (coll. list). Agelaia ornata; Carpenter, 1999, Am. Mus. Novitat. 3259: 4 (notes on types). - Cooper, 2000, Entomol. Mon. Mag. 136: 180 (key), 190 (male; Colombia). Distr.: Guyana; Suriname; Colombia: Meta; Ecuador: Napo; Peru: Cuzco, Huánuco, Junín, Loreto; Brazil: Amazonas, Roraima; Bolivia: Beni, Cochabamba, La Paz. pallidiventris (Richards) Stelopolybia pallidiventris Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 239 (key), 259, female - “ECUADOR: Napo, Limoncocha, 00°24'S, 76°36'W” (London); also from Colombia. Agelaia pallidiventris; Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 360 (list). - Cooper, 2000, Entomol. Mon. Mag. 136: 182 (key), 195 (male, nest, association with Azteca; Polybia singularis, P. rejecta, Synoeca virginea, Chartergus chartarius, and Icteridae; Colombia; Peru). Distr.: Colombia: Amazonas, Putumayo; Ecuador: Napo; Peru: Huánuco. pallipes festae (Zavattari) Polybia Festae Zavattari, 1906, Boll. Mus. Zool. Anat. Comp. R. Univ. Torino 21 (529): 17, female - [Ecuador: Morona-Santiago] “San José” (Torino). Stelolybia pallidipes var. anceps; Ducke, 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 522 (Ecuador). Polybia pallipes cuzcoensis Schrottky, 1911, Entomol. Rundsch. 28 (3): 20 - “Peru, Cuzco, 1500 m.” (type lost). Stelopolybia pallipes var. cuzcoensis; Bequaert, 1944, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 94: 297. Stelopolybia pallipes var. festae; Bequaert, 1944, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 94: 297. Stelopolybia pallipes festae; Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 240 (key), 259. Stelopolybia pallipes cuzcoensis; Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 240 (key), 258. - Almeida and Castro, 1991, Acta Biol. Par., Curitiba 20: 49 (coll. list). Agelaia pallipes cuzcoensis; Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 360 (list). - Cooper, 2000, Entomol. Mon. Mag. 136: 182 (key), 194. Agelaia pallipes festae; Cooper, 2000, Entomol. Mon. Mag. 136: 194 (note on type locality; “ssp. festae is only a darker form of ssp. cuzcoensis”). Distr.: Colombia: Amazonas, Putumayo,; Venezuela; Ecuador: Morona-Santiago, Napo, Pastaza; Peru: Amazonas, Cajamarca, Cuzco, Huánuco, Junín, Loreto, Piura, San Martin; Brazil: Acre, Amazonas, Roraima; Bolivia: Beni, Cochabamba. pallipes pallipes (Olivier) Vespa pallipes Olivier, 1792, Encyc. Méthod. 6 (2): 675 - [French Guiana] “Cayenne” (type lost). Polybia pallipes; de Saussure, 1854, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2.: 189 (syn.: Rhopalidia pallens Lepeletier; in division Phi; Brazil; French Guiana); 1855, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2.: pl. XXV fig. 2. - Fox, 1898, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad.: 450 [partim]. - Schrottky, 1904, Allg. Zeitschr. Entomol. 9: 345 (Paraguay). - Ducke, 1905, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, Pará 4: 683. - Zavattari, 1906, Boll. Mus. Zool. Anat. Comp. Torino 21 (529): 15 (Ecuador). - Cameron, 1912, Timehri (3) 2: 208 (key), 212 (Guyana). Polybia pallidipes Dalla Torre, 1894, Cat. Hym. 9: 165 [unjustified emendation]; 1904, Gen. Ins. 19: 78 (cat.). - Ducke, 1907, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, Pará 5: 182 [partim]; 1908, Rev. Entomol., Caen 27: 85 (Brazil); 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 519 (key), 521 (pallidipes s. str.; syns.: P. anceps de Saussure, P. festae Zavattari, P. lutea Ducke, P. myrmecophila Ducke; female, male, nest; Costa Rica; Colombia; Brazil; Paraguay; Peru) [partim]. Polybia lutea Ducke, 1904, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, Pará 4: 346 (key), 353, female - [Brazil:] “Belem do Pará, Mazagão, Obidos” (Bern, Paris); 1905, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, Pará 4: 683 (syn. of pallipes). - Cameron, 1907, Invert. Pacif. 1: 184 (compared to pallipes var. centralis n. var.). - Nascimento and Overal, 1979, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.) 95: 10 (list). - Carpenter, 1999, Am. Mus. Novitat. 3259: 3 (notes on types; syn. confirmed). Stelopolybia pallidipes; Ducke, 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 521 [partim]. Gymnopolybia pallidipes; Ducke, 1918, Rev. Mus. Paul. 10: 343 [partim]. - Myers, 1937, Proc. R. Entomol. Soc London 12 (A): 71 (collecting honeydew of Membracidae in Venezuela). - Iriarte, 1943, Bol. Lab. Clinica Luis Razetti, Caracas 4 (11): 196 (Venezuela). Stelopolybia pallipes; Martorell and Salas, 1939, J. Agric. Univ. Puerto Rico 23: 251 (Venezuela). - Bequaert, 1944, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 94: 294 (key), 297 (typical form). - Araujo, 1946, Papéis Avulsos Dept. Zool. Secr. Agric., São Paulo 7: 169. - Overal, 1978, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.), Zool. 94: 11 (list). - Machado et al., 1987, An. Soc. Entomol. Brasil 16: 73-79 (ethology). Gymnopolybia pallipes; Vesey-Fitzgerald, 1939, Proc. R. Entomol. Soc. London (A) 14: 104-105 (mimicry). Stelopolybia pallipes pallipes; Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 240 (key), 258. - Almeida and Castro, 1991, Acta Biol. Par., Curitiba 20: 48 (coll. list). Agelaia pallipes pallipes; Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 360 (Colombia; list). Agelaia pallipes; Carpenter and van der Vecht, 1991, Ann. Carnegie Mus. 60 (3): 217 (note on material seen by Fox). - West-Eberhard et al., 1995, Hym. Costa Rica: 585 (Costa Rica). - Garcete-Barrett, 1999, Avispas Soc. Parag.: 8 (mimics), 40 (key, figs. 4a-b, 4c), 41 (Paraguay). - Cooper, 2000, Entomol. Mon. Mag. 136: 182 (key), 189 (records from Central America are really A. melanopyga n. sp.), 194. Distr.: Colombia: Caquetá; Venezuela: Aragua, Barinas, Trujillo; Guyana; Suriname; French Guiana; Ecuador: Morona-Santiago; Peru: Loreto; Brazil: Amazonas, Ceará, D. F., Goiás, Maranhão, Mato Grosso, Minas Gerais, Pará, Paraná, Rio de Janeiro, Rondônia, São Paulo; Paraguay: Concepción, San Pedro, Canindeyú, Alto Paraná, Cordillera, Paraguarí, Central; Argentina: Misiones. panamaensis (Cameron) Polybia panamaensis Cameron, 1906, Zeitschr. Syst. Hym. Dipt. 6: 382, female - “Panama” (London). - Ducke, 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 541 (? var. of S. angulata). Stelopolybia panamensis [!]; Bequaert, 1944, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 94: 296. - Araujo, 1946, Papéis Avulsos Dept. Zool. Secr. Agric., São Paulo 7: 169. - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 238 (key), 246 (panamaensis). Agelaia panamaensis; Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 360 (list). - West-Eberhard et al., 1995, Hym. Costa Rica: 585 (Costa Rica). - O'Donnell, 1995, Biotropica 27: 134 (ethology). - O’Donnell and Joyce, 1999, Biol J. Linn. Soc. 66: 507 (panamensis [!]; Costa Rica). - Rodríguez-Palafox, 1996, in Llorente-Bousquets et al., Biodiv. Taxon. Biogeogr. Artrópod. México: 482 (list). - Cooper, 2000, Entomol. Mon. Mag. 136: 180 (key), 192, fig. 12 (Colombia; record from Peru dubious). Distr.: Mexico: Chiapas, Tabasco, Veracruz; Guatemala; El Salvador; Honduras*; Costa Rica; Panama; Colombia: Arauca, Magdalena; Venezuela; Ecuador: Napo; Peru (?): Cuzco, Huánuco. pleuralis Cooper Agelaia pleuralis Cooper, 2000, Entomol. Mon. Mag. 136: 179 (key), 185, fig. 10, female - “COSTA RICA: Heredia, Finca Rara Avis 12km SW Horquetas, 600m” (London); also from Colombia: Nariño. Distr.: Costa Rica; Colombia: Nariño. silvatica Cooper Agelaia silvatica Cooper, 2000, Entomol. Mon. Mag. 136: 182 (key), 187, female, male - “ECUADOR: Pichincha, Nambillo Valley near Mindo 1,450m” (holotype female London); also from elsewhere in Pichincha, and Cotopaxi. Distr.: Ecuador: Cotopaxi, Pichincha. testacea (Fabricius) Polistes testacea Fabricius, 1804, Syst. Piez.: 276 - “America meridionali” (Kobenhavn). Agelaia fuscicornis Lepeletier, 1836, Hist. Nat. Ins. Hym. 1: 536, female - “Patrie inconnue” (type lost?). - Carpenter and Day, 1988, Proc. Entomol. Soc. Wash. 90: 325 (syn. of Stelopolybia testacea (Fabricius)). Polybia testacea; de Saussure, 1854, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2: 183, pl. XXIII fig. 1, female not male (syn.: P. flavicans Fabricius; in division Phi). Polybia fuscicornis; de Saussure, 1854, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2: 210, species dubiae. - Dalla Torre, 1904, Gen. Ins. 19: 77 (cat.). - Ducke, 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 540, species dubiae. Polybia flavicans; Fox, 1898, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad.: 451 (Brazil: Amazonas). - R. von Ihering, 1904, Rev. Mus. Paul. 6: 43. - Ducke, 1904, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, Pará 4: 346 (key), 352 (Brazil). - Zavattari, 1906, Boll. Mus. Zool. Anat. Comp. Torino 21 (529): 15 (syn.: P. testacea; Ecuador). Stelopolybia testacea; Ducke, 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 548 (key), 520 (syn.: P. flavicans sensu Dalla Torre; female, male; Brazil). - Bequaert, 1944, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 94: 293 (key), 296. - Araujo, 1946, Papéis Avulsos Dept. Zool. Secr. Agric., São Paulo 7: 169. - Bequaert, 1949 (1948), Bol. Entomol. Venez. 7: 135 (Venezuela: Bolívar). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 238 (key), 244. - Overal, 1978, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.), Zool. 94: 11 (list). - Raw, 1989, Maracá Rainfor. Proj., Invert. Limnol., Prelim. Rep.: 32 (Brazil), 36 (distr.); 1989, Maracá Rainfor. Proj., Invert. Limnol., Prelim. Rep.: 41 (habitat preference). - Almeida and Castro, 1991, Acta Biol. Par., Curitiba 20: 48 (coll. list). Agelaia testacea; Carpenter and van der Vecht, 1991, Ann. Carnegie Mus. 60 (3): 218 (note on material seen by Fox). - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 360 (list). - O'Donnell, 1995, Biotropica 27: 133-136, fig. 1 (ethology), 136 (morphology). Distr.: Colombia: Amazonas, Caquetá, Meta, Putumayo, Vaupés; Venezuela: Bolívar; Guyana; Suriname; French Guiana; Ecuador: Napo; Peru: Huánuco, Junín, Loreto; Brazil: Acre, Amapá, Amazonas, Goiás, Mato Grosso, Pará, Rondônia, Roraima; Bolivia: Beni, Cochabamba, La Paz, Pando. timida Cooper Agelaia timida Cooper, 2000, Entomol. Mon. Mag. 136: 177, 179 (key), 183, figs. 1-4, female, male, nest - “COLOMBIA: Vaupes, Mitu” (holotype female London); also from Meta, Putumayo; and Ecuador; Brazil; French Guiana. Distr.: Colombia: Meta, Putumayo, Vaupés; Brazil: Amazonas; French Guiana; Ecuador: Morona-Santiago, Napo. vicina (de Saussure) Polybia vicina de Saussure, 1854, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2: 189, pl. XXIV fig. 7, female (in division Phi) - “Le Brésil” (lectotype Paris); 1867, Reise Novara, Zool. 2 (1), Hym.: 21 (compared to P. plebeja n. sp.). - R. von Ihering, 1903, Zool. Anz. 27: 115 (ethology). - Dalla Torre, 1904, Gen. Ins. 19: 78 (cat.). - Ducke, 1906, Rev. Entomol., Caen 25: 9 (Brazil; compared to Monacanthocnemis buyssoni n. sp.). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 246 (designation of lectotype). - Carpenter, 1999, Am. Mus. Novitat. 3259: 5 (notes on types). Stelopolybia vicina; Ducke, 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 548 (key), 521 (male, nest; Brazil). - Araujo, 1946, Papéis Avulsos Dept. Zool. Secr. Agric., São Paulo 7: 169. - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 238 (key), 246, fig. 102. - Overal, 1978, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.), Zool. 94: 11 (list). - Almeida and Castro, 1991, Acta Biol. Par., Curitiba 20: 48 (coll. list). Agelaia vicina; Baio et al., 1998, Sociobiol. 32 (3): 465-476 (caste polymorphism). - Garcete-Barrett, 1999, Avispas Soc. Parag.: 8 (mimics), 39 (key, figs. 2a, 2b), 41 (Paraguay). -Cooper, 2000, Entomol. Mon. Mag. 136: 179 (key), 190, fig. 11 (male compared to angulicollis (Spinola)). Distr.: Brazil: Alagoas, Bahia, Ceará, Espírito Santo, Goiás, Maranhão, Mato Grosso, Minas Gerais, Paraná, Rio Grande do Sul, Rio de Janeiro, Santa Catarina, São Paulo; Paraguay: Alto Paraná, Itapúa; Argentina: Misiones. xanthopus melanotica (Richards) Stelopolybia xanthopus melanotica Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 239 (key), 249, female (in division Phi) - “COSTA RICA: Irazu” (London). Agelaia xanthopus; West-Eberhard et al., 1995, Hym. Costa Rica: 585 (Costa Rica). - O’Donnell and Joyce, 1999, Biol J. Linn. Soc. 66: 501-514 (mimicry by Mischocyttarus mastigophorus). Distr.: Guatemala; Costa Rica. xanthopus xanthopus (de Saussure) Polybia xanthopus de Saussure, 1854, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2: 190, female (in division Phi) - “Le Mexique” (? Torino). - Dalla Torre, 1904, Gen. Ins. 19: 78 (cat.). Stelopolybia xanthopus; Ducke, 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 519 (key), 521 (female, nest; Mexico). - Araujo, 1946, Papéis Avulsos Dept. Zool. Secr. Agric., São Paulo 7: 169. - Overal, 1978, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.), Zool. 94: 11 (list). Stelopolybia xanthopus xanthopus; Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 239 (key), 249, fig. 104. Agelaia xanthopus xanthopus; Rodríguez-Palafox, 1996, in Llorente-Bousquets et al., Biodiv. Taxon. Biogeogr. Artrópod. México: 482 (list). Agelaia xanthopus; Cooper, 2000, Entomol. Mon. Mag. 136: 180 (key), 193. Distr.: Mexico: Oaxaca, Veracruz. yepocapa (Richards) Stelopolybia yepocapa Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 237 (key), 243, fig. 98, female - “GUATEMALA: Yepocapa” (Washington); also from Ecuador. Stelopolybia multipicta multipicta morph multipicta; Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 254 [partim]. Agelaia yepocapa; O'Donnell and Jeanne, 1990, J. Trop. Ecol. 6: 507-509 (ethology). - West-Eberhard et al., 1995, Hym. Costa Rica: 585 (Costa Rica). - O'Donnell, 1995, Biotropica 27: 134 (ethology). - O’Donnell and Joyce, 1999, Biol J. Linn. Soc. 66: 501-514 (mimicry by Mischocyttarus mastigophorus). - Cooper, 2000, Entomol. Mon. Mag. 136: 182 (key), 192, fig. 16 (male; paratypes from Ecuador are areata (Say); records of multipicta multipicta(Haliday) in Richards (1978) from Central America are this species; Mexico; El Salvador; Costa Rica; Panama). Agelaia multipicta; Rodríguez-Palafox, 1996, in Llorente-Bousquets et al., Biodiv. Taxon. Biogeogr. Artrópod. México: 482 (list). Distr.: Mexico: Chiapas*, Guerrero, Puebla, San Luis Potosí, Veracruz; Guatemala; El Salvador; Nicaragua; Costa Rica; Panama. Genus Angiopolybia Araujo Angiopolybia Araujo, 1946, Papéis Avulsos Dept. Zool. Secretar. Agric., São Paulo 7 (12): 166, 169, replacement name for Stelopolybia sensu Ducke, 1914, Zool. Jahrb., Syst. 36: 306, 327. Type species: Rhopalidia pallens Lepeletier, 1836, by original designation. Rhopalidia Lepeletier, 1836, Hist. Nat. Ins. Hym. I: 538, genus (2 species). Unavailable; suppressed under the plenary powers of the ICZN (1976, Opinion 1051) (no. 2072 of Official Index of Rejected and Invalid Generic Names in Zoology). Type species: Rhopalidia pallens Lepeletier, 1836, by subsequent designation of Schulz, 1912, Berl. Entomol. Zeitschr. 57: 60. obidensis (Ducke) Polybia obidensis Ducke, 1904, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, Pará 4: 348 (key), 354, female - [Brazil:] “Obidos” (lectotype Paris); also from Oyapoc; 1907, Zeitschr. Hymenopterol. Dipterol. 2: 140 (syn.: P. paraensis var. luctuosa Schulz). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 234 (designation of lectotype). - Nascimento and Overal, 1979, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.) 95: 10 (list). - Carpenter, 1999, Am. Mus. Novitat. 3259: 6 (note on type). Polybia paraensis luctuosa Schulz, 1905, Hym. Stud.: 132 - “Surinam” (lectotype female London). - Ducke, 1907, Zeitschr. Hymenopterol. Dipterol. 2: 140 (syn. of P. obidensis Ducke). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 234 (designation of lectotype). - Carpenter, 1999, Am. Mus. Novitat. 3259: 6. Stelopolybia obidensis; Ducke, 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 519 (key), 526 (female; Brazil; Guyana; Suriname). - Bequaert, 1944, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 94: 293 (key), 294. Angiopolybia obidensis; Araujo, 1946, Papéis Avulsos Dept. Zool. Secr. Agric., São Paulo 7: 169; 1960, Studia Entomol. (N. S.) 3: 252 (Brazil: Amapá). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 231 (key), 234. - Overal, 1978, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.), Zool. 94: 9 (list). - Lacey, 1979, Acta Amazon. 9: 755-762 (predation on nests of hylid Osteocephalus taurinus). - Almeida and Castro, 1991, Acta Biol. Par., Curitiba 20: 48 (coll. list). - Silveira and Carpenter, 1996 (1995), J. New York Entomol. Soc. 103: 72. - Andena et al., 2007, Zootaxa 1427: 59 (phylogenetic relationships), 63 (key), 64 (Brazil), table 2 (characters), figs. 2B, 4A. Distr.: Guyana; Suriname; French Guiana; Brazil: Amapá, Amazonas, Mato Grosso, Pará. pallens (Lepeletier) Rhopalidia pallens Lepeletier, 1836, Hist. Nat. Ins. Hym. 1: 539, female - [French Guiana] “Cayenne, Amérique méridionale” (Torino). - Spinola, 1851, preprint of Mem. R. Accad. Sci. Torino (2) 13: 63 (nest). - de Saussure, 1854, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2.: 189 (syn. of Polybia pallipes (Olivier)). - du Buysson, 1906, Ann. Soc. Entomol. France 75: 342 (syn. of Apoica pallida var. pallens (Fabricius)). - Ducke, 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 542 (specimen in Spinola collection = S. infernalis (de Saussure)). - Schulz, 1912, Berl. Entomol. Zeitschr. 57: 60 (syn.: S. infernalis (de Saussure)). Polistes rufina “Illig. i. mus.” Erichson, 1848, in Schomburgk, Reisen Br.-Guiana III: 590 - “Britisch-Guiana” (? Berlin). - Spinola, 1851, preprint of Mem. R. Accad. Sci. Torino (2) 13: 63 (syn. of Rhopalidia pallens Lepeletier). - Dalla Torre, 1904, Gen. Ins. 19: 71 (cat.). - Ducke, 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 541. Polybia infernalis de Saussure, 1854, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2: 195, female (in division My) - [Brazil:] “Le Para” (lectotype Paris); 1855, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2.: pl. XXV fig. 7. - Dalla Torre, 1904, Gen. Insect. 19: 77 (internalis [!]; cat.). - R. von Ihering, 1904, Rev. Mus. Paulista 6: 205. - Ducke, 1905, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, Pará 4: 662 (syn.: P. ampullaria Möbius; nest). - Zavattari, 1906, Mus. Zool. Anat. Comp. R. Univ. Torino 21 (529): 16 (Ecuador). - Richards, 1943, Proc. R. Entomol. Soc. Lond. (B) 12: 45 (invalid designation as type species of Stelopolybia); 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 232 (designation of lectotype). Polybia ampullaria Möbius, 1856, Abhand. Naturw. Vereins Hamburg 3: 133, pl. 7; 1856, Nester Gesell. Wespen: 13, 35 (key), pl. VII figs. 1-8, female, nest - “Brasilien” (Berlin); 1856, Arch. Naturgesch. 22: 330 (key), fig. 9. - Dalla Torre, 1904, Gen. Ins. 19: 76 (cat.). - Ducke, 1904, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, Pará 4: 349 (key), 354 (Brazil). - Carpenter, 1999, Am. Mus. Novitat. 3259: 6 (notes on types; syn. confirmed). Eumenes flavopectus Provancher, 1888, Addit. Faune Canada Hym. Suppl.: 422, female - “Trinidad” (Laval University, Quebec). Polybia emaciata; Fox, 1898, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad.: 451. Misidentification. Stelopolybia infernalis; Ducke, 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 519 (key), 524, fig. 12 (male, nest; Suriname; French Guiana; Brazil; Peru); 1913, Deutsch. Entomol. Zeitschr.: 331 (syn.: R. pallens Lepeletier). Stelopolybia pallens; Bequaert, 1944, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 94: 293 (key), 294 (syns.: Polybia infernalis de Saussure, Polistes rufina Erichson, Polybia ampullaria Möbius, Eumenes flavopectus Provancher); 1949 (1948), Bol. Entomol. Venez. 7: 135 (Venezuela: Monagas). Angiopolybia pallens; Araujo, 1946, Papéis Avulsos Dept. Zool. Secr. Agric., São Paulo 7: 169; 1960, Studia Entomol. (N. S.) 3: 252 (Brazil: Amapá). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 231 (key), 232, fig. 95. - Lacey, 1979, Acta Amazon. 9: 755-762 (predation on nests of Leptodactylus pentadactylus). - Raw, 1989, Maracá Rainfor. Proj., Invert. Limnol., Prelim. Rep.: 32 (Brazil), 36 (distr.); 1989, Maracá Rainfor. Proj., Invert. Limnol., Prelim. Rep.: 41, 42 (habitat preference). - Carpenter and van der Vecht, 1991, Ann. Carnegie Mus. 60 (3): 218 (note on material seen by Fox). - Almeida and Castro, 1991, Acta Biol. Par., Curitiba 20: 48 (coll. list). - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 360 (list). - O'Donnell, 1995, Biotropica 27: 133-134 (ethology), 136 (morphology). - Theraulez and Bonabeau, 1995, J. Theor. Biol. 177: fig. 1c (nest). - Silveira and Carpenter, 1996 (1995), J. New York Entomol. Soc. 103: 72. - Andena et al., 2007, Zootaxa 1427: 59 (phylogenetic relationships), 63 (key), 64 (Brazil), table 2 (characters), figs. 1A, 2A, 3B. Angiopolybia infernalis; Overal, 1978, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.), Zool. 94: 9 (list). Distr.: Panama; Colombia: Amazonas, Caquetá, Meta, Nariño, Putumayo, Vaupés; Venezuela: Monagas; Trinidad; Guyana; Suriname; French Guiana; Ecuador: Esmereldas, Napo, Pichincha; Peru: Cuzco, Huánuco, Loreto, San Martin, Pasco; Brazil: Acre, Amapá, Amazonas, Bahia, Espírito Santo, Maranhão, Mato Grosso, Pará, Pernambuco, Roraima, Santa Catarina, São Paulo; Bolivia: Beni, Cochabamba. paraensis (Spinola) Polistes paraensis Spinola, 1851, preprint of Mem. R. Accad. Sci. Torino (2) 13: 60, female - [Brazil:] “Para” (? Torino). Polybia paraensis; de Saussure, 1854, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2.: 185, pl. XXIII fig. 2 (in division Phi). - Fox, 1898, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad.: 451 (Brazil: Amazonas). - Dalla Torre, 1904, Gen. Ins. 19: 78 (cat.). - Ducke, 1904, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, Pará 4: 348 (key), 354 (Brazil). - Carpenter and van der Vecht, 1991, Ann. Carnegie Mus. 60 (3): 218 (note on material seen by Fox). Polybia ruficornis Ducke, 1905, Rev. Entomol., Caen 24: 20, female - [Brazil:] “Tabatinga, Haut Amazone” (lectotype Paris); also from Rio Japurá; 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 526 (syn. of paraensis (Spinola)). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 235 (designation of lectotype). - Nascimento and Overal, 1979, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.) 95: 10 (list). - Carpenter, 1999, Am. Mus. Novitat. 3259: 6 (notes on types). Stelopolybia paraensis; Ducke, 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 519 (key), 526 (syn.: P. ruficornis Ducke; female, male; Brazil; Bolivia). - Bequaert, 1944, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 94: 293 (key), 294 (typical paraensis). Stelopolybia paraensis var. ruficornis; Ducke, 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 526 (nest; Brazil; Ecuador; Panama; Suriname). - Bequaert, 1944, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 94: 295. Stelopolybia paraensis var. (or subsp.) obscurior Bequaert, 1944, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 94: 295, female - “ECUADOR: Jatun Yacu, Rio Napo watershed, 700 m.” (Cambridge); also from Colombia; Guyana; Suriname. Angiopolybia paraensis; Araujo, 1946, Papéis Avulsos Dept. Zool. Secr. Agric., São Paulo 7: 169. - Overal, 1978, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.), Zool. 94: 9 (list). - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 360 (list). - O'Donnell, 1995, Biotropica 27: 136 (morphology). - Silveira and Carpenter, 1996 (1995), J. New York Entomol. Soc. 103: 72. - Andena et al., 2007, Zootaxa 1427: 59 (phylogenetic relationships), 63 (key), 64 (Brazil; Colombia; Peru), table 2 (characters), figs. 1B, 4B. Angiopolybia paraensis obscurior; van der Vecht, 1972, Ann. Soc. Entomol. France (N. S.) 8: 737. Angiopolybia paraensis morph paraensis; Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 232 (key), 235. Angiopolybia paraensis morph ruficornis; Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 232 (key), 235. Angiopolybia paraensis morph obscurior; Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 232 (key), 235. Distr.: Panama; Colombia: Amazonas, Caquetá; Venezuela: Amazonas, Bolívar*; Guyana; Suriname; French Guiana; Ecuador; Peru: Cuzco, Huánuco, Junín, Loreto, Madre de Dios, Pasco, San Martin; Brazil: Acre, Amapá, Amazonas, Bahia, Mato Grosso, Maranhão, Pará, Rondônia; Bolivia: Cochabamba, La Paz. zischkai Richards Angiopolybia zischkai Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 231 (key, 234), fig. 94, female - “ECUADOR: Santiago-Zamora, Rio Zamora, Zumbi, 700 m” (New York); also from Bolivia; Peru. - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 360 (Colombia: Amazonas, Cundinamarca, Magdalena, Putumayo; list). - Carpenter, 1999, Am. Mus. Novitat. 3259: 6 (note on type). - Andena et al., 2007, Zootaxa 1427: 59 (phylogenetic relationships), 63 (key), 64 (Panama), table 2 (characters), fig. 3A. Distr.: Costa Rica*; Panama; Colombia: Amazonas, Cundinamarca, Magdalena, Putumayo; Ecuador: Zamora-Chinchipe; Peru: Cuzco, Huánuco, Junín, Loreto, Pasco; Bolivia: Cochabamba. Genus Apoica Lepeletier Subgenus Apoica Lepeletier Apoica Lepeletier, 1836, Hist. Nat. Ins. 1: 536, genus (2 species). Type species: “Apoica lineolata Lepeletier, 1836 = typical Vespa pallida Olivier, 1791,” by subsequent designation of Bequaert, 1943, Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 69: 108. Protapoica Dalla Torre, 1904, Gen. Ins. 19: 79, name for group I of genus Apoica Lepeletier in de Saussure, 1854, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2: 107 (2 species). Type species: Vespa pallida Olivier, 1792, by subsequent designation of Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 264. Apoeca Schulz, 1912, Berlin. Entomol. Zeitschr. 57: 84. Unjustified emendation. albimacula (Fabricius) Polistes albimacula Fabricius, 1804, Syst. Piez.: 277 - “America meridionali” (Kobenhavn). - Dalla Torre, 1894, Cat. Hym. 9: 122 (cat.); 1904, Gen. Ins. 19: 71, species dubiae. Polybia albimaculata [!]; de Saussure, 1854, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2: 212 (species dubiae). - Ducke, 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 539 (species dubiae). Apoica albimacula; Schulz, 1912, Berlin. Entomol. Zeitschr. 57: 84 (syn.: Apoeca lineolata Lepeletier). - Richards, 1951, in Richards and Richards, Trans. Entomol. Soc. London 102: 153. - van der Vecht, 1972, Ann. Soc. Entomol. France (N. S.) 8: 736. - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 262 (key), 268 (in subgenus Apoica). - Pickett, 2003, Proc. Entomol. Soc. Wash. 105 (3): 595, figs. 10B, 11A (compared to Apoica ambracarina n. sp.). Apoica pallida var. albimacula; Bequaert, 1943, Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 69: 117; 1944, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 94: 290 (key), 291. Distr.: Guyana; Suriname; French Guiana; Brazil: Amazonas, Pará. ambracarina Pickett Apoica ambracarina Pickett, 2003, Proc. Entomol. Soc. Wash. 105 (3): 592, figs. 1-9, 10A, 11B, female, male - “Rio Branco, Acre State, Brazil” (holotype female São Paulo); also from another locality; and Colombia. Distr.: Colombia; Brazil: Acre, Mato Grosso. ellenae Pickett Apoica ellenae Pickett, 2007, in Pickett and Wenzel, Am. Mus. Novitat. 3562: 1, 21 (key), 23, figs. 19, 20A, female (in subgenus Apoica) - “Panama CZ, Barro Colorado I.,” (holotype female Davis). Distr.: Panama. flavissima van der Vecht Apoica pallida; Fox, 1898, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad.: 445 [partim]. Apoica flavissima van der Vecht, 1972, Ann. Soc. Entomol. France (N. S.) 8: 736, 739 (key), 741, figs. 1, 4, 12, female, male - “Dirkshoop, west of Paramaribo, in Surinam” (holotype male Leiden); also from elsewhere in Suriname; and Panama; French Guiana; Guyana; Brazil; Peru; Paraguay. - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 261 (key), 264 (in subgenus Apoica). - Raw, 1989, Maracá Rainfor. Proj., Invert. Limnol., Prelim. Rep.: 33 (nest; Brazil), 36 (distr.); 1989, Maracá Rainfor. Proj., Invert. Limnol., Prelim. Rep.: 41 (habitat preference). - Carpenter and van der Vecht, 1991, Ann. Carnegie Mus. 60 (3): 213 (note on material seen by Fox). - Almeida and Castro, 1991, Acta Biol. Par., Curitiba 20: 49 (coll. list). - Shima et al., 1994, Jap. J. Entomol. 62 (4): 811-822 (caste polymorphism). - O'Donnell, 1995, Biotropica 27: 136 (morphology). - Kojima and van Achterberg, 1997, Zool. Med., Leiden71: 162 (list). Distr.: Panama; Guyana; Suriname; French Guiana; Peru: Cuzco, Huánuco, Loreto; Brazil: Acre, Alagoas, Amazonas, Espírito Santo, Goiás, Maranhão, Mato Grosso, Minas Gerais*, Pará, Paraiba, Rio de Janeiro, Rondônia, Roraima, São Paulo; Bolivia: Beni*; Paraguay; Argentina: Salta. gelida van der Vecht Apoica pallida; Fox, 1898, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad.: 445 [partim]. Apoica pallens form C; Richards, 1951, in Richards and Richards, Trans. Entomol. Soc. London 102: 156, fig. 24 [partim]. Apoica gelida van der Vecht, 1972, Ann. Soc. Entomol. France (N. S.) 8: 736, 739 (key), 741, figs. 2, 5, female, male - “Albina, N. E. Surinam” (holotype male Leiden); also from elsewhere in Suriname; and French Guiana; Trinidad; Peru. - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 261 (key), 265 (in subgenus Apoica). - Carpenter and van der Vecht, 1991, Ann. Carnegie Mus. 60 (3): 213 (note on material seen by Fox). - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 360 (list). - Kojima and van Achterberg, 1997, Zool. Med., Leiden 71: 162 (list). Distr.: Colombia; Venezuela; Trinidad; Grenada*; Guyana; Suriname; French Guiana; Peru: Huánuco; Brazil: Amazonas, D. F., Goiás, Mato Grosso, Minas Gerais, Pará, Pernambuco*, Rio de Janeiro; Paraguay*. pallens (Fabricius) Polistes pallens Fabricius, 1804, Syst. Piez.: 276 - “America meridionali” (lectotype female Kobenhavn). - Möbius, 1856, Nester Gesell. Wespen: pl. XVIII figs. 1-5. - Schulz, 1912, Berlin. Entomol. Zeitschr. 57: 84 (syn. of Apoeca pallida (Olivier); note on types). Apoica pallida; Lepeletier, 1836, Hist. Nat. Ins. Hym. 1: 538 [misidentification]. - Fox, 1898, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad.: 445 [partim]. - ? Schrottky, 1904, Allg. Zeitschr. Entomol. 9: 345 (Paraguay). Apoica pallida var. pallens; du Buysson, 1906, Ann. Soc. Entomol. France 75: 342 (syn.: R. pallens Lepeletier). - Ducke, 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 517. - Bequaert, 1944, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 94: 290 (key), 291; 1949 (1948), Bol. Entomol. Venez. 7: 134 (Venezuela localities). Apoica pallens form A; Richards, 1951, in Richards and Richards, Trans. Entomol. Soc. London 102: 153, fig. 23 [partim]. Apoica pallens; Araujo, 1960, Studia Entomol. (N. S.) 3: 251 (Brazil: Amapá). - van der Vecht, 1972, Ann. Soc. Entomol. France (N. S.) 8: 736, 739 (key), 741, figs. 3, 6. - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 261 (key), 264, fig. 106 (in subgenus Apoica). - Carpenter and van der Vecht, 1991, Ann. Carnegie Mus. 60 (3): 213 (note on material seen by Fox). - Almeida and Castro, 1991, Acta Biol. Par., Curitiba 20: 49 (coll. list). - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 360 (list). - Hunt et al., 1995, Ins. Soc. 42 (3): 223-236 (ethology). - Jeanne et al., 1995, Naturwissen. 82 (6): 296-298 (caste polymorphism). - West-Eberhard et al., 1995, Hym. Costa Rica: 585 (Costa Rica). - Rodríguez-Palafox, 1996, in Llorente-Bousquets et al., Biodiv. Taxon. Biogeogr. Artrópod. México: 482 (list). - Garcete-Barrett, 1999, Avispas Soc. Parag.: 38, fig. (Paraguay). Distr.: Mexico; Belize; Guatemala; El Salvador; Nicaragua; Costa Rica; Panama; Colombia: Amazonas, Cundinamarca, Putumayo; Venezuela: Amazonas, Barinas, Guárico, Mérida, Yaracuy, Zulia; Trinidad; Guyana; Suriname; French Guiana; Ecuador: Pichincha; Peru: Cuzco, Huánuco, Junín, Loreto; Brazil: Amapá, Amazonas, D. F., Goiás, Mato Grosso, Minas Gerais, Pará, Paraná, Rio Grande do Sul, Rio de Janeiro, Santa Catarina, São Paulo; Bolivia: Cochabamba, Santa Cruz; Paraguay: Concepción, San Pedro, Caaguazú, Canindeyú, Alto Paraná, Paraguarí; Argentina: Misiones. pallida (Olivier) Vespa pallida Olivier, 1792, Encyc. Méthod. 6 (2): 675, female - “l'isle de la Trinité” (type lost). Apoica lineolata Lepeletier, 1836, Hist. Nat. Ins. Hym. 1: 537, female? - [Argentina] “Buenos-Ayres, Amérique méridionale” (type lost?). - de Saussure, 1854, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2: 108 (bilineolata [!]; syn. of A. virginea (Fabricius)). - du Buysson, 1906, Ann. Soc. Entomol. France 75: 341 (syn. of A. pallida (Olivier)), 359 (lineata [!]). - Schulz, 1912, Berlin. Entomol. Zeitschr. 57: 84 (syn. of Apoeca albimacula (Fabricius)). Polistes translucida Spinola, 1851, preprint of Mem. R. Accad. Sci. Torino (2) 13: 63 - [Brazil:] “Para” (Torino?). - Dalla Torre, 1904, Gen. Ins. 19: 71 (translucidus [!]; cat.). Apoica pallida; de Saussure, 1854, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2.: 107, pl. XVIII fig. 1 (syn.: P. pallens Fabricius; French Guiana to Argentina). - Möbius, 1856, Nester Gesell. Wespen: 34 (key); 1856, Arch. Naturgesch. 22: 329 (key), fig. 1. - Dalla Torre, 1904, Gen. Ins. 19: 79 (syn.: “Vespa pallens Fabricius”; cat.). - Ducke, 1904, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, Pará 4: 357, fig.c, pl. 1 fig. 2 (Brazil); 1905, Zeitschr. Wissen. Insektenbiol. 1 (4): 177 (ethology). - Cameron, 1906, Invert. Pacif. 1: 153 (Belize). - du Buysson, 1906, Ann. Soc. Entomol. France 75: 341. - Ducke, 1908, Rev. Entomol., Caen 27: 86 (Brazil); 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 517 (pallida s. str.; syns.: P. pallensFabricius, R. pallens Lepeletier, P. translucida Spinola, P. virginea Fabricius, A. lineolata Lepeletier, A. arborea de Saussure; female, male). - Myers, 1935, Trans. R. Entomol. Soc. London 83: 13 (nest associated with Polybia rejecta in Brazil). - Martorell, 1939, J. Agric. Univ. Puerto Rico 23: 230 (Venezuela). - Vesey-Fitzgerald, 1939, Proc. R. Entomol. Soc. London (A) 14: 105 (mimicry). - Bequaert, 1943, Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 69: 110; 1944, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 94: 289, 290 (typical pallida); 1949 (1948), Bol. Entomol. Venez. 7: 134 (Venezuela localities). - Richards, 1951, in Richards and Richards, Trans. Entomol. Soc. London 102: 152, figs. 20-21. - Vesey-Fitzgerald, 1956, Entomol. Mon. Mag. (4) 17: 165 (nest; Guyana). - Schremmer, 1972, Ins. Soc. 19: 343-357 (ethology). - van der Vecht, 1972, Ann. Soc. Entomol. France (N. S.) 8: 736. - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 262 (key), 266, fig. 105 (in subgenus Apoica). - Overal, 1978, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.), Zool. 94: 9 (list). - Raw, 1989, Maracá Rainfor. Proj., Invert. Limnol., Prelim. Rep.: 36 (distr.); 1989, Maracá Rainfor. Proj., Invert. Limnol., Prelim. Rep.: 41, 44 (habitat preference). - Almeida and Castro, 1991, Acta Biol. Par., Curitiba 20: 49 (coll. list). - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 360 (list). - O'Donnell, 1995, Biotropica 27: 136 (morphology). Apoica virginea; de Saussure, 1854, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2: 107 (syn.: Apoïca bilineolata [!] Lepeletier), 244 (variation), pl. XVIII fig. 2. - Dalla Torre, 1904, Gen. Ins. 19: 79 (syn.: lineolata Lepeletier; cat.). - Ducke, 1904, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, Pará 4: 358, pl. 2 fig. 9 (Brazil). Misidentification. Apoica pallida var. virginea; Ducke, 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 517, fig. 11. Apoeca pallida; Schulz, 1912, Berlin. Entomol. Zeitschr. 57: 84 (syn.: A. pallens (Fabricius)). Apoica pallida pallida; Araujo, 1960, Studia Entomol. (N. S.) 3: 251 (Brazil: Amapá). Distr.: Belize; Colombia; Venezuela: Aragua, Monagas; Trinidad; Guyana; Suriname; French Guiana; Ecuador: Pichincha; Peru: Huánuco, Junín, Loreto, Pasco; Brazil: Acre, Amapá, Amazonas, Ceará, Goiás, Maranhão, Mato Grosso, Pará, Rondônia, Roraima, São Paulo; Bolivia: La Paz, Santa Cruz. strigata Richards Apoica pallida var. arborea; Bequaert, 1943 (1942), J. New York Entomol. Soc. 50: 116 [partim]. Apoica strigata Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 262 (key), 267, fig. 107, female, male (in subgenus Apoica) - “PERU: Junín, Chanchamayo” (holotype female London); also from Cuzco, Huánuco, Loreto; and Ecuador; Colombia; Bolivia; Trinidad; Guyana; Brazil. - Almeida and Castro, 1991, Acta Biol. Par., Curitiba 20: 49 (coll. list). - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 360 (list). - West-Eberhard et al., 1995, Hym. Costa Rica: 585 (Costa Rica). Distr.: Costa Rica; Colombia: Amazonas, Caquetá*, Meta*; Trinidad; Guyana; Ecuador: Napo, Pichincha*; Peru: Cuzco, Huánuco, Junín, Loreto; Brazil: Acre, Amazonas, Maranhão, Mato Grosso, Pará; Bolivia: Cochabamba. thoracica du Buysson Apoica pallida; Fox, 1898, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad.: 445 [partim]. Apoica pallida var. thoracica du Buysson, 1906, Ann. Soc. Entomol. France 75: 340 (key), 343, female - “Brésil: Espírito Santo” (lectotype female Hamburg); also from French Guiana. - Ducke, 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 517 (Brazil). - Bequaert, 1944, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 94: 290; 1949 (1948), Bol. Entomol. Venez. 7: 134 (Venezuela: Barinas, Amazonas, Miranda, “Cumaragua”). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 268 (designation of lectotype; syntypes from French Guiana = albimacula (Fabricius)). Apoica thoracica; Richards, 1951, in Richards and Richards, Trans. Entomol. Soc. London 102: 152. - Araujo, 1960, Studia Entomol. (N. S.) 3: 251 (Brazil: Amapá). - van der Vecht, 1972, Ann. Soc. Entomol. France (N. S.) 8: 736, 742, figs. 7-11 (male). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 262 (key), 268 (in subgenus Apoica). - Raw, 1989, Maracá Rainfor. Proj., Invert. Limnol., Prelim. Rep.: 33 (Brazil), 36 (distr.); 1989, Maracá Rainfor. Proj., Invert. Limnol., Prelim. Rep.: 41 (habitat preference). - Carpenter and van der Vecht, 1991, Ann. Carnegie Mus. 60 (3): 213 (note on material seen by Fox). - Almeida and Castro, 1991, Acta Biol. Par., Curitiba 20: 49 (coll. list). - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 360 (list). - West-Eberhard et al., 1995, Hym. Costa Rica: 585 (Costa Rica). - Strassmann et al., 1996, Mol. Ecol. 5: 461(genetics). - Pickett, 2003, Proc. Entomol. Soc. Wash. 105 (3): 597, fig. 11C (compared to Apoica ambracarina n. sp.). Distr.: Guatemala; Honduras; Costa Rica; Panama; Colombia: Amazonas*, Caquetá*, Meta, Putumayo, Valle; Venezuela: Amazonas, Barinas, Miranda; Guyana; Suriname; French Guiana; Ecuador: Napo, Pichincha; Peru: Cuzco, Huánuco, Junín, Loreto, Pasco; Brazil: Acre, Amapá, Amazonas, D. F., Espírito Santo, Goiás, Mato Grosso, Minas Gerais, Pará, Paraná, Rondônia, Roraima, São Paulo; Bolivia: Cochabamba, La Paz, Santa Cruz. Subgenus Deuterapoica Dalla Torre Deuterapoica Dalla Torre, 1904, Genera Insect. 19: 79, name for group II of genus Apoica Lepeletier in de Saussure, 1854, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2: 108 (2 species). Type species: Apoica arborea de Saussure, 1854, by subsequent designation of Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 263. arborea de Saussure Apoica arborea de Saussure, 1854, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2: 108, female - “L'Amérique du Sud” (? London); 1855, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2.: pl. XXVI fig. 1. - Dalla Torre, 1904, Gen. Ins. 19: 79 (cat.). - von Ihering, 1904, Rev. Mus. Paulista 6: 159. - Zavattari, 1906, Boll. Mus. Zool. Anat. Comp. R. Univ. Torino 21 (529): 10 (Ecuador). - Richards, 1951, in Richards and Richards, Trans. Entomol. Soc. London 102: 157, figs. 17-19. - van der Vecht, 1972, Ann. Soc. Entomol. France (N. S.) 8: 736, 737, photo 1. - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 261 (key), 264 (in subgenus Deuterapoica). - Almeida and Castro, 1991, Acta Biol. Par., Curitiba 20: 49 (coll. list). - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 360 (Colombia: Caquetá; list). Apoica pallida var. arborea; Ducke, 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 517 (type seen in London; Brazil). - Bequaert, 1943 (1942), J. New York Entomol. Soc. 50: 116 [partim]; 1944, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 94: 290 (key), 291. Distr.: Colombia: Caquetá; Guyana; Suriname; French Guiana; Ecuador: Napo; Peru: Cuzco, Huánuco, Junín, Loreto; Brazil: Acre, Amazonas, Goiás, Maranhão, Mato Grosso, Pará, Rondônia; Bolivia: Santa Cruz. Genus Asteloeca Raw Asteloeca Raw, 1985, Rev. Bras. Entomol. 29: 185, genus. Type species: Polybia traili Cameron, 1906, by original designation and monotypy. lutea Carpenter Asteloeca lutea Carpenter, 2004, in Carpenter et al., Am. Mus. Novitat. 3427: 1, 4, figs. 1-2, 9-11, female, nest - “Bolivia: Dpto. Santa Cruz, Buena Vista” (New York); also from another locality; and Brazil; Ecuador. Distr.: Ecuador: Napo; Brazil: Acre; Bolivia: La Paz, Santa Cruz. traili (Cameron) Polybia Traili Cameron, 1906, Zeitschr. Syst. Hym. Dipt. 6: 383, female - [Brazil:] “Rio Purus, Amazons” (London). - Ducke, 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 541 (? syn. of M. pseudomimeticus Schulz). Polybia Ujhelyii var. obscura Ducke, 1909, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 7: 626, female - [Brazil:] “Fontebôa (Haut Amazone)” (Budapest); 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 511. - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 199 (ujhelyi [!]; syn. of Occipitalia traili (Cameron)). - Nascimento and Overal, 1979, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.) 95: 11 (list). - Carpenter, 1999, Am. Mus. Novitat. 3259: 6 (ujhelyi [!]; note on type; syn. confirmed). Occipitalia traili morph traili; Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 198 (key), 199 (Peru; Brazil). Asteloeca traili; Raw, 1985, Rev. Bras. Entomol. 29: 185 (type species of Asteloeca n. gen.), 187, figs. 1, 3, 5, 7, 11-12, 15, 17-22. - Carpenter et al., 1996, J. Hym. Res. 5: 159-163, 164 (male genitalia; nest; phylogeny). - Carpenter et al., 2004, Am. Mus. Novitat. 3427: 4 (key), 11, figs. 5-7, 14, 16 (Brazil: Pará, Acre. Distr.: Peru: Loreto; Brazil: Acre, Amazonas, Pará. ujhelyii (Ducke) Polybia Ujhelyii Ducke, 1909, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 7: 626, female - [Brazil:] “Teffé (Haut Amazone)” (lectotype Paris); also from French Guiana; 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 491 (key), 511. - Bequaert, 1944, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 94: 277 (key), 281 (Bolivia). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 199 (ujhelyi [!]; designation of lectotype; syn. of Occipitalia traili (Cameron)). - Nascimento and Overal, 1979, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.) 95: 11 (list). - Carpenter, 1999, Am. Mus. Novitat. 3259: 6 (ujhelyi [!]; notes on types). Occipitalia traili morph ujhelyi [!]; Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 198 (key), 199. Polybia traili; Garcia, 1978, Rev. Peru Entomol. 21: 19, figs. 48-51 (nest; Peru). Occipitalia ujhelyi [!]; Overal, 1978, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.), Zool. 94: 10 (list). Occipitalia traili; Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 359 (Colombia: Putumayo; list). Asteloeca ujhelyii; Carpenter et al., 2004, Am. Mus. Novitat. 3427: 4 (key), 9, figs. 3-4, 80, 12-13, 15, 17-18 (Colombia: Putumayo; Ecuador: Napo; Peru: Huánuco, Loreto; Brazil: Acre). Distr.: Colombia: Putumayo; French Guiana; Ecuador: Napo; Peru: Huánuco, Loreto, Ucayali; Brazil: Acre, Amazonas; ? Bolivia: Santa Cruz. Genus Brachygastra Perty Brachygastra Perty, 1833, Delect. Anim. Artic. Brasil. Coll.: 145, genus (2 species). Type species: Brachygastra analis Perty, 1833 [= Polistes lecheguana Latreille, 1824], by subsequent designation of Bequaert, 1933, Entomologica Am. 13: 89. Nectarina Swainson and Shuckard, 1840, Cab. Cyclop. no. 129: 183. Unnecessary replacement name for Brachygastra Perty, 1833, thought to be preoccupied by Brachygaster Leach, 1817 (Hymenoptera). Melissaia Shuckard, 1841, in White, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. 7: 320, footnote. Unnecessary replacement name for Nectarina Swainson and Shuckard, 1840, thought to be preoccupied by Nectarinia Illiger, 1811 (Aves). Brachygaster de Saussure, 1853, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 1: 171, footnote. Incorrect spelling of Brachygastra Perty. Nectarinia de Saussure, 1854, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2: 225; H. von Ihering, 1896, Zool. Anz. 19: 451, 453; Fox, 1898, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia: 460; Reid, 1942, Trans. R. Entomol. Soc. London 92: 313-315. Incorrect spelling of Nectarina Swainson and Shuckard. Caba R. von Ihering, 1904, Rev. Mus. Paulista 6: 103, 105, replacement name for “Nectarina Schuckard, 1840”. Unnecessary replacement name for Nectarina Swainson and Shuckard, 1840, thought to be preoccupied by NectariniaIlliger, 1811 (Aves). albula Richards Brachygastra albula Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 164 (key), 177, female - “BRAZIL: MT, Base Camp, 12°50'S, 51°47'W” (London); also from another locality in Mato Grosso, and Rondônia. - Almeida and Castro, 1991, Acta Biol. Par., Curitiba 20: 43 (note on type material). - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 359 (Colombia: Caquetá; list). Distr.: Colombia: Caquetá; Brazil: Mato Grosso, Rondônia. augusti (de Saussure) Nectarinia Augusti de Saussure, 1854, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2: 226 (key), 233, female - “Le Brésil. Capit. de Saint Paul, Rio Grande, Goyaz” (lectotype Paris). - Smith, 1857, Cat. Hym. Br. Mus. 5: 137. - Fox, 1898, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad.: 459 (Brazil: Amazonas, Mato Grosso). - R. von Ihering, 1903, Ann. Soc. Entomol. France 72: 153. - Naumann, 1968, Univ. Kans. Sci. Bull. 47: 953, 956 (designation of lectotype). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 169 (invalid designation of lectotype). - Carpenter and van der Vecht, 1991, Ann. Carnegie Mus. 60 (3): 222 (note on material seen by Fox). - Carpenter, 1999, Am. Mus. Novitat. 3259: 6 (note on type). Nectarina augusti; Gribodo, 1892 (1891), Boll. Soc. Entomol. Ital. 23: 254 (var.; Brazil; Peru). - Dalla Torre, 1904, Gen. Ins. 19: 86 (cat.). - Ducke, 1904, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, Pará 4: 321 (male; Brazil); 1905, Rev. Entomol., Caen 24: 11 (nest); 1905, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, Pará 4: 662 (nest; Brazil). - du Buysson, 1905, Ann. Soc. Entomol. France 74: 547 (key), 557 (Brazil; Venezuela; Peru; Suriname; French Guiana; Paraguay). - Ducke, 1906, Rev. Entomol., Caen25: 6 (Brazil); 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 479 (key), 482 (syns.: C. amazonicus Cameron, N. augusti var. quinta R. von Ihering; female, male, nest; Panama; Brazil) - Dover, 1925 (1924), Psyche 31: 307 (Venezuela: D. F.). Nectarinia Augusti var. quinta R. von Ihering, 1903, Ann. Soc. Entomol. France 72: 153 - [Brazil:] “Rio Jurua (Amazonas)” (lectotype female São Paulo); also from Paraná and São Paulo. - Dalla Torre, 1904, Gen. Ins. 19: 86 (Nectarina; cat.). - du Buysson, 1905, Ann. Soc. Entomol. France 74: 558 (Nectarina; Peru; Brazil; Panama). - Ducke, 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 482 (Nectarina). - Naumann, 1968, Univ. Kans. Sci. Bull. 47: 953 (designation of lectotype; syn. of B. augusti de Saussure). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 169 (note on lectotype). - Carpenter, 1999, Am. Mus. Novitat. 3259: 8 (note on type). Caba augusti; R. von Ihering, 1904, Rev. Mus. Paul. 6: 106, 107. Caba augusti var. quinta; R. von Ihering, 1904, Rev. Mus. Paul. 6: 108, pl. 4 fig. 3. Chartergus amazonicus Cameron, 1906, Zeitschr. Syst. Hym. Dipt. 6: 380, female - “Cararamer-Amazonia” (London). Brachygastra augusti; Bequaert, 1944, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 94: 271; 1949 (1948), Bol. Entomol. Venez. 7: 131 (list). - Naumann, 1968, Univ. Kans. Sci. Bull. 47: 938 (key), 953, figs. 35-38, 40-41 (syns.: N. augusti var. quinta R. von Ihering, Chartergus amazonicus Cameron; female, male, nest; ethology; Costa Rica; Panama; Argentina; Bolivia; Brazil; Guyana; Colombia; Ecuador; French Guiana; Peru; Surinam; Venezuela). - West-Eberhard, 1975, Cespedesia 4 (16): 257 (angusti [!]; Colombia: Cauca). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 164 (key), 169. - Jeanne, 1978, Biotropica 10: 234 (nesting). - Overal, 1978, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.), Zool. 94: 9 (list). - Almeida and Castro, 1991, Acta Biol. Par., Curitiba 20: 48 (coll. list). - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 359 (list). - West-Eberhard et al., 1995, Hym. Costa Rica: 585 (Costa Rica). - Garcete-Barrett, 1999, Avispas Soc. Parag.: 29 (key, figs. 1a, 1a-b, 1c; Paraguay). Brachygastra augusti augusti; Araujo, 1960, Studia Entomol. (N. S.) 3: 252 (Brazil: Amapá). Distr.: Costa Rica; Panama; Colombia: Amazonas, Boyacá, Caldas, Caquetá, Cauca, Putumayo, Santander, Tolima, Valle; Venezuela: Anzoátegui, Bolívar, Carabobo, D. F., Yaracuy; Guyana; Suriname; French Guiana; Ecuador: Napo; Peru: Cajamarca, Huánuco, Loreto, Pasco, San Martín; Brazil: Acre, Amapá, Amazonas, D. F., Goiás, Mato Grosso, Minas Gerais, Pará, Paraná, Rio Grande do Sul, São Paulo; Bolivia: Beni, La Paz, Pando, Santa Cruz; Paraguay: Concepción, San Pedro, Amambay, Canindeyú, Alto Paraná, Guairá; Argentina: Misiones. azteca (de Saussure) Nectarinia azteca de Saussure, 1857, Rev. Mag. Zool. (2) 9 (6): 280 - “Le Mexique (des terres chaudes de la province de Mexico)” (lectotype female Paris); 1867, Reise Novara, Zool. 2 (2), Hym.: 23 (Mexico). - Dalla Torre, 1904, Gen. Ins. 19: 86 (Nectarina; cat.). - du Buysson, 1905, Ann. Soc. Entomol. France 74: 546 (key), 554, pl. 12 figs. 11, 16-17, pl. 13 fig. 2, pl. 14 fig. 1 (Nectarina; Mexico). - Ducke, 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 478 (key), 482 (syn.: Chartergus mexicanus Cameron; female, male, nest). - Naumann, 1968, Univ. Kans. Sci. Bull. 47: 940 (designation of lectotype). - Carpenter, 1999, Am. Mus. Novitat. 3259: 6 (notes on types). Chartergus mexicanus Cameron, 1906, Invert. Pacif. 1: 154, female - “Acapulco, Mexico” (lectotype London); 1907, Invert. Pacif. 1: 182 (key). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 164 (designation of lectotype). - Carpenter, 1999, Am. Mus. Novitat. 3259: 7 (notes on types). Brachygastra azteca; Naumann, 1968, Univ. Kans. Sci. Bull. 47: 938 (key), 940, figs. 25-30, 33 (syn.: Chartergus mexicanus Cameron; female, male, nest; ethology; Mexico). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 163 (key), 165. - Overal, 1978, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.), Zool. 94: 9 (list). - Rodriguez-Palafox, 1988, Fol. Entomol. Mex. 77: 501 (key), 502, figs. 2.3, 6.3. - Ladron De Guevara et al., 1995, Amino Acids 9 (2): 161-173 (amino acid content). - Rodríguez-Palafox, 1996, in Llorente-Bousquets et al., Biodiv. Taxon. Biogeogr. Artrópod. México: 482 (list). Distr.: Mexico: Chiapas, Chihuahua, Colima, Guanajuato, Guerrero, Jalisco, México, Michoacán, Morelos, Nayarit, Oaxaca, Puebla, Sinaloa, Sonora. baccalaurea (R. von Ihering) Nectarinia baccalaurea R. von Ihering, 1903, Ann. Soc. Entomol. France 72: 154 (lectotype female São Paulo). - Dalla Torre, 1904, Gen. Ins. 19: 86 (Nectarina; cat.). - du Buysson, 1905, Ann. Soc. Entomol. France 74: 547 (key), 553, pl. 12 fig. 9 (Nectarina; female, male; Peru; Ecuador). - Ducke, 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 478 (key), 481 (Nectarina; female, male; Peru). - Naumann, 1968, Univ. Kans. Sci. Bull. 47: 959, 962 (designation of lectotype, from Peru). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 177 (invalid designation of lectotype). - Carpenter, 1999, Am. Mus. Novitat. 3259: 7 (notes on types). Caba baccalaurea; R. von Ihering, 1904, Rev. Mus. Paul. 6: 106, pl. 4 fig. 4. Brachygastra baccalaurea; Naumann, 1968, Univ. Kans. Sci. Bull. 47: 937 (key), 959, figs. 61, 65 (female, male; Bolivia; Ecuador; Peru). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 164 (key), 177. - Overal, 1978, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.), Zool. 94: 9 (list). - Sarmiento, 1993, Bol. Mus. Entomol. Univ. Valle 1 (2): 7 (Colombia); 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 359 (list). Distr.: Colombia: Boyacá; Ecuador: Napo, Tungurahua; Peru: Cuzco, Junín; Bolivia: La Paz. bilineolata Spinola Brachygastra bilineolata Spinola, 1841, Ann. Soc. Entomol. France 10: 124, 126, female - [French Guiana] “Cayenne” (lectotype Torino). - Bequaert, 1943 (1942), J. New York Entomol. Soc. 50: 303, 304 (typical bilineolata; syn.: Nectarinia möbiana de Saussure; Guyana; Venezuela; Brazil; Colombia; Costa Rica); 1944, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 94: 271 (key), 273 (typical bilineolata); 1949 (1948), Bol. Entomol. Venez. 7: 131 (Venezuela). - Vesey-Fitzgerald, 1956, Entomol. Mon. Mag. (4) 17: 165 (nest; Guyana). - Naumann, 1968, Univ. Kans. Sci. Bull. 47: 938 (key), 962, figs. 51-56, 59, 68 (designation of lectotype; syns.: N. möbiana de Saussure, O. antillarum Provancher, C. bilineolata var. fasciata R. von Ihering, B. bilineolata var. surinamensis Bequaert; female, male; Bolivia; Brazil; Guyana; Colombia; French Guiana; Peru; Suriname; Trinidad; Venezuela) [partim]. - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 164 (key), 171. - Overal, 1978, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.), Zool. 94: 9 (list). - Almeida and Castro, 1991, Acta Biol. Par., Curitiba 20: 48 (coll. list). - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 359 (list). - Carpenter, 1999, Am. Mus. Novitat. 3259: 7 (notes on types). Brachygastra dorsolineata [!]; Spinola, 1841, Ann. Soc. Entomol. France 10: 123. Nectarinia bilineolata; de Saussure, 1854, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2: 226 (key), 228, 231 (bilineata [!]); 1855, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2.: pl. XXXIV fig. 2. - Smith, 1857, Cat. Hym. Br. Mus. 5: 136. - Cameron, 1912, Timehri (3) 2: 218 (Guyana). Nectarina bilineolata; Dalla Torre, 1904, Gen. Ins. 19: 86 (cat.). - Ducke, 1904, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, Pará 4: 322 (Brazil); 1905, Rev. Entomol., Caen 24: 11 (nest) [partim]. - du Buysson, 1905, Ann. Soc. Entomol. France 74: 546 (key), 551 (French Guiana; Suriname; Colombia; Brazil). - Ducke, 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 479 (key), 480, fig. 4 (syns. N. smithii de Saussure, N. moebiana de Saussure, bilineolata var. fasciata R. von Ihering; female, male; Colombia; French Guiana; Brazil; Suriname). Odynerus Antillarum Provancher, 1888, Addit. Faune Canada Hym. Suppl.: 420, female - “Trinidad” (Laval University, Quebec). Caba bilineolata; R. von Ihering, 1904, Rev. Mus. Paul. 6: 106, 111. Caba bilineolata var. fasciata R. von Ihering, 1904, Rev. Mus. Paul. 6: 106 (key), 112 - “Surinam” (lectotype female São Paulo); also from Brazil. - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 171 (designation of lectotype). - Carpenter, 1999, Am. Mus. Novitat. 3259: 7 (notes on types). Nectarina smithi [!] var. fasciata; Ducke, 1905, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, Pará 4: 663. Nectarina bilineolata var. smithi [!]; Vesey-Fitzgerald, 1938, Trans. R. Entomol. Soc. Lond. 87: 184. Misidentification. Brachygastra bilineolata var. antillarum; Bequaert, 1943 (1942), J. New York Entomol. Soc. 50: 304 (Trinidad; Guyana; Suriname; Brazil; Peru; Honduras); 1944, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 94: 273. Brachygastra bilineolata var. smithii; Bequaert, 1943 (1942), J. New York Entomol. Soc. 50: 304 (key), 305 [partim]. Brachygastra bilineolata var. (or subsp.) surinamensis Bequaert, 1943 (1942), J. New York Entomol. Soc. 50: 304 (key), 306, female - “DUTCH GUIANA (or Surinam)” (Cambridge); 1944, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 94: 273. Distr.: Colombia: Magdalena, Meta; Venezuela: Amacuro, Anzoátegui, Bolívar; Trinidad; Guyana; Suriname; French Guiana; Peru: Cajamarca, Loreto, Pasco; Brazil: Amazonas, Goiás, Mato Grosso, Pará, Rio Grande do Sul, Rondônia, Santa Catarina, São Paulo; Bolivia: Beni, La Paz, Santa Cruz. borellii (Zavattari) Caba Borellii Zavattari, 1906, Bol. Mus. Anat. Comp. R. Univ. Torino 21 (523): 1, female - “Salta (Repubblica Argentina)” (type lost). Nectarina lecheguana var. Borellii; Ducke, 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 482. Brachygastra lecheguana var. borellii; Willink, 1952, Acta Zool. Lilloana 10: 146. Brachygastra borellii; Naumann, 1968, Univ. Kans. Sci. Bull. 47: 939 (key), 991, fig. 65 (female; Argentina; Bolivia). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 163 (key), 165. Distr.: Argentina: Jujuy, Salta, Tucumán; Bolivia: Cochabamba. buyssoni (Ducke) Nectarina Buyssoni Ducke, 1905, Rev. Entomol., Caen 24: 11, female - [Brazil:] “Tabatinga, dans le Haut-Amazone” (lectotype Paris); 1905, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, Pará 4: 663. - du Buysson, 1905, Ann. Soc. Entomol. France 74: 547 (key), 554. - Ducke, 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 479 (key), 481 (female; Brazil; Peru). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 177 (designation of lectotype, as Nectarinia [!]). - Nascimento and Overal, 1979, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.) 95: 10 (list). - Carpenter, 1999, Am. Mus. Novitat. 3259: 7 (notes on types). Brachygastra buyssoni; Naumann, 1968, Univ. Kans. Sci. Bull. 47: 937 (key), 975, figs. 50, 66 (female; Brazil; Peru; Bolivia). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 164 (key), 177. - Overal, 1978, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.), Zool. 94: 9 (list). - Almeida and Castro, 1991, Acta Biol. Par., Curitiba 20: 48 (coll. list). Distr.: Venezuela: Amazonas*; Ecuador: Napo; Peru: Huánuco, Loreto; Brazil: Amazonas, Mato Grosso; Bolivia: La Paz. fistulosa Naumann Brachygastra fistulosa Naumann, 1968, Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull. 47: 938 (key), 949, figs. 31-32, 34, female - “Corupá, Est. Santa Catarina, Brazil” (New York); also from Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo. - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 164 (key), 171. Distr.: Peru; Brazil: Rio de Janeiro, Santa Catarina, São Paulo. lecheguana (Latreille) Vespa sericea Fabricius, 1804, Syst. Piez.: 266 - “America meridionali” (lectotype female Kobenhavn) [junior primary homonym of Vespa sericea Olivier, 1792]. - Naumann, 1968, Univ. Kans. Sci. Bull. 47: 984 (designation of lectotype). - Ducke, 1904, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, Pará 4: 326. Polistes lecheguana Latreille, 1824, Mém. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris 11: 317, female - “Brésil” (Paris); also from Paraguay. - Saint-Hilaire, 1825, Mém. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris 12: pl. 12 fig. B. - Say, 1837, Boston J. Nat. Hist. 1: 390 (compared to P. mellifica n. sp.). - Carpenter, 1999, Am. Mus. Novitat. 3259: 7 (notes on types). Brachygastra analis Perty, 1833, Delect. Anim. Artic. Brasil. Coll.: 146, pl. 28 fig. 6 - [Brazil:] “Provincia Piauhiensi” (type depository unknown). - Spinola, 1841, Ann. Soc. Entomol. France 10: 127 (Mexico). - Swainson and Shuckard, 1840, Cab. Cyclop. no. 129: 183 (identical with V. lecheguana). - White, 1841, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. 7: 320 (syn. of M. lecheguana (Latreille)). Vespa lecheguana; Swainson and Shuckard, 1840, Cab. Cyclop. no. 129: 183. Brachygastra velutina Spinola, 1841, Ann. Soc. Entomol. France 10: 126, pl. 3 fig. V, female - [French Guiana] “Cayenne” (Torino). - Naumann, 1968, Univ. Kans. Sci. Bull. 47: 984 (syn. of B. lecheguana (Latreille)). Melissaia lecheguana; White, 1841, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. 7: 320 (syn.: B. analis Perty). Epipone [!] lecheguana; Curtis, 1844, Trans. Linn. Soc. London 19: 258 (syn.: Brachygaster [!] analis Perty). Brachygastra aurulenta Erichson, 1848, in Schomburgk, Reisen Br.-Guiana III: 590 - “Britisch-Guiana” (? Berlin). - Naumann, 1968, Univ. Kans. Sci. Bull. 47: 984 (syn. of B. lecheguana (Latreille)). Nectarinia binotata de Saussure, 1854, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2: 226 (key), 230, male - [French Guiana] “Cayenne” (Paris). - Smith, 1857, Cat. Hym. Br. Mus. 5: 136. - Dalla Torre, 1904, Gen. Ins. 19: 86 (Nectarina; cat.). - Naumann, 1968, Univ. Kans. Sci. Bull. 47: 988 (“type” specimen in Paris is labeled “Colombie”). Nectarinia analis; de Saussure, 1854, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2: 226 (key), 230. - Dalla Torre, 1904, Gen. Ins. 19: 86 (Nectarina; cat.). Nectarinia velutina; de Saussure, 1854, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2: 226 (key), 231. - Smith, 1857, Cat. Hym. Br. Mus. 5: 137. Nectarina velutina; Dalla Torre, 1904, Gen. Ins. 19: 86 (cat.). - Ducke, 1904, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, Pará 4: 321 (Nectarina; Brazil); 1905, Rev. Entomol., Caen 24: 11. Nectarinia lecheguana; de Saussure, 1854, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2: 226 (key), 232, pl. XXX; 1855, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2: pl. XXXIV fig. 3. - Smith, 1857, Cat. Hym. Br. Mus. 5: 136. - Fox, 1898, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad.: 459 (Brazil: Amazonas, Mato Grosso). - Dalla Torre, 1904, Gen. Ins. 19: 86 (Nectarina Lecheguana; cat.). - du Buysson, 1905, Ann. Soc. Entomol. France 74: 547 (key), 558, pls. 11, 12 figs. 1-8, 10, 13, pl. 14 fig. 2, pls. 15-16 (Nectarina; syns.: B. analis Perty, P. mellifica Say; Mexico; Ecuador; Brazil; Argentina; Uruguay; Paraguay; Venezuela) [partim]. - Ducke, 1906, Rev. Entomol., Caen 25: 6 (Nectarina; Brazil); 1908, Rev. Entomol., Caen 27: 84 (Nectarina; Brazil); 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 479 (key), 481 (syns.: B. analis Perty, P. mellifica Say, B. velutina Spinola, B. aurulenta Erichson, C. Borellii Zavattari, C. sericeus “Moeb.,” ? V. sericea Fabricius, C. arizonaensis Cameron, C. centralis Cameron, C. aztecus Cameron, N. binotata de Saussure; female, male, nest; U. S. A.; Brazil). - Carpenter and van der Vecht, 1991, Ann. Carnegie Mus. 60 (3): 222 (note on material seen by Fox). Chartergus sericeus; Möbius, 1856, Abhand. Naturw. Vereins Hamburg 3: 144; 1856, Nester Gesell. Wespen: 24, 34 (key), pl. XVI (nest; Venezuela: Puerto Cabello). - Dalla Torre, 1904, Gen. Ins. 19: 85 (cat.). Nectarinia aurulenta; Smith, 1857, Cat. Hym. Br. Mus. 5: 137. - Dalla Torre, 1904, Gen. Ins. 19: 86 (Nectarina; cat.). Nectarinia sericeus; de Saussure, 1867, Reise Novara, Zool. 2 (2), Hym.: 22 (compared to N. möbiana n. sp.). Caba lecheguana; R. von Ihering, 1904, Rev. Mus. Paul. 6: 106. Caba analis; R. von Ihering, 1904, Rev. Mus. Paul. 6: 107. Caba binotata; R. von Ihering, 1904, Rev. Mus. Paul. 6: 107. Nectarina lecheguana var. binotata; du Buysson, 1905, Ann. Soc. Entomol. France 74: 547 (key), 563 (Colombia). Nectarina lecheguana var. velutina; du Buysson, 1905, Ann. Soc. Entomol. France 74: 547 (key), 563 (syn.: Brachygastra aurulenta Erichson; Mexico; Guatemala; Colombia; Venezuela; Brazil). - Ducke, 1905, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, Pará: 663 (Brazil); 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 482 (syn.: aurulenta Erichson). Caba lecheguana var. velutina; Zavattari, 1906, Boll. Mus. Zool. Anat. Comp. R. Univ. Torino 21 (529): 3 (Panama). Brachygastra lecheguana; Bequaert, 1944, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 94: 271 (key), 272 [partim]. - Naumann, 1968, Univ. Kans. Sci. Bull. 47: 939 (key), 984, figs. 1-9, 13, 15-18 (syns.: V. sericea Fabricius, B. analis Perty, B. velutinaSpinola, B. aurulenta Erichson, N. binotata de Saussure; female, male, nest; ethology; Argentina; Bolivia; Brazil; Guyana; Colombia; Costa Rica; Ecuador; French Guiana; Panama; Paraguay; Peru; Suriname; Venezuela). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 163 (key), 165. - Overal, 1978, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.), Zool. 94: 9 (list). - Almeida and Castro, 1991, Acta Biol. Par., Curitiba 20: 48 (coll. list). - Soares and Lara, 1994, An. Soc. Entomol. Brasil 23 (1): 135-136 (predation on Anthonomus grandis pupae). - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 359 (list). - West-Eberhard et al., 1995, Hym. Costa Rica: 585. - O'Donnell, 1995, Biotropica 27: 136 (morphology). - Garcete-Barrett, 1999, Avispas Soc. Parag.: 8 (mimics), 29 (key, figs. 1aa, 1aa-bb, 1cc; Paraguay). Brachygastra lecheguana var. velutina; Bequaert, 1944, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 94: 272 (list); 1949 (1948), Bol. Entomol. Venez. 7: 131 (Venezuela localities). - Richards and Richards, 1951, Trans. Entomol. Soc. London 102: 26. Distr.: Costa Rica; Panama; Colombia: Antioquía, Atlantico, Bolívar, Guajira, Huila, Magdalena, Meta, Nariño, Santander, Tolima; Venezuela: Amacuro, Barinas, Bolívar, Carabobo, Guarico*, D. F., Trujillo, Zulia; Guyana; Suriname; French Guiana; Ecuador: Guayas; Peru: Cajamarca, Lambayeque, Loreto, Piura, Tumbes; Brazil: Amazonas, Bahia, Ceará, D. F., Espírito Santo, Goiás, Maranhão, Mato Grosso, Minas Gerais, Pará, Paraná, Paraiba, Pernambuco, Rio Grande do Norte, Rio Grande do Sul, Rio de Janeiro, Rondônia, Roraima, Santa Catarina, São Paulo; Bolivia: Beni, Santa Cruz; Paraguay: Alto Paraguay, Presidente Hayes, Concepción, Canindeyú, Caagazú, San Pedro, Central, Cordillera, Paraguarí, Guairá, Alto Paraná, Misiones; Uruguay; Argentina: Buenos Aires, Catamarca, Chaco, Córdoba, Corrientes, Entre Rios, Formosa, Jujuy, La Rioja, Mendoza, Misiones, Salta, Santa Fé, San Luis, Santiago del Estero, Tucumán. mellifica (Say) Polistes mellifica Say, 1837, Boston J. Nat. Hist. 1: 390, female, male - “Mexico ... near Jalapa” (neotype male Berkeley). - Naumann, 1968, Univ. Kans. Sci. Bull. 47: 978, 982 (designation of neotype, from “Vera Cruz, V. C., Mex.”). Nectarinia mellifica; de Saussure, 1854, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2: 226 (key), 233; 1858, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2.: pl. XXX bis. - Smith, 1857, Cat. Hym. Br. Mus. 5: 137. Nectarina mellifica; Ducke, 1904, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, Pará 4: 318 (ecology). Nectarina mellifera Dalla Torre, 1904, Gen. Insect. 19: 86. Invalid emendation. Caba mellifica; Barber, 1905, Proc. Entomol. Soc. Wash. 7: 25 (in subgenus Nectarina). Chartergus aztecus Cameron, 1906, Invert. Pacif. 1: 154, female - “Mexico” (London, Zürich); 1907, Invert. Pacif. 1: 181 (compared to arizonaensis n. sp.), 182 (key) [secondary junior homonym of Nectarinia azteca de Saussure, 1857]. - Meade-Waldo, 1911, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (8) 7: 112 (transferred to Nectarina). - Carpenter, 1999, Am. Mus. Novitat. 3259: 7 (notes on types). Chartergus arizonaensis Cameron, 1907, Invert. Pacif. 1: 181 (also spelled arizonensis [!]), 182 (key), female - [U. S. A.] “Nogales, Arizona” (London). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 166 (arizonensis [!]). Chartergus centralis Cameron, 1907, Invert. Pacif. 1: 181, 182 (key), female - “Chinandega, Nicaragua, and Champerico, Guatemala” (London). Nectarina cameroni Meade-Waldo, 1911, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (8) 7: 112. Replacement name for Chartergus aztecus Cameron, 1906. Nectarina lecheguana; Schwarz, 1929, Nat. Hist. 29: 421-426, 5 figs. (nest, honey production). Brachygastra mellifica; Naumann, 1968, Univ. Kans. Sci. Bull. 47: 939 (key), 978, figs. 22-24 (syns.: C. arizonaensis Cameron, C. centralis Cameron, N. cameroni Meade-Waldo; female, male, nest; ethology; Belize; Costa Rica; El Salvador; Guatemala; Honduras; Mexico; U. S. A.). - Windsor, 1976, Biotropica 8: 112 (Costa Rica). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 163 (key), 166. - Rodriguez-Palafox, 1988, Fol. Entomol. Mex. 77: 501 (key), 504, fig. 2.4. - Sugden and Mcallen, 1994, J. Kans. Entomol. Soc. 67 (2): 141-155 (ethology). - West-Eberhard et al., 1995, Hym. Costa Rica: 585. - Rodríguez-Palafox, 1996, in Llorente-Bousquets et al., Biodiv. Taxon. Biogeogr. Artrópod. México: 482 (list). Distr.: U. S. A.: AZ, TX; Mexico: Baja California, Campeche, Chiapas, Colima, Guanajuato, Guerrero, Hidalgo, Jalisco, México; Michoacán, Morelos, Nuevo León, Oaxaca, Puebla, San Luis Potosí, Sinaloa, Sonora, Tabasco, Tamaulipas, Veracruz, Yucatán; Belize; Guatemala; El Salvador; Honduras; Nicaragua; Costa Rica. moebiana (de Saussure) Nectarinia möbiana de Saussure, 1867, Reise Novara, Zool. 2 (2), Hym.: 22, female - “Surinam” (? Wien). - Dalla Torre, 1904, Gen. Ins. 19: 86 (Nectarina Moebiana; cat.). - Ducke, 1905, Rev. Entomol., Caen 24: 12 (compared to Nectarinia buyssoni n. sp.). - Bequaert, 1944, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 94: 273 (syn. of B. bilineolata, typical form). - Naumann, 1968, Univ. Kans. Sci. Bull. 47: 963 (syn. of B. bilineolata Spinola). Nectarinia bilineolata; Fox, 1898, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad.: 459 (Brazil: Mato Grosso). - Carpenter and van der Vecht, 1991, Ann. Carnegie Mus. 60 (3): 222 (note on material seen by Fox). Misidentification. Caba moebiana; R. von Ihering, 1904, Rev. Mus. Paul. 6: 106. Nectarina bilineolata var. Mobiana; du Buysson, 1905, Ann. Soc. Entomol. France 74: 547 (key), 552 (Brazil; Suriname). - Ducke, 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 480 (Brazil). Nectarina bilineolata moebiana; Ducke, 1918, Rev. Mus. Paul. 10: 327. Brachygastra moebiana; Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 164 (key), 175. - Almeida and Castro, 1991, Acta Biol. Par., Curitiba 20: 48 (coll. list). - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 359 (Colombia: Meta; list). Distr.: Colombia: Meta; Venezuela: Amazonas*; Suriname; French Guiana; Ecuador: Napo; Peru: Junín, Loreto; Brazil: D. F., Goiás, Mato Grosso, Rio de Janeiro, Rondônia, São Paulo; Bolivia: Pando. mouleae Richards Brachygastra mouleae Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 164 (key), 170, female - “BRAZIL: São Paulo, Rio Claro, Fazenda Jussura” (São Paulo). Distr.: Brazil: São Paulo. myersi Bequaert Brachygastra scutellaris var. (or subsp.) myersi Bequaert, 1943 (1942), J. New York Entomol. Soc. 50: 306 (key), 308, female - “BRITISH GUIANA: Mt. Roraima” (Cambridge); also from Bolivia; 1944, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 94: 272. - Naumann, 1968, Univ. Kans. Sci. Bull. 47: 945 (syn. of B. scutellaris (Fabricius)). Brachygastra myersi; Richards and Richards, 1951, Trans. Entomol. Soc. London 102: 26. - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 164 (key), 168. - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 359 (list). Distr.: Colombia: Nariño; Guyana; French Guiana; Ecuador; Brazil: Rio de Janeiro; Bolivia: Beni, Pando. propodealis Bequaert Brachygastra bilineolata var. (or subsp.) propodealis Bequaert, 1943 (1942), J. New York Entomol. Soc. 50: 304 (key), 305, female - “PERU: Middle Rio Marañon” (Cambridge). Brachygastra propodealis; Naumann, 1968, Univ. Kans. Sci. Bull. 47: 938 (key), 973 (female; Bolivia; Brazil; Peru). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 164 (key), 178. - Almeida and Castro, 1991, Acta Biol. Par., Curitiba 20: 48 (coll. list). - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 359 (Colombia: Caquetá, Meta; list). Distr.: Colombia: Caquetá, Meta; Ecuador: Napo; Peru: Huánuco, Loreto, Pasco; Brazil: Rondônia; Bolivia: Beni, Cochabamba, La Paz. scutellaris (Fabricius) Vespa scutellaris Fabricius, 1804, Syst. Piez.: 265 - “America meridionali” (lectotype female Kobenhavn). - Latreille, 1824, Mém. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris 11: 316 (compared to Polistes lecheguana n. sp.). - Ducke, 1904, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, Pará 4: 326. Brachygastra scutellaris; Perty, 1833, Delect. Anim. Artic. Brasil. Coll.: 146. - Spinola, 1841, Ann. Soc. Entomol. France 10: 127 (French Guiana). - Bequaert, 1943 (1942), J. New York Entomol. Soc. 50: 306 (typical scutellaris; syn.: B. scutellata Spinola; Panama; Guyana; French Guiana; Bolivia; Brazil; Peru; Colombia); 1944, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 94: 271 (key), 272 (typical scutellaris). - Naumann, 1968, Univ. Kans. Sci. Bull. 47: 938 (key), 945, figs. 42-45 (syns.: B. scutellata Spinola, N. rufiventris de Saussure, N. scutellata var. gribodoi du Buysson, B. scutellaris var. myersi Bequaert, B. scutellaris var. annectens Bequaert, B. scutellaris var. colombiensis Bequaert; female, nest; ethology; Honduras; Costa Rica; Panama; Brazil; Guyana; Bolivia; Colombia; Ecuador; French Guiana; Peru; Surinam) [partim]. - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 164 (key), 166, fig. 78. - Overal, 1978, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.), Zool. 94: 9 (list). - Almeida and Castro, 1991, Acta Biol. Par., Curitiba 20: 48 (coll. list). - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 359 (list). - West-Eberhard et al., 1995, Hym. Costa Rica: 585 (Costa Rica). Brachygastra scutellata Spinola, 1851, preprint of Mem. R. Accad. Sci. Torino (2) 13: 58, female - “Brèsil” (Torino). Nectarinia rufiventris de Saussure, 1854, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2: 226, female - [Brazil:] “Le Para” (London). - Smith, 1857, Cat. Hym. Br. Mus. 5: 136. - Dalla Torre, 1904, Gen. Ins. 19: 86 (Nectarina; cat.). Nectarinia scutellata; de Saussure, 1854, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2.: 226 (key), 227. - Smith, 1857, Cat. Hym. Br. Mus. 5: 136. - Fox, 1898, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad.: 459 (Brazil: Mato Grosso). - Carpenter and van der Vecht, 1991, Ann. Carnegie Mus. 60 (3): 222 (note on material seen by Fox). Chartergus scutellaris; Möbius, 1856, Nester Gesell. Wespen: 23, 34 (key), pl. XV (nest; Brazil). Nectarina scutellata; Gribodo, 1892 (1891), Boll. Soc. Entomol. Ital. 23: 254 (var.; Peru). - Dalla Torre, 1904, Gen. Ins. 19: 86 (cat.). - Ducke, 1904, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, Pará 4: 322 (male, nest; Brazil). - du Buysson, 1905, Ann. Soc. Entomol. France 74: 546 (key), 547 (Brazil; French Guiana; Peru; Colombia). Nectarina scutellata var. rufiventris; Ducke, 1904, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, Pará 4: 322. - du Buysson, 1905, Ann. Soc. Entomol. France 74: 546 (key), 549 (French Guiana; Brazil: Pará, Piaui). Caba rufiventris; R. von Ihering, 1904, Rev. Mus. Paul. 6: 106, 108. Nectarina scutellata var. Gribodoi du Buysson, 1905, Ann. Soc. Entomol. France 74: 549, female - “Haut Amazone ... Pérou: Yquitos” (Budapest). Nectarina scutellaris; Ducke, 1905, Rev. Entomol., Caen 24: 11 (syns.: scutellata Spinola, rufiventris de Saussure; nest); 1905, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, Pará 4: 662 (Brazil), 663; 1906, Rev. Entomol., Caen 25: 6 (Nectarina; nest; Brazil); 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 478 (key), 479 (syn.: N. scutellata var. Gribodoi du Buysson; female, male, nest; Brazil). Brachygastra scutellaris var. (or subsp.) annectens Bequaert, 1943 (1942), J. New York Entomol. Soc. 50: 306 (key), 307, female - “COLOMBIA: Muzo, Dept. Boyacá, 900 m.” (Cambridge). Brachygastra scutellaris var. rufiventris; Bequaert, 1943 (1942), J. New York Entomol. Soc. 50: 306 (key), 307 (Brazil; Colombia; French Guiana); 1944, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 94: 272. Brachygastra scutellaris var. gribodoi; Bequaert, 1943 (1942), J. New York Entomol. Soc. 50: 306 (key), 307 (Peru; Colombia). Brachygastra scutellaris var. (or subsp.) colombiensis Bequaert, 1943 (1942), J. New York Entomol. Soc. 50: 306 (key), 308, female - “COLOMBIA: Restrepo, Int. del Meta, 500 m.” (Cambridge). Distr.: Honduras; Costa Rica; Panama; Colombia: Boyacá, Meta, Putumayo, Santander; Guyana; Suriname; French Guiana; Ecuador: Napo; Peru: Cuzco, Huánuco, Junín, Loreto, Pasco; Brazil: Acre, Amapá, Amazonas, Maranhão, Mato Grosso, Pará, Pernambuco, Piaui, Rio de Janeiro, Rondônia; Bolivia: Beni, Cochabamba. smithii (de Saussure) Nectarinia smithii de Saussure, 1854, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2: 226 (key), 229, pl. XXXI fig. 8, female - “Le Brésil. Santarem” (neotype female Cambridge). - Smith, 1857, Cat. Hym. Br. Mus. 5: 136, pl. 5 fig. 2. - - Naumann, 1968, Univ.Kans. Sci. Bull. 47: 971 (designation of neotype, from “Carveiro, Rio Negro-Rio Branco, Amazonas”). Nectarina Smithi [!]; Dalla Torre, 1904, Gen. Ins. 19: 86, pl. 6 fig. 7 (cat.). - Ducke, 1904, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, Pará 4: 322, pl. 1 fig. 1 (smithii; nest; Brazil); 1905, Rev. Entomol., Caen 24: 11 (Smithi [!]; nest); 1905, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, Pará 4: 662 (Nectarina smithi [!]; Brazil). - du Buysson, 1905, Ann. Soc. Entomol. France 74: 546 (key), 550, pl. 12 figs. 12, 14-15, pl. 13 fig. 1 (Smithi [!]; French Guiana; Suriname; Peru; Brazil). Caba smithi [!]; R. von Ihering, 1904, Rev. Mus. Paul. 6: 106. Nectarina bilineolata var. smithi[!]; Ducke, 1907, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, Pará 5: 156, 157; 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 480, fig. 4 (syn.: bilineolata var. fasciata R. von Ihering; Brazil). - Dover, 1925 (1924), Psyche 31: 307 [partim]. Nectarina bilineolata smithii; Ducke, 1918, Rev. Mus. Paul. 10: 327. Brachygastra bilineolata var. smithii; Bequaert, 1943 (1942), J. New York Entomol. Soc. 50: 304 (key), 305 (syn.: Caba bilineolata var. fasciata R. von Ihering; Colombia; French Guiana; Brazil); 1944, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 94: 273. Brachygastra smithii; Naumann, 1968, Univ. Kans. Sci. Bull. 47: 938 (key), 968, figs. 46-49, 57-58, 60, 62-64, 67 (female, male, nest; Costa Rica; Guatemala; Honduras; Mexico; Panama; Bolivia; Brazil; Colombia; French Guiana; Peru; Suriname). - Windsor, 1976, Biotropica 8: 112 (Costa Rica). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 164-165 (key), 174. - Starr, 1988, Biotropica 20: 171 (nesting associations). - Raw, 1989, Maracá Rainfor. Proj., Invert. Limnol., Prelim. Rep.: 35 (nest; Brazil), 36 (distr.); 1989, Maracá Rainfor. Proj., Invert. Limnol., Prelim. Rep.: 41, 42 (habitat preference). - Almeida and Castro, 1991, Acta Biol. Par., Curitiba 20: 48 (coll. list). - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 359 (list). - West-Eberhard et al., 1995, Hym. Costa Rica: 585 (Costa Rica). - Rodríguez-Palafox, 1996, in Llorente-Bousquets et al., Biodiv. Taxon. Biogeogr. Artrópod. México: 482 (list). Distr.: Mexico: Chiapas; Guatemala; El Salvador*; Honduras; Costa Rica; Panama; Colombia: Boyacá, Cundinamarca, Magdalena, Santander; Venezuela: Zulia*; Suriname; French Guiana; Ecuador: Napo; Peru: Loreto; Brazil: Acre, Amazonas, Mato Grosso, Pará, Roraima, São Paulo; Bolivia: Beni. Genus Chartergellus Bequaert Chartergellus Bequaert, 1938, Rev. Entomol., Rio de Janeiro 9: 106, subgenus of Chartergus sensu Bequaert [= Parachartergus von Ihering, 1904]. Type species: Vespa frontalis Fabricius, 1804 [= Chartergellus amazonicus Richards, 1978, replacement name for Vespa frontalis Fabricius, 1804, non Latreille, 1802], by original designation and monotypy. afoveatus Cooper Chartergellus afoveatus Cooper, 1993, Entomol. Mon. Mag. 129: 165, female, male - “BOLIVIA: Beni, Rurrenabaque. 270 m” (holotype female London); also from Pando. Distr.: Bolivia: Beni, Pando. amazonicus Richards Vespa frontalis Fabricius, 1804, Syst. Piez.: 265 - “America meridionali” (Kobenhavn) [junior primary homonym of Vespa frontalis Latreille, 1802]. - Ducke, 1904, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, Pará 4: 326. Chartergus ater de Saussure, 1854, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2: 217 (key), 222 - “Le Brésil” (? Torino) [junior primary homonym of Chartergus ater Lepeletier, 1836]. - Ducke, 1904, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, Pará 4: 323, 328 (key), 332 (redescription; Brazil). Chartergus frontalis; Möbius, 1856, Abhand. Naturw. Vereins Hamburg 3: 143; 1856, Nester Gesell. Wespen: 23, 35 (key), pl. XIV (nest; Venezuela: Puerto Cabello). - Dalla Torre, 1904, Gen. Ins. 19: 85 (cat.). - Bequaert, 1938, Rev. Entomol., Rio de Janeiro 9: 111 (syn.: Chartergus ater de Saussure; in subgenus Chartergellus; Brazil: Goyaz) [partim]. Parachartergus ater; Ducke, 1905, Rev. Entomol., Caen 24: 13. Pseudochartergus [!] frontalis; Ducke, 1907, Zeitschr. Hymenopterol. Dipterol. 2: 141. Parachartergus frontalis; Ducke, 1907, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, Pará 5: 157, 160 (Brazil; Peru); 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 528 (key), 533 (typical form; syns.: C. ater de Saussure, C. zonatus Spinola; female, nest; Venezuela; Brazil). - Bequaert, 1944, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 94: 302 (key), 303; 1949 (1948), Bol. Entomol. Venez. 7: 135 (list). Chartergellus amazonicus Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 217, 218 (key), 220 [replacement name for Vespa frontalis Fabricius]. - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 360 (Colombia: Amazonas, Caquetá, Meta, Putumayo; list). ? Chartergellus frontalis; Overal, 1978, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.), Zool. 94: 9 (list). Distr.: Colombia: Amazonas, Caquetá, Meta, Putumayo; Venezuela: Carabobo; Suriname; French Guiana*; Ecuador: Napo; Peru: Loreto; Brazil: Amazonas. atectus Richards Chartergellus atectus Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 218 (key), 220, fig. 89, female, male - “COLOMBIA: Valle, Anchicayá” (holotype female London); also from Panama; Costa Rica; French Guiana. - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 360 (list). - West-Eberhard et al., 1995, Hym. Costa Rica: 586 (Costa Rica). Distr.: Costa Rica; Panama; Colombia: Valle; French Guiana; Brazil. communis Richards Chartergus ater; Fox, 1898, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad.: 457 (Brazil: Amazonas, Mato Grosso). Chartergus frontalis; Bequaert, 1938, Rev. Entomol., Rio de Janeiro 9: 111 (Brazil: Goiás) [partim]. Chartergellus communis Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 218, fig. 88, female, male - “BRAZIL: MT, base camp, 12°50'S, 51°47'W” (holotype female Rio de Janeiro); also from two other localities in Mato Grosso, and Goiás, Minas Gerais, Maranhão. - Carpenter and van der Vecht, 1991, Ann. Carnegie Mus. 60 (3): 220 (note on material seen by Fox and Bequaert). - Almeida and Castro, 1991, Acta Biol. Par., Curitiba 20: 43 (note on type material; Brazil: Espírito Santo). - Garcete-Barrett, 2002 (2001), Bol. Mus. Nac. Hist. Nat. Parag. 13: 47 (Paraguay). Distr.: Brazil: Amazonas, D. F., Espírito Santo, Goiás, Maranhão, Mato Grosso, Minas Gerais, Pará; Paraguay: Concepción. nigerrimus Richards Chartergellus nigerrimus Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 217 (key), 222, female - “BRAZIL: Acre, Cruzeiro do Sul, Treize de Maio” (London); also from Peru; Ecuador; Colombia. - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 360 (list). Distr.: Colombia: Valle; Ecuador: Napo; Peru; Brazil: Acre. punctatior Richards Chartergellus punctatior Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 218 (key), 221, fig. 90, female, male - “PERU: ? Loreto, Rio Huallaga, Puente Cayumba, 800 m” (holotype female London); also from Pasco, Huánuco; Brazil; French Guiana; Suriname. - Almeida and Castro, 1991, Acta Biol. Par., Curitiba 20: 44 (note on type material). - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 360 (Colombia: Meta, Nariño, Putumayo, Valle; list). - Carpenter and Mateus, 2004, Rev. Bras. Entomol. 48 (3): fig. 3 (male genitalia). Distr.: Colombia: Meta, Nariño, Putumayo, Valle; Suriname; French Guiana; Ecuador: Napo; Peru: Huánuco, Loreto, Pasco; Brazil: Pará. sanctus Richards Chartergellus sanctus Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 217 (key), 223, female - “BRAZIL: Espírito Santo, Santa Teresa” (Curitiba). - Almeida and Castro, 1991, Acta Biol. Par., Curitiba 20: 44 (note on type material). Distr.: Brazil: Espírito Santo. zonatus (Spinola) Chartergus zonatus Spinola, 1851, preprint of Mem. R. Accad. Sci. Torino (2) 13: 57, female - [Brazil:] “Para” (Torino). - de Saussure, 1854, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2.: 217 (key), 222. - Dalla Torre, 1904, Gen. Ins. 19: 85 (cat.). - Ducke, 1904, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, Pará 4: 325. Parachartergus frontalis var. zonatus; Ducke, 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 533 (Peru). Chartergellus zonatus; Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 218 (unrecognized species). - Almeida and Castro, 1991, Acta Biol. Par., Curitiba 20: 48 (coll. list). Distr.: Peru: Loreto; Brazil: Pará. Genus Charterginus Fox Charterginus Fox, 1898, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad.: 458, genus. Type species: Charterginus fulvus Fox, 1898, by original designation. Hypochartergus Zavattari, 1906, Boll. Musei Zool. Anat. Comp. R. Univ. Torino 21 (529): 6, genus. Type species: Hypochartergus carinatus Zavattari, 1906, by monotypy. carinatus (Zavattari) Hypochartergus carinatus Zavattari, 1906, Boll. Mus. Zool. Anat. Comp. R. Univ. Torino 21 (529): 7, figs. 1-5, female - [Panama:] “una foresta presso le sponde del Rio Cianati” (Torino). Charterginus carinatus; Ducke, 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 467 (female; key; Panama). - Bequaert, 1938, Rev. Entomol., Rio de Janeiro 9: 102. - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 128 (key), 129. - Schremmer, 1978, Entomol. General. 5 (1): 17-23, figs. 1-5 (nest; Colombia: Sucre). - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 358 (list). Distr.: Panama; Colombia: Sucre. fulvus Fox Charterginus fulvus Fox, 1898, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad.: 458, 459, female - “Brazil ... Santarem” (Pittsburgh); also from Mararú. - Dalla Torre, 1904, Gen. Ins. 19: 85 (cat.). - Ducke, 1905, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, Pará 4: 669, pl. II fig. 7a-b (nest); 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 467 (key; Brazil; Peru). - Bequaert, 1938, Rev. Entomol., Rio de Janeiro 9: 103 (Brazil: Pará; Peru. - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 128 (key), 131, fig. 67. - Overal, 1978, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.), Zool. 94: 9 (list). - Carpenter and van der Vecht, 1991, Ann. Carnegie Mus. 60 (3): 221 (designation of lectotype).- Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 358 (list). - Kojima and Carpenter, 1998, Entomol. Sci. 1: 420, figs. 18-19 (morphology). Polybia fulva; Ducke, 1904, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, Pará 4: 340, pl. 1 fig. 3 (in subgenus Charterginus; male, nest; Brazil). Distr.: Colombia: Amazonas, Caquetá, Putumayo; Ecuador: Napo; Peru: Apurimac, Cuzco, Huánuco, Loreto, Madre de Dios; Brazil: Amazonas, Maranhão, Mato Grosso, Pará; Bolivia: Beni, Cochabamba. nevermanni Bequaert Charterginus nevermanni Bequaert, 1938, Rev. Entomol., Rio de Janeiro 9: 99, fig.1, pl. 3, female, nest (in subgenus Hypochartergus) - “COSTA RICA: 20 kilom. North of Siquirres and about 12 kilom. from the Atlantic Ocean” (Eberswalde); also from Suretka; and Honduras; Panama. - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 128 (key), 129. - West-Eberhard et al., 1995, Hym. Costa Rica: 586 (Costa Rica). - Kojima and Carpenter, 1998, Entomol. Sci. 1: 420, figs. 20-21 (morphology). Distr.: Honduras; Costa Rica; Panama. weyrauchi Richards Charterginus weyrauchi Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 128, female - “PERU: Huanco [Huánuco], Cordillera Azul, Fazenda Sinchono, 1300 m” (London). - Kojima and Carpenter, 1998, Entomol. Sci. 1: 420, figs. 16-17 (morphology). Distr.: Peru: Huánuco. xanthurus (de Saussure) Icaria xanthura de Saussure, 1854, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2: 236, female - “Madagascar” [error] (London); 1890, in Grandidier, Hist. Madagascar 20, Hym. 1: 113, 125 (female). - Dalla Torre, 1894, Cat. Hym. 9: 121 (cat.); 1904, Genera Insect. 19: 75 (cat.). - Kojima and Carpenter, 1998, Entomol. Sci. 1: 417-420 (rediscription of type). Icaria aberrans Gribodo, 1892 (1891), Boll. Soc. Entomol. Ital. 23: 246, female - “India” [error] (Genova). - Kojima and Carpenter, 1998, Entomol. Sci. 1: 417 (syn. of C. xanthura (de Saussure)). Polybia huberi Ducke, 1904, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, Pará 4: 341, female, nest (in subgenus Charterginus) - [Brazil:] “Oyapoc” (lectotype London). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 131 (designation of lectotype; syn. of C. aberrans(Gribodo)). - Nascimento and Overal, 1979, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.) 95: 10 (list). - Carpenter, 1999, Am. Mus. Novitat. 3259: 8 (notes on types). Charterginus huberi; Ducke, 1905, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, Pará 4: 669, fig. 7, pl. II fig. 8a-b (nest); 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 467 (female, nest; key; Brazil; French Guiana). - Bequaert, 1938, Rev. Entomol., Rio de Janeiro9: 103; 1944, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 94: 264 (syn.: P. fulvicauda Cameron; list). - Overal, 1978, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.), Zool. 94: 9 (list). Polybia fulvicauda Cameron, 1912, Timehri (3) 2: 208 (key), 210, female - locality not stated [Guyana] (London). Charterginus aberrans; Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 128 (key), 131, fig. 66. Ropalidia xanthura; Richards, 1978, Austr. J. Zool., Suppl. Ser. 61: 57 (in subgenus Polistratus; list), 121 (key). Charterginus xanthura; Kojima and Carpenter, 1998, Entomol. Sci. 1: 417, figs. 2-12, 22-23 (syn.: I. abberrans Gribodo). Distr.: Guyana; Suriname; French Guiana; Brazil: Amapá. zavattarii Richards Charterginus zavattarii Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 128 (key), 129, fig. 65, female - “COLOMBIA: Nariño, Barbacoas, 50 m” (London); also from Valle. - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 358 (list). - Kojima and Carpenter, 1998, Entomol. Sci. 1: 420 (morphology). Distr.: Colombia: Nariño, Valle. Genus Chartergus Lepeletier Chartergus Lepeletier, 1836, Hist. Nat. Ins. Hym. 1: 542, genus (2 species). Type species: Vespa nidulans Fabricius, 1793 [= Vespa artifex surinamensis Christ, 1791], by subsequent designation of Blanchard, 1840, Hist. Nat. Anim. Artic. 3: 395. Chatergus Erichson, 1838, Arch. Naturgesch. 4 (2): 237; H. von Ihering, 1927, Gesch. Atlant. Ozeans: 180. Incorrect spelling of Chartergus Lepeletier. Chartoteuchium Börner, 1919, Biol. Zbl. 39: 186, genus. Nomen nudum. Chartegus Bequaert, 1949 (1948), Bol. Entomol. Venezolana 7: 131. Incorrect spelling of Chartergus Lepeletier. Chartoteuchium Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 132; reference to Chartoteuchium Börner. Type species: Vespa chartaria Olivier, 1792 [= Vespa artifex surinamensis Christ, 1791], by original designation. artifex (Christ) Vespa artifex surinamensis Christ, 1791, Naturgesch. Ins.: 226, pl. 20 - “Surinam” (type lost). Vespa chartaria Olivier, 1792, Encyc. Méthod. 6 (2): 687 - “de Cayenne & de Surinam” (type lost). - Bequaert, 1938, Rev. Entomol., Rio de Janeiro 9: 114 (syn.: Vespa nidulans Fabricius; designated as type of Epipona). Vespa nidulans Fabricius, 1793, Entomol. Syst. 2: 271 - [French Guiana] “Cajennae” (? Paris). - Coquebert, 1799, Illus. Icon. Ins.: 24, pl. VI fig. 3A. - Latreille, 1829, Crust. Arach. Ins. 2: 339. - Carpenter, 1999, Am. Mus. Novitat. 3259: 8 (note on type). Epipona nidulans; Latreille, 1802, Hist. Nat. Crust. Ins. 3: 365; 1809, Gen. Crust. Ins. 4: pl. XIV fig. 6; 1824, Mém. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris 11: 316 (compared to Polistes lecheguana n. sp.). - Curtis, 1844, Trans. Linn. Soc. London 19: 258 (Epipone [!]; syn.: E. chartaria “Lat.”). Vespa chartifex Vallot, 1802, Concord. Syst.: 171 - [French Guiana] “Cayenne” (type lost). Epipona chartaria; Latreille, 1804, Hist. Nat. Crust. Ins. 13: 102, pl. XIV figs. 6-7; 1805, Hist. Nat. Crust. Ins. 13: 349, pl. CII figs. 6-7 (Epipone [!]). - Bequaert, 1938, Rev. Entomol., Rio de Janeiro 9: 114 (syns.: V. nidulansFabricius, V. artifex surinamensis Christ, V. chartifex Vallot, C. tuberculatus Cameron; Guyana; Brazil; Bolivia). Polistes nidulans; Lepeletier and Serville, 1825, Encyc. Méthod. 10: 172. - Guérin, 1844, Icon. Règne Anim. Ins., Atlas: pl. 72, fig. 7. Chartergus nidulans; Lepeletier, 1836, Hist. Nat. Ins. Hym. 1: 546.- White, 1841, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. 7: 315. Chartergus chartarius; de Saussure, 1854, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2.: 217 (key), 220 (syns.: V. artifex surinamensis Christ, V. chartifex Vallot, V. nidulans Fabricius). - Möbius, 1856, Nester Gesell. Wespen: 34 (key), pl. XIII fig. 6. - Fox, 1898, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad.: 457 (Brazil: Amazonas, Mato Grosso). - Dalla Torre, 1904, Gen. Ins. 19: 85 (cat.). - Ducke, 1904, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, Pará 4: 324, 328 (key), 334 (Brazil). - Cameron, 1906, Invert. Pacif. 1: 156 (compared to tuberculatus n. sp.). - Ducke, 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 484 (syns.: V. artifex surinamensis Christ, V. nidulans Fabricius, V. chartifex Vallot, C. globiventris de Saussure, C. tuberculatus Cameron; female, male; French Guiana; Brazil). - Cameron, 1912, Timehri (3) 2: 219 (Guyana). - Bequaert, 1944, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 94: 274 (list); 1949 (1948), Bol. Entomol. Venez. 7: 131 (Chartegus [!]; Venezuela). - Machado and Hebling, 1972, in C. da Cruz-Landim et al., Homenagem à Warwick E. Kerr: 199-204 (caste polymorphism). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 132 (key), 134, fig. 68. - Overal, 1978, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.), Zool. 94: 9 (list). - Raw, 1989, Maracá Rainfor. Proj., Invert. Limnol., Prelim. Rep.: 35 (Brazil), 36 (Chatergus [!]; distr.); 1989, Maracá Rainfor. Proj., Invert. Limnol., Prelim. Rep.: 41 (habitat preference). - Carpenter and van der Vecht, 1991, Ann. Carnegie Mus. 60 (3): 221 (note on material seen by Fox). - Almeida and Castro, 1991, Acta Biol. Par., Curitiba 20: 47 (coll. list). - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 358 (list). - Garcete-Barrett, 1999, Avispas Soc. Parag.: 30, fig. - Cooper, 2000, Entomol. Mon. Mag. 136: 196 (nest association with Azteca; Agelaia pallidiventris; Polybia rejecta, P. singularis, Synoeca virginea, and Icteridae). Chartergus tuberculatus Cameron, 1906, Invert. Pacif. 1: 155, male - “Rio Branco, Obidos, Brazil” (London). Chartergus artifex; Carpenter, 1999, Am. Mus. Novitat. 3259: 1, 8. Distr.: Colombia: Meta, Putumayo, Vaupés; Venezuela: Monagas; Guyana; Suriname; French Guiana; Ecuador: Napo, Pastaza*; Peru: Loreto; Brazil: Acre, Amazonas, Goiás, Mato Grosso, Pará, Rondônia, Roraima, Santa Catarina*; Bolivia: Beni; Paraguay. globiventris de Saussure Chartergus globiventris de Saussure, 1854, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2: 217 (key), 221, pl. XXXI fig. 3, female - “Le Brésil” (London). - Gribodo, 1892 (1891), Boll. Soc. Entomol. Ital. 23: 258 (? var. of chartarius). - Fox, 1898, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad.: 457 (male; Brazil). - Dalla Torre, 1904, Gen. Ins. 19: 85 (cat.). - Ducke, 1904, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, Pará 4: 324, 328 (key), 334, pl. 2 fig. 7 (Brazil). - Cameron, 1906, Invert. Pacif. 1: 156 (compared to tuberculatus n. sp.). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 132 (key), 134, fig. 69. - Carpenter and van der Vecht, 1991, Ann. Carnegie Mus. 60 (3): 221 (note on material seen by Fox). - Almeida and Castro, 1991, Acta Biol. Par., Curitiba 20: 47 (coll. list). - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 358 (list). - Garcete-Barrett, 1999, Avispas Soc. Parag.: 30, fig. Chartergus chartarius var. globiventris; Ducke, 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 484, fig. 5. Epipona globiventris; Bequaert, 1938, Rev. Entomol., Rio de Janeiro 9: 115 (Brazil). Distr.: Colombia: Putumayo; French Guiana; Ecuador: Napo; Brazil: Amazonas, Goiás, Maranhão; Mato Grosso, Minas Gerais, Pará. metanotalis Richards Chartergus metanotalis Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 132 (key), 135, fig. 70, female, male - “BRAZIL: MT, base camp, 12°50'S, 51°47'W” (holotype female Rio de Janeiro); also from elsewhere in Mato Grosso, Goiás, Acre, Pará; and Ecuador. - Almeida and Castro, 1991, Acta Biol. Par., Curitiba 20: 43 (note on type material). - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 359 (Colombia: Amazonas; list). - Garcete-Barrett, 1999, Avispas Soc. Parag.: 30, fig. Distr.: Colombia: Amazonas; Ecuador: Napo; Brazil: Acre, Amazonas, Goiás, Mato Grosso, Pará. Genus Clypearia de Saussure Clypearia de Saussure, 1854, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2: 165, subgenus of Polybia Lepeletier. Type species: Polistes apicipennis Spinola, 1851, by monotypy. Occipitalia Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: v, 11, 198, genus. Type species: Polybia sulcata de Saussure, 1854, by original designation. Occiitalia Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 16. Incorrect spelling of Occipitalia Richards. angustior Ducke Clypearia angustior Ducke, 1906, Rev. Entomol., Caen 25: 6, female - “dans un wagon du chemin de fer central du Brésil, á la station de Cedofeita, dans une région assez chaude de l'Etat de Minas Geraes” (Paris); 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 484 (key), 485 (female; Brazil). - Araujo, 1951, Arq. Mus. Nac., Rio de Janeiro 42: 50, figs. 1-8 (male; nest). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 193 (key), 194, fig. 82. - Nascimento and Overal, 1979, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.) 95: 9 (list). - Almeida and Castro, 1991, Acta Biol. Par., Curitiba 20: 48 (coll. list). - Carpenter et al., 1996, J. Hym. Res. 5: 159, 162-163. Distr.: Brazil: Minas Gerais, Pará, Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo. apicipennis (Spinola) Polistes apicipennis Spinola, 1851, preprint of Mem. R. Accad. Sci. Torino (2) 13: 59, female - [Brazil:] “Para” (Torino). Polybia apicipennis; de Saussure, 1854, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2.: 166, pl. XVIII fig. 6 (in subgenus Clypearia). - Dalla Torre, 1904, Gen. Ins. 19: 76 (cat.). - Ducke, 1904, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, Pará 4: 341, pl. 1 fig. 4 (nest; Brazil); Clypearia apicipennis; Ducke, 1905, Rev. Entomol., Caen 24: 16; 1905, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, Pará 4: 669. - Cameron, 1907, Invert. Pacif. 1: 184 (compared to Polybia (Clypearia) fulvotincta n. sp.). - Ducke, 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 484 (key), 485, fig. 6 (female; Brazil). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 193, fig. 6. - Overal, 1978, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.), Zool. 94: 9 (list). - Jeanne, 1980, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.), Zool. 101 (ethology). - Jeanne et al., 1983, Zoomorphol. 103 (sternal glands). - Carpenter et al., 1996, J. Hym. Res. 5: 159, 160, 162 (male genitalia; nest). Distr.: Peru: Loreto; Brazil: Pará. duckei Richards Clypearia duckei Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 193 (key), 196, female, male - “BRAZIL: AC, Cruzeiro do Sul” (holotype female London); also from Amazonas, Pará; and Ecuador. - Carpenter et al., 1996, J. Hym. Res. 5: 159, 161, 162-163, fig. 2 (male genitalia; larva; nest; ethology). Distr.: Ecuador: Napo; Brazil: Acre, Amazonas, Pará. humeralis Richards Clypearia humeralis Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 192 (key), 195, female - “BRAZIL: Mato Grosso ... 12°50'S, 51°47'W” (London). Distr.: Brazil: Mato Grosso. naumanni Richards Clypearia naumanni Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 193 (key), 197, female - “PANAMA: Csnsl [Canal] zone, Barro Colorado Is.” (London).- Snelling, 1983, Pan-Pacif. Entomol. 59: 275 (Costa Rica; Mexico). - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 359 (Colombia; list). - West-Eberhard et al., 1995, Hym. Costa Rica: 586 (Costa Rica). - Carpenter et al., 1996, J. Hym. Res. 5: 159, 160 (male genitalia). - Rodríguez-Palafox, 1996, in Llorente-Bousquets et al., Biodiv. Taxon. Biogeogr. Artrópod. México: 482 (list). Distr.: Mexico: Veracruz; Costa Rica; Panama; Colombia: Magdalena, Meta. nigrior Richards Clypearia nigrior Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 193 (key), 195, female - “BRAZIL: Acre, Cruzeiro do Sul” (Curitiba). - Almeida and Castro, 1991, Acta Biol. Par., Curitiba 20: 43 (note on type material). Distr.: Brazil: Acre. sulcata (de Saussure) Polybia sulcata de Saussure, 1854, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2: 175, pl. XXII fig. 4, female (in division Iota) - “Le Brésil” (London). - Dalla Torre, 1904, Gen. Ins. 19: 78 (cat.). - Ducke, 1904, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, Pará 4: 345 (key), 350 (Brazil). - Zavattari, 1906, Boll. Mus. Zool. Anat. Comp. Torino 21 (529): 16 (compared to P. aequatorialis n. sp.). - Ducke, 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 491 (key), 510 (female; Brazil). - Hamilton, 1972, Annu. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 3: 225 (ethology). Clypearia sp.; Evans and West-Eberhard, 1970, Wasps: fig. 92 (nest). Occipitalia sulcata; Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 198 (key), 199. - Overal, 1978, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.), Zool. 94: 10 (list). - Raw, 1985, Rev. Bras. Entomol. 29: 185, figs. 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 1314, 16. - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 359 (Colombia; list). - O'Donnell, 1995, Biotropica 27: 136 (morphology). Clypearia sulcata; Carpenter et al., 1996, J. Hym. Res. 5: 157-164, fig. 1 (male genitalia; larva; nest; phylogeny; ethology; Peru). Distr.: Colombia: Putumayo; Venezuela; Guyana; Ecuador: Napo; Peru: Loreto; Brazil: Acre, Amazonas, Pará, Rondônia. weyrauchi Richards Clypearia weyrauchi Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 192 (key), 196, fig. 83, female - “PERU: Huánuco, Rio Huallaga, Tingo Maria, 700 m (Cambridge); also from Loreto; Ecuador; Bolivia; Colombia. - Jeanne, 1979, J. New YorkEntomol. Soc. 87: 78-84 (nest). - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 359 (list). - O'Donnell, 1995, Biotropica 27: 136 (morphology). - Carpenter et al., 1996, J. Hym. Res. 5: 162-163 (nest). Distr.: Colombia: Putumayo; Ecuador: Napo; Peru: Huánuco, Loreto; Brazil: Pará; Bolivia: Cochabamba. Genus Epipona Latreille Epipona Latreille, 1802, Hist. Nat. Crust. Ins. 3: 364, genus (2 species). Type species: “Epipona morio = Polistes morio Fabricius = Epipone tatua Lepeletier” [= Vespa tatua Cuvier, 1797; Vespa morio Fabricius, 1798, is a junior subjective synonym], by subsequent designation of Blanchard, 1840, Hist. Nat. Anim. Artic. 3: 394. Epipone Latreille, 1805, Hist. Nat. Crust. Ins. 13: 349. Incorrect spelling of Epipona Latreille. Tatua de Saussure, 1854, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2: 213. Unnecessary replacement name for Epipona Latreille, 1802, incorrectly regarded as preoccupied by Latreille as a name for a section of the genus Odynerus Latreille. Coloboclypeus Brèthes, 1926, Nunquam Otiosus (2) 5: 12, genus. Type species: Coloboclypeus niger Brèthes, 1926, by monotypy. guerini (de Saussure) Tatua guerini de Saussure, 1854, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2: 215, female - “Le Mexique” (Berlin, Genève, Paris). - Dalla Torre, 1904, Gen. Ins. 19: 82 (cat.). - Bequaert, 1938, Rev. Entomol., Rio de Janeiro 9: 116 (Mexico; Honduras; Costa Rica) [partim]. - Carpenter, 1999, Am. Mus. Novitat. 3259: 8 (notes on types). Epipona guerini; ? Windsor, 1976, Biotropica 8: 112 (Costa Rica). - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 359 (list). - West-Eberhard et al., 1995, Hym. Costa Rica: 586 (Costa Rica). - Hunt et al., 1996, J. Kansas Entomol. Soc. 69(4): 362-369 (caste polymorphism). - Carpenter, 1999, Am. Mus. Novitat. 3259: 1, 8. - Cooper, 2002, Entomol. Mon. Mag. 138: 146 (key), figs. 3-4, 7. Epipona quadrituberculata; Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 159 (key), 162, fig. 77 [misidentification]. - Carpenter, 1999, Am. Mus. Novitat. 3259: 1, 8 (guerini sensu Richards a misidentification). Epipona niger; Rodríguez-Palafox, 1996, in Llorente-Bousquets et al., Biodiv. Taxon. Biogeogr. Artrópod. México: 482 (list). Distr.: Mexico: Tabasco, Veracruz; Costa Rica; Venezuela: D. F. media Cooper Epipona media Cooper, 2002, Entomol. Mon. Mag. 138: 143, 146 (key), female, male - “PERU: Loreto, Pucallpa” (holotype female London); also from elsewhere in Peru; Colombia; Ecuador; Brazil; Bolivia. Distr.: Colombia: Guaviare, Putumayo, Cauca; Ecuador: Napo, Morona-Santiago; Peru: Loreto, Huánuco, Madre de Dios; Brazil: Amazonas, Pará, Goias; Bolivia: Beni, Cochabamba, La Paz. niger (Brèthes) Coloboclypeus niger Brèthes, 1926, Nunquam Otiosus (2) 5: 13, female - [Colombia] “De Fusagasugá” (Buenos Aires). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 162 (syn. of Epipona guerini [misidentification]). - Carpenter, 1999, Am. Mus. Novitat. 3259: 9 (notes on type). Epipona guerini; Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 159 (key), 162, fig. 76 (syn.: Coloboclypeus niger). - O'Donnell, 1995, Biotropica 27: 136 (geurini [!]; morphology). Misidentification. ? Tatua tatua; Maes, 1988, Rev. Nicarag. Entomol. 5: 80, 83 (Nicaragua). Misidentification. Epipona niger; Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 359 (list). - West-Eberhard et al., 1995, Hym. Costa Rica: 586 (Costa Rica). - Carpenter, 1999, Am. Mus. Novitat. 3259: 1, 9. - Cooper, 2002, Entomol. Mon. Mag. 138: 146 (key), figs. 1-2, 6, 12-13. Distr.: Nicaragua; Costa Rica; Panama; Colombia: Arauca, Cauca, Cundinamarca, Huila, Nariño, Valle; Venezuela: D. F., Mérida, Zulia*; Ecuador: Esmereldas, Manabi, Pichincha; Peru: Huánuco. quadrituberculata (Gribodo) Tatua quadrituberculata Gribodo, 1892 (1891), Boll. Soc. Entomol. Ital. 23: 251, female - [Ecuador] “Sarajacu” (Genova). - Dalla Torre, 1904, Gen. Ins. 19: 82 (cat.). - Ducke, 1905, Rev. Entomol., Caen 24: 17 (“Sarayacu (Pérou amazonien)”); 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 489 (syn. of Tatua tatua (Cuvier)). - Carpenter, 1999, Am. Mus. Novitat. 3259: 9 (notes on type). Epipona quadrituberculata; Cooper, 2002, Entomol. Mon. Mag. 138: 145 (key), figs. 5, 11 (Colombia; Ecuador). Distr.: Ecuador: Pastaza, Orellana; Colombia: Putumayo. tatua (Cuvier) Vespa tatua Cuvier, 1797, Bull. Soc. Philomath. Paris 1: 57, fig. 1, female, nest - [French Guiana] “Cayenne” (? Paris). - White, 1841, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. 7: 316 (syn.: Polistes morio (Fabricius)). Vespa morio Fabricius, 1798, Suppl. Entomol. Syst.: 264 - [French Guiana] “Cajennae” (Kobenhavn). - Carpenter, 1999, Am. Mus. Novitat. 3259: 9. Epipona tatua; Latreille, 1802, Hist. Nat. Crust. Ins. 3: 365; 1805, Hist. Nat. Crust. Ins. 13: 350 (Epipone [!]); 1809, Gen. Crust. Ins. 4: 141. - Lepeletier, 1836, Hist. Nat. Ins. Hym. 1: 540. - Bequaert, 1944, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 94: 277 [partim]; 1949 (1948), Bol. Entomol. Venez. 7: 132 (Venezuela: Mérida). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 159, fig. 75. - Overal, 1978, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.), Zool. 94: 9 (list). - Raw, 1988, Entomologist 107: 104 (nest site), 106 (role in agriculture). - Almeida and Castro, 1991, Acta Biol. Par., Curitiba 20: 48 (coll. list). - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 359 (list). - Cooper, 2002, Entomol. Mon. Mag. 138: 146 (key). Polistes morio; Fabricius, 1804, Syst. Piez.: 279. - Lepeletier and Serville, 1825, Encyc. Méthod. 10: 172. - Latreille, 1829, Crust. Arach. Ins. 2: 339. Chartergus morio; Curtis, 1844, Trans. Linn. Soc. London 19: 258 (syn.: tatua Cuvier). Tatua morio; de Saussure, 1854, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2.: 214, pl. XXXI fig. 1, pl. XXXII. - Möbius, 1856, Nester Gesell. Wespen: 34 (key). - Fox, 1898, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad.: 457 (Brazil: Amazonas, Mato Grosso). - Ducke, 1904, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, Pará 4: 340 [Brazil:]. - Cameron, 1912, Timehri (3) 2: 219. - Carpenter and van der Vecht, 1991, Ann. Carnegie Mus. 60 (3): 220 (note on material seen by Fox). Tatua tatua; Dalla Torre, 1904, Gen. Ins. 19: 82, pl. 6 fig. 1 (cat.; syn.: morio Fabricius). - Ducke, 1905, Rev. Entomol., Caen 24: 13. - Zavattari, 1906, Boll. Mus. Zool. Anat. Comp. R. Univ. Torino 21 (529): 10 (Ecuador). - Ducke, 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 489 (syns.: T. quadrituberculata, Guerini de Saussure; female, male, nest; Mexico; Nicaragua; Belize; Brazil; French Guiana). - Bequaert, 1938, Rev. Entomol., Rio de Janeiro 9: 116 (Costa Rica; Panama; Colombia; Brazil; French Guiana; Trinidad; Peru) [partim]. Epipona morio; Theraulez and Bonabeau, 1995, J. Theor. Biol. 177: fig. 1d (nest). Distr.: Colombia: Meta, Putumayo, Vaupés; Venezuela: Mérida; Trinidad; Guyana; French Guiana; Ecuador: Napo; Peru: Cuzco, Huánuco, Loreto; Brazil: Acre, Amapá, Amazonas, D. F., Espírito Santo, Goiás, Mato Grosso, Pará, Rondônia, São Paulo; Bolivia: Beni, Santa Cruz*. Genus Leipomeles Möbius Leipomeles Möbius, 1856, Nester Gesell. Wespen: 25, genus. Type species: Leipomeles lamellaria Möbius, 1856 [= Polistes dorsata Fabricius, 1804], by monotypy. Lipomeles Schulz, 1906, Spolia Hym.: 232. Unjustified emendation of Leipomeles Möbius. Marimbonda Richards, 1978, Social Wasps Am.: v, 10, 201, genus. Type species: Marimbonda albogrisea Richards, 1978, by original designation. albogrisea (Richards) Marimbonda albogrisea Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 201 (key), 202, fig. 84, female, male - “BRAZIL: MT, base camp, 12°50'S, 51°47'W” (holotype female Rio de Janeiro). - Carpenter and Mateus, 2004, Rev. Bras. Entomol. 48 (3): fig. 5 (male genitalia). Distr.: Brazil: Mato Grosso. dorsata (Fabricius) Polistes dorsata Fabricius, 1804, Syst. Piez.: 281 - “America meridionali” (Kobenhavn). - Dalla Torre, 1904, Gen. Ins. 19: 71, species dubiae. Polybia dorsata; de Saussure, 1854, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2.: 212, species dubiae. - Ducke, 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 540, species dubiae. Leipomeles lamellaria Möbius, 1856, Nester Gesell. Wespen: 26, 35 (key), pl. XVII, female, nest - “Brasilien” (? Hamburg); 1856, Arch. Naturgesch. 22: 330 (key), fig. 8. - Ducke, 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 536, fig. 17 (syn.: P. nana de Saussure; female, male, nest; Suriname; Brazil; Peru; Ecuador). - Overal, 1978, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.), Zool. 94: 9 (list). Polybia nana de Saussure, 1863, Mém. Soc. Phys. Hist. Nat. Genève 17: 240, pl. 2 fig. 28, female (in division Alpha) - “Brésil” (Frankfurt). - Dalla Torre, 1904, Gen. Ins. 19: 78 (cat.). - Ducke, 1904, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, Pará 4: 349. - Carpenter, 1999, Am. Mus. Novitat. 3259: 1, 9 (notes on types; syn. of dorsata Fabricius). Lipomeles lamellaria; Dalla Torre, 1904, Gen. Ins. 19: 81, pl. 5 fig. 7 (cat.). Polybia lamellaria; Ducke, 1904, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, Pará 4: 348 (key), 357 (Brazil). Polybia sulciscutis Cameron, 1912, Timehri (3) 2: 208 (key), 215, female - locality not stated [Guyana] (lectotype London). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 214 (designation of lectotype). Lipomeles [!] dorsata; Schulz, 1912, Berlin. Entomol. Zeitschr. 57: 87 (syn.: lamellaria Möbius). Protopolybia sulciscutis; Bequaert, 1944, Rev. Entomol., Rio de Janeiro 15: 132 (unrecognized species); 1944, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 94: 270 (unrecognized). Leipomeles dorsata; Bequaert, 1944, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 94: 304. - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 214, fig. 87. - Schremmer, 1983, Zool. Anz. 211: 95-107 (nest); 1986, Öko-L 8 (nest). - Almeida and Castro, 1991, Acta Biol. Par., Curitiba 20: 48 (coll. list). - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 359 (list). - West-Eberhard et al., 1995, Hym. Costa Rica: 586 (Costa Rica). - Strassmann et al., 1996, Mol. Ecol. 5: 461(genetics). - Carpenter, 1999, Am. Mus. Novitat. 3259: 9 (syn.: Polybia nana de Saussure). - Carpenter and Mateus, 2004, Rev. Bras. Entomol. 48 (3): fig. 4 (male genitalia). Distr.: Costa Rica; Panama; Colombia: Amazonas, Meta, Nariño, Putumayo, Vaupés; Guyana; Suriname; French Guiana; Ecuador: Napo; Peru: Cuzco, Huánuco, Junín, Loreto, Madre de Dios; Brazil: Amapá, Amazonas, Bahia, Espírito Santo, Mato Grosso, Pará; Bolivia: Beni, Cochabamba, Pando. pusilla (Ducke) Chartergus pusillus Ducke, 1904, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, Pará 4: 325, 329 (key), 336, female - [Brazil:] “Belem do Pará” (lectotype Paris); also from Oyapoc. - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 202 (designation of lectotype). - Nascimento and Overal, 1979, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.) 95: 9 (list). - Carpenter, 1999, Am. Mus. Novitat. 3259: 10 (notes on types). Parachartergus pusillus; Ducke, 1905, Rev. Entomol., Caen 24: 15; 1905, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, Pará 4: 667; 1907, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, Pará 5: 159 (key); 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 528 (key), 530. Pseudopolybia pusilla; Ducke, 1914, Zool. Jahrb. (Syst.) 36: 319, 327; 1918, Rev. Mus. Paul. 10: 349. - Bequaert, 1938, Rev. Entomol., Rio de Janeiro 9: 113. Marimbonda pusilla; Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 201 (key), 202, fig. 84. - Overal, 1978, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.), Zool. 94: 9 (list). Distr.: Peru*: Huánuco; Brazil: Amapá, Pará. spilogastra (Cameron) Polybia spilogastra Cameron, 1912, Timehri (3) 2: 208 (key), 213, female - locality not stated [Guyana] (lectotype London). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 215 (syn. of L. nana [misidentification]). Pseudopolybia pusilla; Bequaert, 1944, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 94: 298 (key), 299. - Richards, 1951, in Richards and Richards, Trans. Entomol. Soc. London 102: 85. Misidentification. Leipomeles nana; Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 214 (key), 215 (syn.: Polybia spilogastra Cameron) [misidentification]. - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 359 (list). - Carpenter, 1999, Am. Mus. Novitat. 3259: 1, 9 (nana sensu Richards a misidentification). Leipomeles spilogastra; Carpenter, 1999, Am. Mus. Novitat. 3259: 1, 9. Distr.: Panama; Colombia: Nariño, Putumayo, Vaupés; Guyana; Suriname; French Guiana; Ecuador: Napo*; Peru: Huánuco, Junín, Loreto; Brazil: Amapá, Amazonas. Genus Metapolybia Ducke Metapolybia Ducke, 1905, Rev. Entomol., Caen 24: 7, 10, 17, genus. Type species: Polybia pediculata de Saussure, 1854 [= Eumenes cingulata Fabricius, 1804], by monotypy. acincta Richards Metapolybia acincta Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 184 (key), 185, female - “SURINAM: Republiek” (Leiden); also from Peru. - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 359 (Colombia: Putumayo; list). - Kojima and van Achterberg, 1997, Zool. Med., Leiden 71: 162 (list). - Carpenter, 1999, Am. Mus. Novitat. 3259: 10 (notes on types). Distr.: Colombia: Putumayo; Suriname; Peru: Huánuco, Loreto; Brazil: Pará, Rondônia. azteca Araujo Metapolybia azteca Araujo, 1945, Arq. Inst. Biol. São Paulo 16: 66 (key), 79, figs. 7-9, female - “Basse-Mistèque, État d'Oaxaca, Rio Mariscala ... México” (lectotype São Paulo). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 184 (key), 189 (designation of lectotype). - Rodriguez-Palafox, 1988, Fol. Entomol. Mex. 77: 500 (key), 504, fig. 3.2 (Mexico: Jalisco). - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 359 (Colombia: Chocó; list). - West-Eberhard et al., 1995, Hym. Costa Rica: 586 (Costa Rica). - Rodríguez-Palafox, 1996, in Llorente-Bousquets et al., Biodiv. Taxon. Biogeogr. Artrópod. México: 482 (list). - Smethurst and Carpenter, 1998 (1997), J. New York Entomol. Soc. 105: 183 (compared to mesoamerica n. sp.). - Carpenter, 1999, Am. Mus. Novitat. 3259: 10 (notes on types). Distr.: Mexico: Guerrero, Jalisco, Oaxaca, Veracruz; Costa Rica; Panama (?)*; Colombia: Chocó. aztecoides Richards Polybia pediculata; Fox, 1898, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad.: 449 [partim]. Metapolybia aztecoides West-Eberhard, 1975, Cespedesia 4 (16): 254. Nomen nudum. Metapolybia aztecoides Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 184 (key), 189, female, male - “COLOMBIA: Valle, Anchicayá” (holotype female London); also from Boyacá, Cauca, Nariño; Panama; Venezuela; Nicaragua; Ecuador; Peru. - Starr, 1988, Biotropica 20: 171 (nesting associations). - Carpenter and van der Vecht, 1991, Ann. Carnegie Mus. 60 (3): 216 (note on material seen by Fox). - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 359 (list). - West-Eberhard et al., 1995, Hym. Costa Rica: 586 (Costa Rica). - O'Donnell, 1995, Biotropica 27: 136 (morphology). - Rodríguez-Palafox, 1996, in Llorente-Bousquets et al., Biodiv. Taxon. Biogeogr. Artrópod. México: 482 (list). Distr.: Mexico: Veracruz; Nicaragua; Costa Rica; Panama; Colombia: Boyacá, Cauca, Magdalena, Meta, Nariño, Putumayo, Valle; Venezuela: Mérida, Zulia; Trinidad; Ecuador: Esmereldas, Napo, Pichincha, Zamora-Chinchipe; Peru: Junín; Brazil: Mato Grosso, Pará, São Paulo; Bolivia: La Paz. bromelicola Araujo Metapolybia bromelicola Araujo, 1945, Arq. Inst. Biol. São Paulo 16: 66 (key), 80, figs. 10-12, pl. 13 fig. B, pl. 14 fig. G, female, male - [Brazil:] “Itatiaia, Est. do Rio de Janeiro; alt. 700 m” (São Paulo). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 184 (key), 191 (“Holotype” male Inst. Biol., São Paulo). - Carpenter et al., 1996, J. Hym. Res. 5: 160 (male genitalia). Distr.: Brazil: Rio de Janeiro. cingulata (Fabricius) Eumenes cingulata Fabricius, 1804, Syst. Piez.: 287 - “America meridionali” (Kobenhavn). - Schulz, 1912, Berlin. Entomol. Zeitschr. 57: 88 (syn.: Metapolybia pediculata (de Saussure)). Polybia pediculata de Saussure, 1854, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2: 205, female (in division My) - “Le Brésil” (London); 1855, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2: pl. XXVI fig. 7. - Möbius, 1856, Nester Gesell. Wespen: 19, 35 (key), pl. XI (nest; Brazil); 1856, Arch. Naturgesch. 22: 330 (key), fig. 6. - Dalla Torre, 1904, Gen. Ins. 19: 78 (cat.). - Ducke, 1904, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, Pará 4: 341 (key) 349 (Brazil); 1908, Rev. Entomol., Caen 27: 86 (Brazil). - Cameron, 1912, Timehri (3) 2: 208 (key), 209 (pedunculata [!]; Guyana). Metapolybia pediculata; Ducke, 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 488 (syns.: P. suffusa Fox, T. decorata Gribodo; female, male, nest; Mexico; Brazil; Colombia). - Overal, 1978, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.), Zool. 94: 9 (list). Metapolybia cingulata; Bequaert, 1944, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 94: 276. - Araujo, 1945, Arq. Inst. Biol. São Paulo 16: 66 [partim]. - Bequaert, 1949 (1948), Bol. Entomol. Venez. 7: 132 (Venezuela localities). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 184. - Almeida and Castro, 1991, Acta Biol. Par., Curitiba 20: 48 (coll. list). - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 359 (list). - O'Donnell, 1995, Biotropica 27: 136 (morphology). - Carpenter et al., 1996, J. Hym. Res. 5: 160 (male genitalia). - Garcete-Barrett, 1999, Avispas Soc. Parag.: 8 (mimic of Polybia scutellaris), 30, fig. (Paraguay). Distr.: Colombia: Boyacá, Magdalena, Meta, Santander; Venezuela: Barinas, Falcón*, Mérida; Trinidad; Guyana; Suriname; French Guiana; Ecuador: Esmereldas, Napo, Pichincha; Peru: Cuzco, Huánuco, Junín, Loreto; Brazil: Acre, Amapá, Amazonas, Ceará, Goiás, Maranhão, Mato Grosso, Pará, São Paulo; Paraguay: Concepción; Bolivia: Beni, La Paz. decorata (Gribodo) Tatua decorata Gribodo, 1896, Miscnea. Entomol. 4: 13 - “Pevas (Amazonum Fl.)” [Peru: Pebas] (holotype female Genova). - Dalla Torre, 1904, Gen. Ins. 19: 82 (cat.). Metapolybia cingulata; Araujo, 1945, Arq. Inst. Biol. São Paulo 16: 66, pl. 13 figs. A, C, pl. 14 figs. E-F [partim]. Misidentification. Metapolybia decorata; Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 184 (key), 186 (Paraguay). - Garcete-Barrett, 1999, Avispas Soc. Parag.: 30 (Paraguay specimen misidentified). Distr.: Peru: Loreto; Brazil: Pará, Rio de Janeiro, Santa Catarina; Bolivia: La Paz. docilis Richards Metapolybia docilis West-Eberhard, 1975, Cespedesia 4 (16): 263. Nomen nudum. Metapolybia docilis Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 184 (key), 186, female, male - “COLOMBIA: Valle, Anchicayá” (holotype female Washington); also Nariño; and Panama; Mexico; Peru; Bolivia; Brazil. - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 359 (list). - West-Eberhard et al., 1995, Hym. Costa Rica: 586 (Costa Rica). - Carpenter et al., 1996, J. Hym. Res. 5: 160 (male genitalia). - Smethurst and Carpenter, 1998 (1997), J. New York Entomol. Soc. 105: 183, fig. 1 (compared to mesoamerica n. sp.). - Cooper, 1999, Entomol. Mon. Mag. 135: 108 (compared to silvicola n. sp.), 109 (compared to servilis n. sp.). Distr.: Costa Rica; Panama; Colombia: Meta, Nariño, Putumayo, Valle; French Guiana*; Peru: Huánuco, Junín, Loreto; Brazil: Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo*; Bolivia: Beni, Cochabamba, La Paz, Pando. encantata Cooper Metapolybia encantata Cooper, 1999, Entomol. Mon. Mag. 135: 107, figs. 1-4, female, male, nest - “COLOMBIA: Amazonas, El Encanto (1°46’S 73°15’W)” (holotype female London). Distr.: Colombia: Amazonas. mesoamerica Smethurst and Carpenter Metapolybia mesoamerica Smethurst and Carpenter, 1998 (1997), J. New York Entomol. Soc. 105: 180, figs. 3, 5, female, nest - “COSTA RICA: Rio Danta, 4 km W Guápiles” (New York); also from three other localities in Costa Rica; and Mexico; Panama. Distr.: Mexico: Vera Cruz; Costa Rica; Panama. nigra Richards Metapolybia nigra Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 184 (key), 190, female - “SURINAM: Upper Corantijn Riv., Coeroeni” (Leiden). - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 359 (Colombia: Amazonas; list). - Kojima and van Achterberg, 1997, Zool. Med., Leiden 71: 162 (“Holotype specimen was probably allocated but not labelled as such by Richards”). - Carpenter, 1999, Am. Mus. Novitat. 3259: 10 (notes on probable type). - Cooper, 1999, Entomol. Mon. Mag. 135: 108 (compared to silvicola n. sp.). Distr.: Colombia: Amazonas; Suriname; French Guiana*; Brazil: Pará. rufata Richards Metapolybia rufata Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 184 (key), 190, female - “ECUADOR: Napo” (Paris); also from Tena. - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 359 (Colombia: Cundinamarca; list). - Cooper, 1999, Entomol. Mon. Mag. 135: 107 (compared to encantata n. sp.), 108 (compared to silvicola n. sp.). Distr.: Colombia: Cundinamarca; Ecuador: Napo. servilis Cooper Metapolybia servilis Cooper, 1999, Entomol. Mon. Mag. 135: 107, 108, figs. 5-6, female, male - “COSTA RICA: Guanacaste, Las Juntas de Abangares, ... in disturbed, deciduous, dry forest, in entrance to abandoned gold mine, on beam” (holotype female London); also from Panama; Paraguay. Distr.: Costa Rica; Panama; Paraguay. silvicola Cooper Metapolybia silvicola Cooper, 1999, Entomol. Mon. Mag. 135: 108, female - “COLOMBIA: Amazonas, Calderón near Leticia” (London); also from Leticia; Putumayo; and Ecuador. Distr.: Colombia: Amazonas, Putumayo; Ecuador: Napo. suffusa (Fox) Polybia suffusa Fox, 1898, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad.: 455, female - “Brazil ... Chapada” (lectotype Pittsburgh). - Dalla Torre, 1904, Gen. Ins. 19: 78 (cat.). - Carpenter and van der Vecht, 1991, Ann. Carnegie Mus. 60 (3): 219 (designation of lectotype). Metapolybia pediculata var. rufopicta Ducke, 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 488 - “Bolivie” (Berlin). - Bequaert, 1944, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 94: 276 (identical to types of suffusa Fox). - Nascimento and Overal, 1979, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.) 95: 10 (list). - Carpenter, 1999, Am. Mus. Novitat. 3259: 11 (notes on types; syn. confirmed). Metapolybia suffusa; Bequaert, 1944, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 94: 276. - Araujo, 1945, Arq. Inst. Biol. São Paulo 16: 74, figs. 1-3, pl. 13 fig. D (syn.: pediculata rufopicta Ducke). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 184 (key), 188. - Almeida and Castro, 1991, Acta Biol. Par., Curitiba 20: 48 (coll. list). - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 359 (list). - Carpenter et al., 1996, J. Hym. Res. 5: 160 (male genitalia). - Smethurst and Carpenter, 1998 (1997), J. New York Entomol. Soc. 105: 183, figs. 2, 4 (compared to mesoamerica n. sp.). - Cooper, 1999, Entomol. Mon. Mag. 135: 107 (compared to encantata n. sp.). Distr.: Panama; Colombia: Boyacá, Meta, Putumayo, Vaupés; Ecuador: Napo; Peru: Huánuco, Junín, Loreto; Brazil: Maranhão, Mato Grosso*, Mato Grosso do Sul; Bolivia: Beni. unilineata (R. von Ihering) Polybia pediculata; Fox, 1898, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad.: 449 [partim]. Polybia pediculata var. unilineata R. von Ihering, 1904, Rev. Mus. Paul. 6: 184, male, female - [Brazil:] “Rio Juruá - Amazonas” (lectotype female São Paulo). - Ducke, 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 488. - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 188 (designation of lectotype). - Carpenter, 1999, Am. Mus. Novitat. 3259: 11 (notes on types). Metapolybia unilineata; Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 184 (key), 188. - Raw, 1989, Maracá Rainfor. Proj., Invert. Limnol., Prelim. Rep.: 36 (nest; Brazil); 1989, Maracá Rainfor. Proj., Invert. Limnol., Prelim. Rep.: 41 (habitat preference). - Carpenter and van der Vecht, 1991, Ann. Carnegie Mus. 60 (3): 216 (note on material seen by Fox). Distr.: Peru: Loreto; Brazil: Amazonas, Roraima. Genus Nectarinella Bequaert Nectarinella Bequaert, 1938, Rev. Entomol., Rio de Janeiro 9: 107, subgenus of Chartergus sensu Bequaert [= Parachartergus von Ihering, 1904]. Type species: Nectarina championi Dover, 1925, by original designation and monotypy. championi (Dover) Nectarina championi Dover, 1925 (1924), Psyche 31: 305, fig. 1, female - “David, Chiriqui, Panama” (London). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 215. - Carpenter, 1999, Am. Mus. Novitat. 3259: 11 (notes on types). Chartergus championi; Bequaert, 1938, Rev. Entomol., Rio de Janeiro 9: 111 (in subgenus Nectarinella). Parachartergus championi; Skutch, 1971, Nat. Costa Rica: 265, fig. (nest; Costa Rica). Nectarinella championi; Schremmer, 1977, Entomol. Germ. 3 (4): 344-355, figs. 1-7 (nest; Colombia: Sucré). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 215. - Schremmer, 1986, Öko-L 8: 59, figs. 26-28 (nest). - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 359 (list). - West-Eberhard et al., 1995, Hym. Costa Rica: 586. - O'Donnell, 1995, Biotropica 27: 136 (morphology). - Carpenter and Mateus, 2004, Rev. Bras. Entomol. 48 (3): 298 (key), fig. 2 (male; Costa Rica). Distr.: Costa Rica; Panama; Colombia: Sucré. xavantinensis Mateus and Noll Nectarinella xavantinensis Mateus and Noll, 1998 (1997), J. New York Entomol. Soc. 105: 45, figs. 1-2, female, nest - “Brazil: Novo São Joaquim (Mato Grosso ... Nova Xavantina region (14°45’S, 52°55’W)” (São Paulo). - Carpenter and Mateus, 2004, Rev. Bras. Entomol. 48 (3): 298 (key), fig. 1 (male; Brazil: Mato Grosso). Distr.: Brazil: Mato Grosso Norte. Genus Parachartergus R. von Ihering Parachartergus R. von Ihering, 1904, Rev. Mus. Paul. 6: 128, genus. Type species: Parachartergus bentobuenoi R. von Ihering, 1904 [= Chartergus griseus Fox, 1898], by monotypy. Parachatergus H. von Ihering, 1927, Gesch. Atlant. Ozeans: 80. Incorrect spelling of Parachartergus R. von Ihering. amazonensis Ducke Parachartergus amazonensis Ducke, 1905, Rev. Entomol., Caen 24: 13, female, nest - [Brazil:] “au fleuve Japurá (Haut Amazone)” (lectotype London); also from Teffé. - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 206 (key), 211 (designation of lectotype). - Nascimento and Overal, 1979, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.) 95: 10 (list). - Almeida and Castro, 1991, Acta Biol. Par., Curitiba 20: 48 (coll. list). - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 359 (Colombia: Nariño; list). - Carpenter, 1999, Am. Mus. Novitat. 3259: 11 (notes on types). - Cooper, 2000, Entomol. Mon. Mag. 136: 123 (key); 124 (notes on types). Parachartergus fulgidipennis var. amazonensis; Ducke, 1907, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, Pará 5: 159 (syn.: Chartergus flavofasciatus Cameron); 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 533 (nest; Brazil). Chartergus fulgidipennis var. amazonensis; Bequaert, 1938, Rev. Entomol., Rio de Janeiro 9: 110 (doubtfully distinct from typical fulgidipennis). Parachartergus fulgidipennis; Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 206 (key), 210 [misidentification]. - Overal, 1978, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.), Zool. 94: 10 (list). - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 359 (Colombia: Amazonas, Caquetá, Meta, Nariño, Putumayo, Vaupés; list). - Carpenter, 1999, Am. Mus. Novitat. 3259: 11-12 (fulgidipennis sensu Richards a misidentification). 124 (notes on types). - Cooper, 2000, Entomol. Mon. Mag. 136: 124 (provisionally placed with amazonensis). Distr.: Colombia: Amazonas, Caquetá, Meta, Nariño, Putumayo, Vaupés; Ecuador: Napo, Pastaza; Peru: Loreto; Brazil: Amazonas, Pará; Bolivia: Beni, Cochabamba*. apicalis (Fabricius) Vespa apicalis Fabricius, 1804, Syst. Piez.: 260 - “America meridionali” (Kobenhavn). Chartergus ater Lepeletier, 1836, Hist. Nat. Ins. Hym. 1: 546, female - “sans indication de patrie” (? Torino). Polistes apicalis; Haliday, 1836, Trans. Linn. Soc. London 17: 323 (Brazil). Chartergus apicalis; de Saussure, 1854, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2.: 217 (syn.: Chartergus ater Lepeletier; Bolivia; Brazil; French Guiana; Mexico); 1858, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2.: pl. XIX bis. - Dalla Torre, 1904, Gen. Ins. 19: 84 (syn.: aterLepeletier; cat.). - Ducke, 1904, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, Pará 4: 324, 327 (key), 333. - Cameron, 1906, Invert. Pacif. 1: 150 (Belize). - Bequaert, 1938, Rev. Entomol., Rio de Janeiro 9: 107 (syn.: Chartergus ater Lepeletier; Mexico; Belize; Guatemala; El Salvador; Honduras; Costa Rica; Panama; Colombia; Ecuador; Peru; Brazil). - Cameron, 1912, Timehri (3) 2: 219 (Guyana). Parachartergus apicalis; Ducke, 1905, Rev. Entomol., Caen 24: 13 (nest); 1905, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, Pará 4: 605; 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 528 (key), 534 (syns.: C. ater Lepeletier, C. fraternus Gribodo, C. concolorGribodo; female, ethology; parasite: Seminota mexicana Cresson (Trigonalyidae); Mexico; Brazil; Paraguay) [partim]. - Zikán, 1935, Arq. Inst. Biol. Veget. 1 (3): pl 1 fig. 3 (nest). - Bequaert, 1944, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 94: 302 (key), 303 (records from Guianas may be fraternus). - Willink, 1959, Acta Zool. Lill. 17: 266 (key), 268, figs. 1-4. - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 204 (key), 207, fig. 85. - Rodriguez-Palafox, 1988, Fol. Entomol. Mex. 77: 500 (key), 506, figs. 3.4, 6.4. - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 359 (list). - Ladron De Guevara et al., 1995, Amino Acids 9 (2): 161-173 (amino acid content). - West-Eberhard et al., 1995, Hym. Costa Rica: 586 (Costa Rica). - Rodríguez-Palafox, 1996, in Llorente-Bousquets et al., Biodiv. Taxon. Biogeogr. Artrópod. México: 482 (list). - Dejean et al., 1998, Sociobiol. 32: 477-487 (ethology; Mexico). - Carpenter and Mateus, 2004, Rev. Bras. Entomol. 48 (3): fig. 7 (male genitalia). Distr.: Mexico: Colima, Guerrero, Jalisco, Nayarit, Nuevo León, Oaxaca, Puebla, Quintana Roo, Tabasco, Tamaulipas, Veracruz, Yucatán; Belize; Guatemala; Honduras; Nicaragua; Costa Rica; Panama; Colombia; Ecuador. apicaloides Willink Parachartergus apicaloides Willink, 1959, Acta Zool. Lill. 17: 263, 267 (key), 271, figs. 5-9, female, male - “R. Papagaio, Guerrero, Méjico” (holotype female London); also from elsewhere in Guerrero; and Jalisco; Colima. - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 205 (key), 207. - Rodríguez-Palafox, 1996, in Llorente-Bousquets et al., Biodiv. Taxon. Biogeogr. Artrópod. México: 482 (list). Distr.: Mexico: Colima, Guerrero, Jalisco, Nayarit. aztecus Willink Parachartergus aztecus Willink, 1959, Acta Zool. Lill. 17: 263, 267 (key), 281, fig. 20, female, male - “Méjico: N. Yucatán” (holotype female London); also from elsewhere in Yucatán; and Tabasco; Belize; Guatemala; El Salvador; Honduras. - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 205 (key), 207. - West-Eberhard et al., 1995, Hym. Costa Rica: 586 (Costa Rica). - Rodríguez-Palafox, 1996, in Llorente-Bousquets et al., Biodiv. Taxon. Biogeogr. Artrópod. México: 482 (list). Distr.: Mexico: Chiapas, Tabasco, Yucatán; Belize; Guatemala; El Salvador; Honduras; Costa Rica. colobopterus (Lichtenstein) Vespa coloboptera Lichtenstein, 1796, Cat. Mus. Zool. Dit. Hamburgi ... Sect. Tertia Ins.: 202 - “Surinamo” (type lost). - Weber, 1801, Observ. Entomol.: 102. - Kerzhner, 1994, Bull. Zool. Nomencl. 51 (2): 111, 112, 113 (proposed conservation). - Opinion 1820, 1995, Bull. Zool. Nomencl. 52: 283 (available under the plenary powers of the ICZN). Chartergus colobopterus; de Saussure, 1854, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2.: 216 (key), 218, pl. XXXI fig. 2 (Colombia). - Möbius, 1856, Nester Gesell. Wespen: 20, 35 (key), pl. XII (nest; Venezuela: Puerto Cabello). - Dalla Torre, 1904, Gen. Ins. 19: 85 (cat.). - Ducke, 1904, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, Pará 4: 324, 327 (key), 333. - Bequaert, 1938, Rev. Entomol., Rio de Janeiro 9: 110 (attributed to Weber; Colombia; Venezuela; Trinidad). Chartergus globiventris; Dalla Torre, 1904, Gen. Ins. 19: pl. 6 fig. 6. Misidentification. Parachartergus colobopterus; Ducke, 1905, Rev. Entomol., Caen 24: 13 (nest); 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 528 (key), 533 (female, nest; Colombia; Venezuela; French Guiana). - Martorell, 1939, J. Agric. Univ. Puerto Rico 23: 230 (Venezuela: Aragua). - Martorell and Salas, 1939, J. Agric. Univ. Puerto Rico 23: 251 (Venezuela: Trujillo). - Bequaert, 1944, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 94: 302; 1949 (1948), Bol. Entomol. Venez. 7: 135 (Venezuelalocalities). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 206 (key), 212. - Schremmer, 1978, Entomol. Germ. 4: 356-367 (nest); 1978, Öko-L 8 (nest). - Overal, 1978, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.), Zool. 94: 10 (list). - Queller et al., 1988, Science 242: 1155-1157 (genetics). - Strassmann et al., 1990, Biotropica 22: 324-327 (ethology). - Gastreich et al., 1990, Anim. Behav. 40: 598-601 (ethology). - Almeida and Castro, 1991, Acta Biol. Par., Curitiba20: 48 (coll. list). - Strassmann et al., 1991, Anim. Behav. 42: 461-470 (ethology). - Queller et al., 1993, Nature 365: 639-641 (genetics). - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 359 (list). - Jeanne and Keeping, 1995, J. Ins. Behav. 8 (4): 433-442 (colony defense). - O'Donnell, 1995, Biotropica 27: 136 (morphology). - Strassmann et al., 1996, Mol. Ecol. 5: 459-461(genetics). - Goodnight et al., 1996, Ethol. Ecol. Evol. 8:191-198 (ethology). - Strassmann et al., 1997, Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 40: 71-77 (ecology). - Strassmann et al., 1997, Proc. R. Soc. London (Ser. 264: 1565-1570 (ethology). - Strassmann et al., 1998, Mol. Ecol. 7:709-718 (ethology). - Ezenwa et al., 1998, Ins. Soc. 45: 445-455 (ethology). - Solís et al., 1998, Behav. Ecol. 9:172-176 (ethology). - Cooper, 2000, Entomol. Mon. Mag. 136: 122 (type is lost). Distr.: Panama; Colombia: Amazonas, Bolívar, Guajira, Magdalena, Tolima; Venezuela: Aragua, Barinas, D. F., Falcón, Guárico, Miranda, Trujillo; Trinidad; French Guiana; Brazil: Pará, Rondônia. flavofasciatus (Cameron) Chartergus flavofasciatus Cameron, 1906, Zeitschr. Syst. Hym. Dipt. 6: 381, female - [Brazil:] “Rio Jutahi, Amazonia” (lectotype London). - Ducke, 1907, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, Pará 5: 159 (syn. of Parachatergus fulgidipennis var. amazonensis Ducke). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 210 (designation of lectotype). Parachartergus fulgidipennis var. flavofasciatus; Ducke, 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 533 (Brazil). Chartergus fulgidipennis var. flavofasciatus; Bequaert, 1938, Rev. Entomol., Rio de Janeiro 9: 110 (perhaps not distinct from typical fulgidipennis). Parachartergus flavofasciatus; Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 206 (key), 210. - Almeida and Castro, 1991, Acta Biol. Par., Curitiba 20: 48 (coll. list). - Cooper, 2000, Entomol. Mon. Mag. 136: 123 (key), 124 (Peru; “The ‘very large’ P. fulgidipennis recorded by Richards from Atalaya is this species”). Distr.: Peru: Loreto, Pasco; Brazil: Amapá, Amazonas. fraternus (Gribodo) Chartergus apicalis; ? Möbius, 1856, Nester Gesell. Wespen: 21, 35 (key), pl. XIII figs. 1-5 (nest; Brazil); 1856, Arch. Naturgesch. 22: 330 (key), fig. 7. - Fox, 1898, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad.: 457 (Brazil) [misidentification].. - Carpenter and van der Vecht, 1991, Ann. Carnegie Mus. 60 (3): 220 (note on material seen by Fox). Chartergus fraternus Gribodo, 1892 (1891), Boll. Soc. Entomol. Ital. 23: 255 - [French Guiana] “Caienna” (lectotype female Genova); also from Brazil. - Dalla Torre, 1904, Gen. Ins. 19: 85 (cat.). - Ducke, 1904, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, Pará 4: 324, 328 (key), 334, pl. 2 fig. 8 (Brazil). - Bequaert, 1938, Rev. Entomol., Rio de Janeiro 9: 108 (typical fraternus; Colombia; Venezuela; Brazil; Bolivia). - Willink, 1959, Acta Zool. Lill. 17: 277-279 (designation of lectotype). Chartergus concolor Gribodo, 1892 (1891), Boll. Soc. Entomol. Ital. 23: 257, female - “Merida (Venezuela)” (Genova). - Dalla Torre, 1904, Gen. Ins. 19: 85 (cat.). - Ducke, 1904, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, Pará 4: 324, 327 (key), 333 (nest; Brazil). Parachartergus apicalis var. fraternus; Ducke, 1905, Rev. Entomol., Caen 24: 13; 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 534, fig. 16 (Brazil). Parachartergus apicalis var. concolor; Ducke, 1905, Rev. Entomol., Caen 24: 13; 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 534 (Brazil). - Vesey-Fitzgerald, 1939, Proc. R. Entomol. Soc. London (A) 14: 105 (mimicry). Chartergus fraternus var. concolor; Bequaert, 1938, Rev. Entomol., Rio de Janeiro 9: 109 (Panama; Colombia; Trinidad; Guayana; French Guiana; Brazil). Parachartergus fraternus; Bequaert, 1944, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 94: 302 (key), 303 (typical form); 1949 (1948), Bol. Entomol. Venez. 7: 135 (Venezuela localities). - Willink, 1959, Acta Zool. Lill. 17: 268 (key), 277, figs. 13-14. - Windsor, 1976, Biotropica 8: 112 (Costa Rica). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 206 (key), 208 (syn.: P. pseudopicalis [!] var. hialinipennis Willink; Paraguay). - Almeida and Castro, 1991, Acta Biol. Par., Curitiba 20: 48 (coll. list). - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 359 (list). - West-Eberhard et al., 1995, Hym. Costa Rica: 586 (Costa Rica). - O'Donnell, 1995, Biotropica 27: 136 (morphology). - Strassmann et al., 1996, Mol. Ecol. 5: 461(genetics). - Garcete-Barrett, 1999, Avispas Soc. Parag.: 31, fig. (Paraguay record requires confirmation). Parachartergus fraternus var. concolor; Bequaert, 1944, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 94: 303; 1949 (1948), Bol. Entomol. Venez. 7: 135 (Venezuela localities). Parachartergus pseudapicalis hialinipennis Willink, 1959, Acta Zool. Lill. 17: 263, 268 (key), 288, female - “Diamantina, Est. de Minas Geraes, Brasil” (London). Parachartergus pseudopicalis [!] var. hialinipennis; Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 208 (syn. of P. fraternus (Gribodo)). Distr.: Costa Rica; Panama; Colombia: Boyacá, Magdalena, Meta, Nariño, Putumayo, Santander, Valle, Vaupés; Venezuela: Bolívar, Mérida; Trinidad; Guyana; Suriname; French Guiana; Ecuador: Napo; Peru: Huánuco, Junín, Loreto; Brazil: Amazonas, Goiás, Maranhão, Mato Grosso, Minas Gerais, Pará; Bolivia: Cochabamba, Pando; Argentina: Misiones. fulgidipennis (de Saussure) Chartergus fulgidipennis de Saussure, 1854, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2: 217 (key), 218, pl. XXXI fig. 5 - “Le Para” (holotype female London). - Dalla Torre, 1904, Gen. Ins. 19: 85 (cat.). - Ducke, 1904, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, Pará 4: 324, 327 (key), 333. - Bequaert, 1938, Rev. Entomol., Rio de Janeiro 9: 109, 110 (typical fulgidipennis). Parachartergus bentobuenoi; Ducke, 1905, Rev. Entomol., Caen 24: 13. Misidentification. Parachartergus fasciipennis Ducke, 1905, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, Pará 4: 665, female - [Brazil:] “Arrayollos ... Tabatinga, Estado do Amazonas” (Paris); 1907, Zeitschr. Hymenopterol. Dipterol. 2: 141 (syn. of fulgidipennis de Saussure). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 207 (key), 212. - Nascimento and Overal, 1979, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.) 95: 10 (list). - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 359 (Colombia; list). - Carpenter, 1999, Am. Mus. Novitat. 3259: 11 (designation of lectotype; syn. of fulgidipennis de Saussure). Pseudochartergus [!] fulgidipennis; Ducke, 1907, Zeitschr. Hymenopterol. Dipterol. 2: 141 (syns.: C. griseus Fox, P. bentobuenoi R. von Ihering, P. fasciipennis Ducke). Parachartergus fulgidipennis; Ducke, 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 528 (key), 533 (syns.: C. griseus Fox, P. bentobuenoi R. von Ihering, P. fasciipennis Ducke; male; Brazil). - Carpenter, 1999, Am. Mus. Novitat. 3259: 11 (note on type). - Cooper, 2000, Entomol. Mon. Mag. 136: 123 (key), 124, fig. 3 (color variation; Colombia; Ecuador; Bolivia). Chartergus fulgidipennis var. fasciipennis; Bequaert, 1938, Rev. Entomol., Rio de Janeiro 9: 109 (key), 110 (Guyana). Parachartergus fulgidipennis var. fasciipennis; Bequaert, 1944, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 94: 303. Distr.: Colombia: Amazonas, Caquetá, Meta, Putumayo; Guyana; Suriname; Ecuador: Morona-Santiago, Napo; Peru: Cuzco; Brazil: Amazonas, Pará; Bolivia: Beni, Cochabamba. griseus (Fox) Chartergus griseus Fox, 1898, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad.: 458, 459, female - [Brazil:] “Santarém” (lectotype Pittsburgh); also from Mararú. - Dalla Torre, 1904, Gen. Ins. 19: 85 (cat.). - Ducke, 1904, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, Pará 4: 324, 327 (key), 333 (Brazil); 1907, Zeitschr. Hymenopterol. Dipterol. 2: 141 (syn. of fulgidipennis de Saussure). - Carpenter and van der Vecht, 1991, Ann. Carnegie Mus. 60 (3): 221 (designation of lectotype). Parachartergus bentobuenoi R. von Ihering, 1904, Rev. Mus. Paul. 6: 129, 239 (nest), pl. IV fig. 7, pl. V fig. 2, female, male - [Brazil:] “Rio Juruá - Amazonas” (lectotype female São Paulo). - Ducke, 1907, Zeitschr. Hymenopterol. Dipterol. 2: 141 (syn. of fulgidipennis de Saussure). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 213 (designation of lectotype). - Carpenter, 1999, Am. Mus. Novitat. 3259: 11 (notes on types). Parachartergus griseus; Ducke, 1905, Rev. Entomol., Caen 24: 13. - Richards, 1951, in Richards and Richards, Trans. Entomol. Soc. London 102: 83; 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 207 (key), 213. - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 359 (list). - Cooper, 2000, Entomol. Mon. Mag. 136: 123 (key; Bolivia), 125 (? Colombia). - Carpenter and Mateus, 2004, Rev. Bras. Entomol. 48 (3): fig. 6 (male genitalia). Chartergus trichiosomus Cameron, 1912, Timehri (3) 2: 219, female - locality not stated [Guyana] (London). Chartergus fulgidipennis var. griseus; Bequaert, 1938, Rev. Entomol., Rio de Janeiro 9: 109 (key), 110 (syns.: P. bentobuenoi R. von Ihering, C. trichiosomus Cameron; Guyana; Peru; Brazil). Parachartergus fulgidipennis var. griseus; Bequaert, 1944, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 94: 303. Distr.: Colombia: Putumayo (?), Vaupés; Guyana; Suriname; French Guiana*; Peru (?); Brazil: Amazonas, Pará; Bolivia: Pando. lenkoi Richards Parachartergus lenkoi Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 207 (key), 213, female - “BRAZIL: MT, Utiariti” (São Paulo); also from Amazonas; and Bolivia. - Carpenter, 1999, Am. Mus. Novitat. 3259: 12 (note on type). - Cooper, 2000, Entomol. Mon. Mag. 136: 123 (key; Bolivia). Distr.: Brazil: Amazonas, Mato Grosso; Bolivia: La Paz, Beni. pacificus Cooper Parachartergus pacificus Cooper, 2000, Entomol. Mon. Mag. 136: 121, 122 (key), female, nest - “COLOMBIA: Nariño, Barbacoas (50m)” (London). Distr.: Colombia: Nariño. pseudapicalis Willink ? Parachartergus apicalis; Ducke, 1906, Rev. Entomol., Caen 25: 6 (Brazil). Parachartergus pseudapicalis Willink, 1959, Acta Zool. Lill. 17: 263, 268 (key), 285, figs. 10-12, female, male - “Brasil, Tejuca, Rio de Janeiro” (holotype female London); also from elsewhere in Rio de Janeiro; and Pernambuco; Bahia; São Paulo; Santa Catarina; Paraguay; Argentina. - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 206 (key), 210 (syn.: P. fraternus var. beniensis Willink). - Almeida and Castro, 1991, Acta Biol. Par., Curitiba 20: 48 (coll. list). - Garcete-Barrett, 1999, Avispas Soc. Parag.: 8 (mimics), 31, fig. (Paraguay). Parachartergus fraternus beniensis Willink, 1959, Acta Zool. Lill. 17: 263, 268 (key), 281, female - “Bolivia: Rurrenabaque (Beni)” (Cambridge). Parachartergus fraternus var. beniensis; Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 210 (syn. of P. pseudapicalis Willink). Distr.: Brazil: Bahia, Goiás, Mato Grosso, Minas Gerais, Pernambuco, Rio de Janeiro, Santa Catarina, São Paulo; Bolivia: Beni, La Paz; Paraguay: Alto Paraná; Argentina: Misiones. richardsi Willink Parachartergus fraternus; Richards and Richards, 1951, Trans. Entomol. Soc. London 102: 81, pl. 4 figs. 30-33 [partim]. Parachartergus richardsi Willink, 1959, Acta Zool. Lill. 17: 263, 268 (key), 289, figs. 16-19, female - “Guyana Británico, Kaietur, Savannah” (London); also from elsewhere in Guyana; and Suriname; French Guiana. - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 206 (key), 210. - Schremmer, 1978, Entomol. Germ. 4: 356-367 (ethology); 1986, Öko-L 8: 49-59 (nest). - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 359 (list). - Cooper, 2000, Entomol. Mon. Mag. 136: 123, fig. 2 (Bolivia). Distr.: Colombia: Arauca, Caldas, Cundinamarca, Magdalena, Putumayo; Venezuela; Guyana; Suriname; French Guiana; Bolivia: La Paz. smithii (de Saussure) Chartergus smithii de Saussure, 1854, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2: 216 (key), 219, male - “Le Brésil” (London). - Fox, 1898, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad.: 457 (Brazil: Mato Grosso). - Dalla Torre, 1904, Gen. Ins. 19: 85 (Smithi [!]; cat.). - Ducke, 1904, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, Pará 4: 324, 327 (key), 333. - Bequaert, 1938, Rev. Entomol., Rio de Janeiro 9: 111 (typical form; Belize; Costa Rica; Colombia; Ecuador; Brazil). - Carpenter and van der Vecht, 1991, Ann. Carnegie Mus. 60 (3): 220 (note on material seen by Fox). Chartergus fasciatus Fox, 1898, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad.: 457, female - “Brazil ... Mararu” (Pittsburgh). - Dalla Torre, 1904, Gen. Ins. 19: 85 (cat.). - Ducke, 1904, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, Pará 4: 324, 327 (key), 333 (Brazil). - Carpenter and van der Vecht, 1991, Ann. Carnegie Mus. 60 (3): 221 (syn. of P. smithii (de Saussure)). Parachartergus colobopterus var. Smithi; Ducke, 1905, Rev. Entomol., Caen 24: 13. Parachartergus colobopterus var. fasciatus; Ducke, 1905, Rev. Entomol., Caen 24: 13. Parachartergus Smithii; Ducke, 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 528 (key), 534 (syn.: C. fasciatus Fox; female, male; French Guiana; Brazil). - Bequaert, 1944, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 94: 302 (key), 303. - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 206 (key), 211. - Overal, 1978, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.), Zool. 94: 10 (list). - Almeida and Castro, 1991, Acta Biol. Par., Curitiba 20: 48 (coll. list). - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 359 (Colombia: Antioquia, Caquetá, Magdalena, Putumayo, Santander del Sur; list). - O'Donnell, 1995, Biotropica 27: 136 (morphology). - Cooper, 2000, Entomol. Mon. Mag. 136: 122 (holotype is possibly undescribed male of colobopterus (Lichtenstein)). Chartergus smithii var. fasciatus; Bequaert, 1938, Rev. Entomol., Rio de Janeiro 9: 111 (Brazi: Minas Gerais). Distr.: Belize; Costa Rica; Colombia: Antioquia, Caquetá, Magdalena, Putumayo, Santander del Sur; Guyana; French Guiana; Ecuador: Napo, Pichincha; Peru: Huánuco, Junín, Loreto; Brazil: Amazonas, Goiás, Mato Grosso, Minas Gerais, Pará, São Paulo; Bolivia: Beni. tomentosus Willink Parachartergus aztecus tomentosus Willink, 1959, Acta Zool. Lill. 17: 263, 267 (key), 284, female, male - “San Salvador (América Central)” (holotype female Washington). Parachartergus tomentosus; Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 206 (key), 208. Distr.: El Salvador. wagneri du Buysson Parachartergus wagneri du Buysson, 1904, Bull. Soc. Entomol. France 1904: 145, female - “Brésil: État de Rio Janeiro, montagnes des Orgues, environs de la Tijuca, 500m à 1000m” (Paris). - Ducke, 1905, Rev. Entomol., Caen 24: 13; 1906, Rev. Entomol., Caen 25: 6 (Brazil); 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 528 (key), 534 (Brazil). - Zikán, 1935, Arq. Inst. Biol. Veget. 1 (3): pl 1 fig. 4 (nest). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 206 (key), 212. - Overal, 1978, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.), Zool. 94: 10 (list). - Cooper, 2000, Entomol. Mon. Mag. 136: 122, fig. 1. Chartergus wagneri; Bequaert, 1938, Rev. Entomol., Rio de Janeiro 9: 110 (Brazil). Distr.: Peru (?); Brazil: Minas Gerais, Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo. weyrauchi Willink Parachartergus weyrauchi Willink, 1959, Acta Zool. Lill. 17: 263, 267 (key), 274, fig. 15, female, male - “Perú: Oxapampa, 1.600 m” (holotype female London); also from Junín. - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 204 (key), 207 (syn.: P. weyrauchi var. decipiens Willink). - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 359 (list). Parachartergus weyrauchi decipiens Willink, 1959, Acta Zool. Lill. 17: 263, 267 (key), 277, female - “Divisoria, Cordillera Azul, Perú, 1.300 m s.n.m.” (Cambridge). Parachartergus weyrauchi var. decipiens; Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 207 (syn. of P. weyrauchi Willink). Distr.: Colombia: Meta, Putumayo, Vaupés; Peru: Cuzco, Huánuco, Junín, Loreto, Pasco; Brazil: Acre, Amazonas, Rondônia; Bolivia: Beni, La Paz. Genus Polybia Lepeletier Subgenus Alpha de Saussure Alpha de Saussure, 1854, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2: 167, division I of subgenus Polybia of genus Polybia Lepeletier (8 species); at plates 21 and 22: division of genus Polybia. Type species: Polybia bifasciata de Saussure, 1854, by subsequent designation of Bequaert, 1944, Rev. Entomol., Rio de Janeiro 15: 99. Hypopolybia Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: v, 34, 52, subgenus of Polybia Lepeletier. Type species: Polybia bifasciata de Saussure, 1854, by original designation. bifasciata de Saussure Polybia bifasciata de Saussure, 1854, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2: 172, pl. XXII fig. 3, female (in division Alpha) - “Le Brésil” (Paris). - Fox, 1898, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad.: 449 (Brazil: Amazonas). - Dalla Torre, 1904, Gen. Ins. 19: 77 (cat.). - Ducke, 1904, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, Pará 4: 345 (key), 350 (Brazil; syn.: quadricincta de Saussure); 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 491 (key), 509 (syns.: P. cordata Smith; female, male, nest; Mexico; Brazil). - Bequaert, 1943 (1942), J. New York Entomol. Soc. 50: 300 (key), 301 (typical bifasciata; Guyana; Peru); 1944, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 94: 278 (key), 283 (typical bifasciata). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 37 (key), 53 (? syn.: heydeniana; in subgenus Hypopolybia). - Overal, 1978, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.), Zool. 94: 10 (list). - Carpenter and van der Vecht, 1991, Ann. Carnegie Mus. 60 (3): 216 (note on material seen by Fox). - Almeida and Castro, 1991, Acta Biol. Par., Curitiba 20: 46 (coll. list). - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 358 (list). Polybia heydeniana de Saussure, 1863, Mém. Soc. Phys. Hist. Nat. Genève 17: 241, female (in division Iota) - “Brésil” (Frankfurt). - Dalla Torre, 1904, Gen. Ins. 19: 77 (cat.). - Ducke, 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 540 (? syn. of signata). - - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 53 (? syn. of bifasciata). - Carpenter, 1999, Am. Mus. Novitat. 3259: 14 (notes on types; syn. confirmed). ? Polybia Theresiana Schulz, 1904 (1903), Berlin. Entomol. Zeitschr. 48: 257, female (in division Jota) - “Ad flumen Magdalenae, reipublicae Columbianae, inter 'Bodega central et Honda'“ (München). - Zavattari, 1906, Boll. Mus. Zool. Anat. Comp. Torino 21 (529): 13. - Ducke, 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 501 (syn. of simillima Smith). Polybia bifasciata var. heydeniana; Bequaert, 1943 (1942), J. New York Entomol. Soc. 50: 301 (syn.: P. theresiana Schulz; Brazil; Peru; Colombia; Panama). Distr.: Costa Rica*; Panama; Colombia: Boyacá, Meta, Nariño, Putumayo; Guyana; Ecuador: Napo; Peru: Cuzco, Junín, Loreto, San Martin; Brazil: Acre, Amazonas, Espírito Santo, Goiás, Mato Grosso, Minas Gerais, Pará, Paraná, Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo; Bolivia: Beni, Cochabamba, La Paz. signata Ducke Polybia decorata Ducke, 1905, Rev. Entomol., Caen 24: 19, female - [Brazil:] “Tabatinga (Haut Amazone)” (lectotype female Paris) [non Polybia decorata Smith, 1857]. - Nascimento and Overal, 1979, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.) 95: 10 (list). - Carpenter, 1999, Am. Mus. Novitat. 3259: 13 (notes on types). Polybia signata Ducke, 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 492 (key), 510, replacement name for Polybia decorata Ducke, non Smith, 1857 (female, nest; French Guiana; Brazil). - Bequaert, 1944, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 94: 278 (key), 281. - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 37 (key), 53, fig. 48 (designation of lectotype of P. signata; in subgenus Hypopolybia). - Overal, 1978, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.), Zool. 94: 11 (list). - Nascimento and Overal, 1979, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.) 95: 11 (list). - Almeida and Castro, 1991, Acta Biol. Par., Curitiba 20: 46 (coll. list). - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 358 (Colombia: Putumayo; list). Distr.: Panama; Colombia: Putumayo; Venezuela: Amazonas; French Guiana; Suriname; Ecuador: Morona-Santiago, Napo, Pichincha; Peru: Loreto; Brazil: Amapá, Amazonas, Espírito Santo. quadricincta de Saussure Polybia quadricincta de Saussure, 1854, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2: 173, female (in division Alpha) - “? L'Amérique” (London). - Dalla Torre, 1904, Gen. Ins. 19: 78 (cat.). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 37 (key), 54, fig. 47 (syns.: P. bifasciata var. restrepoensis, mellipennis, xanthopyga; in subgenus Hypopolybia). - Almeida and Castro, 1991, Acta Biol. Par., Curitiba 20: 46 (coll. list). - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 358 (list). Polybia cordata Smith, 1857, Cat. Hym. Br. Mus. 5: 129, female - “Brazil (Amazons)” (London). - Dalla Torre, 1904, Gen. Ins. 19: 77 (cat.). Polybia “bifasciata nov. var. restrepoensis Bequaert” Weyrauch, 1943, Bol. Mus. Hist. Nat. Javier Prado 7: 73. Nomen nudum. Polybia “bifasciata nov. var mellipennis Bequaert” Weyrauch, 1943, Bol. Mus. Hist. Nat. Javier Prado 7: 73. Nomen nudum. Polybia “bifasciata nov. var xanthopyga Bequaert” Weyrauch, 1943, Bol. Mus. Hist. Nat. Javier Prado 7: 73. Nomen nudum. Polybia bifasciata var. quadricincta; Bequaert, 1943 (1942), J. New York Entomol. Soc. 50: 301 (Guyana; French Guiana; Trinidad; Venezuela; Colombia; Bolivia); 1944, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 94: 283; 1949 (1948), Bol. Entomol. Venez. 7: 132 (Venezuela: Amazonas). Polybia bifasciata var. cordata; Bequaert, 1943 (1942), J. New York Entomol. Soc. 50: 301 (key), 302. Polybia bifasciata var. (or subsp.) restrepoensis Bequaert, 1943 (1942), J. New York Entomol. Soc. 50: 300 (key), 302, female - “COLOMBIA: Resrepo, Int. del Meta, 500 m.” (Cambridge); also from Peru. - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 54 (syn. of P. quadricincta de Saussure). Polybia bifasciata var (or subsp.) mellipennis Bequaert, 1943 (1942), J. New York Entomol. Soc. 50: 300 (key), 303, female - “PERU: San Ramon, Valle Chanchamayo, 900 m.” (Cambridge). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 54 (syn. of P. quadricincta de Saussure). Polybia bifasciata var (or subsp.) xanthopyga Bequaert, 1943 (1942), J. New York Entomol. Soc. 50: 301 (key), 302, female - “COLOMBIA: Villavicencio, Int. del Meta, 450 m.” (Cambridge); also from Peru. - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 54 (syn. of P. quadricincta de Saussure). Polybia bifasciata quadricincta; Araujo, 1960, Studia Entomol. (N. S.) 3: 252 (Brazil: Amapá). Distr.: Colombia: Caquetá, Meta, Putumayo; Venezuela: Amazonas; Trinidad; Guyana; Suriname; French Guiana; Ecuador: Napo; Peru: Huánuco, Junín, Loreto; Brazil: Acre, Amapá, Amazonas, Mato Grosso, Minas Gerais, Pará, Rio de Janeiro, Rondônia, São Paulo; Bolivia: Beni, Cochabamba, La Paz, Pando, Santa Cruz. Subgenus Apopolybia Richards Apopolybia Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps. Am.: v, 34, 49, subgenus of Polybia Lepeletier. Type species: Polybia simillima Smith, 1862, by original designation. jurinei de Saussure Polybia jurinei de Saussure, 1854, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2: 176, pl. XXII fig. 6, female (in division Iota) - “Le Brésil” (lectotype female London). - Fox, 1898, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad.: 449 (Brazil: Amazonas, Mato Grosso, Rio de Janeiro). - Dalla Torre, 1904, Gen. Ins. 19: 77 (cat.). - R. von Ihering, 1904, Rev. Mus. Paul. 6: 194. - Ducke, 1904, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, Pará 4: 344 (key), 350 (Brazil). - Zavattari, 1906, Boll. Mus. Zool. Anat. Comp. Torino 21 (529): 12 (Ecuador). - Ducke, 1906, Rev. Entomol., Caen 25: 7 (Brazil); 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 492 (key), 510 (male, nest; Brazil; Ecuador). - Bequaert, 1944, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 94: 278 (key), 283. - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 36 (key), 50, fig. 45 (designation of lectotype; in subgenus Apopolybia; syn.: P. jurinei var. bonaerensis Brèthes). - Overal, 1978, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.), Zool. 94: 10 (list). - Raw, 1988, Entomologist 107: 106 (role in agriculture). - Carpenter and van der Vecht, 1991, Ann. Carnegie Mus. 60 (3): 216 (note on material seen by Fox). - Almeida and Castro, 1991, Acta Biol. Par., Curitiba 20: 46 (coll. list). - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 358 (list). Polybia Jurinei var. bonaerënse Brèthes, 1903, An. Mus. Nac. Hist. Inst. Buenos Aires (3) 9 (2): 28 - “Rep. Argentina ... Bahia Blanca” (La Plata). - Ducke, 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 510. Distr.: Colombia: Amazonas, Caquetá, Meta, Putumayo; Guyana; Suriname; French Guiana; Ecuador: Napo; Peru: Cuzco, Huánuco, Junín, Loreto, Madre de Dios; Brazil: Acre, Amapá, Amazonas, Bahia, Ceará, D. F., Espírito Santo, Goiás, Mato Grosso, Minas Gerais, Pará, Rio de Janeiro, Rondônia, São Paulo; Bolivia: Beni, Cochabamba, La Paz. simillima Smith Polybia simillima Smith, 1862, Trans. Entomol. Soc. London (3) 1: 39, female - “Panama” (London). - Dalla Torre, 1904, Gen. Ins. 19: 78 (cat.). - Ducke, 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 493 (key), 501 (syn.: P. theresianaSchulz; female, male; Mexico; Colombia; Panama). - Bequaert, 1944 (1943), Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 36: 726; 1949 (1948), Bol. Entomol. Venez. 7: 134 (Venezuela: Barinas). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 36 (key), 49, fig. 46 (in subgenus Apopolybia). - Overal, 1978, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.), Zool. 94: 11 (list). - Starr and Bozzoli, 1990, in Overal, Ethnobiol., Part B, Ethnozool.: 190 (ethnobiology in Costa Rica). - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 358 (list). - West-Eberhard et al., 1995, Hym. Costa Rica: 586 (Costa Rica). - O'Donnell, 1995, Biotropica 27: 136 (morphology). - Rodríguez-Palafox, 1996, in Llorente-Bousquets et al., Biodiv. Taxon. Biogeogr. Artrópod. México: 482 (list). Distr.: Mexico: Oaxaca; Belize; Guatemala; Honduras; Costa Rica; Panama; Colombia: Nariño; Venezuela: Barinas, Zulia; Ecuador: Guayas, Pichincha. Subgenus Cylindroeca Richards Cylindroeca Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: v, 35, 99, subgenus of Polybia Lepeletier, 1836. Type species: Vespa dimidiata Olivier, 1792, by original designation and monotypy. Cyllindroeca Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 35. Incorrect spelling of Cylindroeca Richards. dimidiata (Olivier) Vespa dimidiata Olivier, 1792, Encyc. Méthod. 6 (2): 675 - [French Guiana] “Cayenne” (type lost). Polybia dimidiata; de Saussure, 1854, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2.: 177 (in division Iota). - Fox, 1898, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad.: 450 (Brazil). - R. von Ihering, 1903, Zool. Anz. 27: 115 (ethology). - Dalla Torre, 1904, Gen. Ins. 19: 77 (cat.). - Ducke, 1904, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, Pará 4: 343 (key), 352 (Brazil); 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 491 (key), 506, fig. 8 (female, nest; Brazil). - Cameron, 1912, Timehri (3) 2: 208 (key), 211 (Guyana). - Bequaert, 1944, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 94: 279 (key), 285. - Araujo, 1960, Studia Entomol. (N. S.) 3: 252 (Brazil). - Maule-Rodrigues and Santos, 1974, Rev. Bras. Entomol. 18: 37-42 (ethology). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 42 (key), 100 (in subgenus Cylindroeca). - Overal, 1978, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.), Zool. 94: 10 (list). - Raw, 1989, Maracá Rainfor. Proj., Invert. Limnol., Prelim. Rep.: 33 (nest; Brazil), 36 (distr.); 1989, Maracá Rainfor. Proj., Invert. Limnol., Prelim. Rep.: 41, 42 (habitat preference). - Carpenter and van der Vecht, 1991, Ann. Carnegie Mus. 60 (3): 217 (note on material seen by Fox). - Almeida and Castro, 1991, Acta Biol. Par., Curitiba 20: 47 (coll. list). - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 358 (list). Distr.: Colombia: Meta, Vaupés; Guyana; Suriname; French Guiana; Ecuador: Morona-Santiago; Peru: Huánuco, Junín; Brazil: Amapá, Bahia, D. F., Espírito Santo, Goiás, Maranhão, Mato Grosso, Minas Gerais, Pará, Rio de Janeiro, Rio Grande do Sul, Rondônia, Roraima, São Paulo; Bolivia: La Paz, Santa Cruz. Subgenus Formicicola Richards Formicicola Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: v, 35, 121, subgenus of Polybia Lepeletier. Type species: Vespa rejecta Fabricius, 1798, by original designation and monotypy. rejecta (Fabricius) Vespa rejecta Fabricius, 1798, Suppl. Entomol. Syst.: 264 - [French Guiana] “Cajennae” (Kobenhavn). Polistes rejecta; Fabricius, 1804, Syst. Piez.: 280. Polybia rejecta; de Saussure, 1854, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2.: 180, pl. XXII fig. 5, pl XXIX figs. 4-6 (in division Iota). - Möbius, 1856, Nester Gesell. Wespen: 10, 34 (key), pl. IV (nest; Brazil); 1856, Arch. Naturgesch. 22: 330 (key), fig. 5. - Fox, 1898, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad.: 449 (Brazil: Amazonas, Mato Grosso). - Dalla Torre, 1904, Gen. Ins. 19: 78 (cat.). - Ducke, 1904, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, Pará 4: 343 (key), 352 (Brazil). - Zavattari, 1906, Boll. Mus. Zool. Anat. Comp. Torino 21 (529): 16 (compared to P. aequatorialis n. sp.). - Ducke, 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 494 (key), 506 (syns.: P. bicolor Smith, P. litoralis Zavattari; female, male, nest; Mexico; Brazil). - Myers, 1929, Proc. Entomol. Soc. London 4: 84-86 (nests associated with birds, Cacicus haemorrhous L., and ants, Azteca chartifex laticeps Forel, in Guyana); 1935, Trans. R. Entomol. Soc. London 83: 13 (nests associated with birds, Cacicus cela, ants, Azteca chartifex, and Apoica pallida and Polistes canadensis, in Venezuela, Guyana, Brazil, and Trinidad), 14 (nests associated with birds, Tyrannidae spp., in Trinidad and Brazil). - Vesey-Fitzgerald, 1939, Proc. R. Entomol. Soc. London (A) 14: 105 (mimicry). - Bequaert, 1944, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 94: 280 (key), 285 (typical rejecta); 1949 (1948), Bol. Entomol. Venez. 7: 133 (Venezuela). - Hamilton, 1972, Annu. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 3: 225 (ethology). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 45 (key), 122 (in subgenus Formicicola). - Jeanne, 1978, Biotropica 10: 234-235 (nesting associations). - Overal, 1978, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.), Zool. 94: 11 (list). - Raw, 1989, Maracá Rainfor. Proj., Invert. Limnol., Prelim. Rep.: 33 (Brazil), 36 (distr.); 1989, Maracá Rainfor. Proj., Invert. Limnol., Prelim. Rep.: 41, 42 (habitat preference). - Carpenter and van der Vecht, 1991, Ann. Carnegie Mus. 60 (3): 216 (note on material seen by Fox). - Almeida and Castro, 1991, Acta Biol. Par., Curitiba 20: 47 (coll. list). - Joyce, 1993, Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 32 (2): 71-77 (nesting associations). - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 358 (list). - West-Eberhard et al., 1995, Hym. Costa Rica: 586 (Costa Rica). - Rodríguez-Palafox, 1996, in Llorente-Bousquets et al., Biodiv. Taxon. Biogeogr. Artrópod. México: 482 (list). - Dejean et al., 1998, Sociobiol. 32: 484 (Mexico). - Cooper, 2000, Entomol. Mon. Mag. 136: 196 (nest associated with Azteca; Agelaia pallidiventris; Polybia singularis, Synoeca virginea, Chartergus chartarius, and Icteridae). Polybia bicolor Smith, 1857, Cat. Hym. Br. Mus. 5: 131, female - “Brazil (Villa Nova)” (London). - Dalla Torre, 1904, Gen. Ins. 19: 77 (cat.). - Cameron, 1906, Invert. Pacif. 1: 152 (syn. of rejecta). Polybia rejecta race belizensis Cameron, 1906, Invert. Pacif. 1: 151, female - “Belize” (London). - Carpenter, 1999, Am. Mus. Novitat. 3259: 12 (notes on types; syn. of rejecta Fabricius). Polybia rejecta race javaryensis Cameron, 1906, Invert. Pacif. 1: 152 - [Brazil:] “Rio Javary, Amazons” (holotype female London). - Bequaert, 1944, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 94: 285 (species of Mischocyttarus). Polybia litoralis Zavattari, 1906, Boll. Mus. Zool. Anat. Comp. R. Univ. Torino 21 (529): 12, female - [Panama; Ecuador] “Punta de Sabana e delle foreste del Rio Peripa” (Torino). Polybia rejecta var. belizensis; Ducke, 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 508 (Central America; Brazil). - Bequaert, 1944, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 94: 285. Polybia rejecta var. litoralis; Ducke, 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 508 (Panama; Ecuador; Colombia). - Bequaert, 1944, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 94: 285. Polybia rejecta rejecta; Araujo, 1960, Studia Entomol. (N. S.) 3: 252 (Brazil: Amapá). Polybia rejecta morph belizensis; Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 45 (key), 122 (in subgenus Formicicola). Polybia rejecta morph litoralis; Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 45 (key), 122 (in subgenus Formicicola). Distr.: Mexico: Chiapas, Quintana Roo, Veracruz, Yucatán; Belize; Guatemala; Honduras; Nicaragua; Costa Rica; Panama; Colombia: Amazonas, Arauca, Boyacá, Caquetá, Chocó, Magdalena, Meta, Nariño, Putumayo, Valle; Venezuela: Amazonas, Bolívar, Delta Amacuro, Monagas, Zulia; Trinidad, Tobago; Guyana; Suriname; French Guiana; Ecuador: Esmereldas, Napo, Pastaza, Pichincha; Peru: Cuzco, Huánuco, Loreto; Brazil: Acre, Amapá, Amazonas, Bahia, Espírito Santo, Goiás, Maranhão, Mato Grosso, Minas Gerais, Pará, Pernambuco, Rio de Janeiro, Rondônia, Roraima, São Paulo; Bolivia: Beni, Cochabamba, La Paz, Pando. Subgenus Furnariana Richards Furnariana Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: v, 35, 120, subgenus of Polybia Lepeletier. Type species: Polybia furnaria R. von Ihering, 1904, by original designation and monotypy. furnaria R. von Ihering Polybia furnaria R. von Ihering, 1904, Rev. Mus. Paul. 6: 172 (key), 217, pl. VII fig. 13, female, male, nest - [Brazil:] “Santarém, Pará” (lectotype female São Paulo). - Ducke, 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 494 (key), 515, fig. 10 (nest; Brazil). - Araujo, 1946, Rev. Bras. Biol. 6: 259, figs. 1-3. - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 42 (key), 121 (designation of lectotype; in subgenus Furnariana). - Overal, 1978, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.), Zool. 94: 10 (list). - Almeida and Castro, 1991, Acta Biol. Par., Curitiba 20: 47 (coll. list). - Carpenter, 1999, Am. Mus. Novitat. 3259: 14 (notes on types). Distr.: Ecuador: Napo; Peru: Loreto; Brazil: Acre, Amazonas, Pará, Rondônia; Bolivia: Pando. richardsi Cooper Polybia richardsi Cooper, 1993, Entomol. Mon. Mag. 129: 31, female, male - “COLOMBIA: Amazonas, La Chorrera” (holotype female London); also from Putumayo; and Ecuador; Peru. Distr.: Colombia: Amazonas, Putumayo; Ecuador: Napo; Peru: Loreto. Subgenus Myrapetra White Myrapetra White 1841, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. 7: 320, genus. Type species: Myrapetra scutellaris White, 1841, by monotypy. Myraptera Curtis, 1844, Trans. Linn. Soc. Lond. 19: 256; White, 1844, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. 12: 268; de Saussure, 1854, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2: 192. Incorrect spelling of Myrapetra White. My de Saussure, 1854, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2: 191, division IV of subgenus Polybia of genus Polybia Lepeletier (11 species); at pl. 23: division of genus Polybia. Type species: Myrapetra scutellaris White, 1841, by subsequent designation of Bequaert, 1944, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 94: 292. Mi Dalla Torre, 1904, Genera Insect. 19: 76. Unjustified emendation of My de Saussure, 1854. Mu Bequaert, 1944, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 94: 292. Unjustified emendation of My de Saussure. aequatorialis aequatorialis Zavattari Polybia aequatorialis Zavattari, 1906, Boll. Mus. Zool. Anat. Comp. R. Univ. Torino 21 (529): 15, female - [Ecuador] “Pun” (Torino). - Ducke, 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 495 (key), 499 (female, male; Ecuador; Colombia). - Bequaert, 1943 (1942), J. New York Entomol. Soc. 50: 295 (key), 296, fig. 1D (Colombia; Ecuador). - Overal, 1978, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.), Zool. 94: 10 (list). - O'Donnell, 1996, Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 38: 83-88 (ethology); 1996, J. Ins. Behav. 9: 159-162 (ethology). Polybia aequatorialis var. (or subsp.) nigricans Bequaert, 1943 (1942), J. New York Entomol. Soc. 50: 296, female - “ECUADOR: Baños, Tungurahua, 1600 to 1900 m.” (Cambridge). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 59 (“morph” of typical form). Polybia aequatorialis aequatorialis; Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 37 (key), 59 (in subgenus Myrapetra). - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 358 (list). Distr.: Colombia: Cauca, Cundinamarca, Meta; Ecuador: Morona-Santiago, Pichincha, Tungurahua; Peru: Huánuco. aequatorialis tristis Bequaert Polybia aequatorialis var. (or subsp.) tristis Bequaert, 1943 (1942), J. New York Entomol. Soc. 50: 296, female - “PANAMA: El Volcan, Chiriqui, 10,000 ft.” (Cambridge). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 37 (key), 59 (in subgenus Myrapetra). Polybia aequatorialis; West-Eberhard et al., 1995, Hym. Costa Rica: 586 (Costa Rica). Distr.: Costa Rica; Panama. barbouri Bequaert Polybia signata; Rau, 1933, Jungle Bees Wasps Barro Col. Is.: 73, figs. 29-31. Polybia barbouri Bequaert, 1943, Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 36: 394, fig. 1, female, male - “Panama: Barro Colorado Island, Canal Zone” (holotype female Cambridge). - Windsor, 1976, Biotropica 8: 111-116 (predation by Leptodon cayanensis; Costa Rica). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 37 (key), 59, fig. 53 (in subgenus Myrapetra). - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 358 (Colombia: Valle; list). - West-Eberhard et al., 1995, Hym. Costa Rica: 586 (Costa Rica). Distr.: Costa Rica; Panama; Colombia: Nariño, Valle. belemensis belemensis Richards Polybia belemensis Richards, 1970, Proc. K. Ned. Akad. Weten. (C) 73: 304, female - “Brazil: Pará, Belém, Utinga, forest road” (holotype female Rio de Janeiro); also from elsewhere in Pará; and Suriname. Polybia belemensis belemensis; Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 40 (key), 95 (in subgenus Myrapetra). - Almeida and Castro, 1991, Acta Biol. Par., Curitiba 20: 47 (coll. list). Distr.: Suriname; French Guiana*; Brazil: Amazonas, Pará, Roraima. belemensis brevitarsus Richards Polybia belemensis brevitarsus Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 40 (key), 96, female, male (in subgenus Myrapetra) - “PANAMA: El Valle” (holotype female Washington); also from Costa Rica. Polybia belemensis; West-Eberhard et al., 1995, Hym. Costa Rica: 586 (Costa Rica). Distr.: Costa Rica; Panama. bicyttarella Richards Polybia bicyttarella Richards, 1951, in Richards and Richards, Trans. Entomol. Soc. London 102: 59, 132, figs. 11, 12a, 16b, female, male, nest - “BRITISH GUIANA: Mazaruni Station, clearing” (holotype female London); also from elsewhere in Guyana; 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 39 (key), 62, fig. 55 (in subgenus Myrapetra). - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 358 (Colombia: Meta; list). Distr.: Colombia: Meta; Guyana; Suriname; Brazil: Amazonas. bistriata (Fabricius) Polistes bistriata Fabricius, 1804, Syst. Piez.: 281 - “America meridionali” (Kobenhavn). - Dalla Torre, 1904, Gen. Ins. 19: 71, species dubiae (bistriatus). Polybia oecodoma de Saussure, 1854, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2: 195, female (in division My) - “Le Brésil. Bahia” (lectotype Paris); 1855, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2.: pl. XXV fig. 7. - Dalla Torre, 1904, Gen. Ins. 19: 78 (cat.). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 61 (designation of lectotype). Polybia bistriata; de Saussure, 1854, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2.: 212, species dubiae. - Ducke, 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 539 (? var. of Megacanthopus indeterminabilis). Polybia pallipes; Fox, 1898, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad.: 450 [partim]. Misidentification. Polybia infernalis; Fox, 1898, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad.: 451. Misidentification. Polybia mexicana; R. von Ihering, 1904, Rev. Mus. Paul. 6: 186, 251. Misidentification. Polybia occidentalis var. oecodoma; Ducke, 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 497 (nest; Brazil). Polybia brunneiceps Cameron, 1912, Timehri (3) 2: 208 (bruneiceps [!], key), 213, female (London). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 61 (effective designation of lectotype). - Carpenter, 1999, Am. Mus. Novitat. 3259: 12 (notes on types). Polybia bistriata; Bequaert, 1944, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 94: 281 (key) 288; 1949 (1948), Bol. Entomol. Venez. 7: 132 (Venezuela: Bolívar). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 39 (key), 61, fig. 54 (in subgenus Myrapetra). - Raw, 1988, Entomologist 107: 106 (role in agriculture), 107 (prey: aphids). - Carpenter and van der Vecht, 1991, Ann. Carnegie Mus. 60 (3): 217, 218 (note on material seen by Fox). - Almeida and Castro, 1991, Acta Biol. Par., Curitiba 20: 46 (coll. list). - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 358 (list). - Carpenter and Kojima, 2002, J. New York Entomol. Soc. 110: 212, 213, figs. 6-10, 20-23 (compared to P. selvana n. sp.). Distr.: Colombia: Amazonas, Caquetá, Meta, Putumayo, Vaupés; Venezuela: Bolívar; Guyana; Suriname; French Guiana; Ecuador: Napo; Peru: Cuzco, Huánuco, Junín, Loreto; Brazil: Acre, Amapá, Amazonas, Bahia, Espírito Santo, Mato Grosso, Minas Gerais, Pará, Rondônia, São Paulo; Bolivia: Cochabamba, La Paz, Pando. catillifex Möbius Polybia catillifex Möbius, 1856, Nester Gesell. Wespen: 16, 34 (key), pl. VIII, female, nest - “Brasilien” (Hamburg). - Dalla Torre, 1904, Gen. Ins. 19: 77 (cat.). - Ducke, 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 495 (key), 498 (syn.: P. septentrionalis R. von Ihering; nest; Ecuador; Venezuela; Peru; Bolivia; French Guiana; Brazil); 1918, Rev. Mus. Paul. 10: 367 (1910 Venezuelan record incorrect). - Bequaert, 1944, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 94: 281 (key), 288; 1949 (1948), Bol. Entomol. Venez. 7: 134. - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 39 (key), 60 (in subgenus Myrapetra). - Overal, 1978, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.), Zool. 94: 10 (catilifex [!]; list). - Almeida and Castro, 1991, Acta Biol. Par., Curitiba 20: 46 (coll. list). - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 358 (list). Polybia septentrionalis R. von Ihering, 1904, Rev. Mus. Paul. 6: 174 (key), 210, pl. VI fig. 10 - “Panamá ... Perú, Maracapatá ... ; Bolivia; Venezuela” (São Paulo) [name for P. fasciata sensu Lepeletier, 1836, and de Saussure, 1854]. - Ducke, 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 498 (syn. of catillifex Möbius). - Carpenter, 1999, Am. Mus. Novitat. 3259: 15 (notes on types). Distr.: Panama; Colombia: Amazonas, Caquetá, Meta, Putumayo, Valle; Venezuela; Guyana; Suriname; French Guiana; Ecuador: Napo; Peru: Cuzco, Huánuco, Junín, Loreto, Madre de Dios; Brazil: Amazonas, Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo; Bolivia: Beni, Cochabamba, La Paz. diguetana du Buysson Polybia occidentalis var. diguetana du Buysson, 1905, Bull. Soc. Entomol. France 1905: 9, female, male - “d'Oaxaca (Mexique)” (lectotype female Paris). - Ducke, 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 496 (Mexico). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 89 (designation of lectotype). - Carpenter, 1999, Am. Mus. Novitat. 3259: 13 (notes on types). Polybia diguetana; Richards, 1951, in Richards and Richards, Trans. Entomol. Soc. London 102: 138. - Snelling, 1970, Contrib. Sci. 137: 19. - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 42 (key), 89, fig. 56 (in subgenus Myrapetra). - Starr, 1988, Biotropica 20: 171-173 (nesting associations). - Almeida and Castro, 1991, Acta Biol. Par., Curitiba 20: 47 (coll. list). - Maes, 1992, Rev. Nicarag. Entomol. 19: 40 (Nicaragua: Zelaya). - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 358 (list). - West-Eberhard et al., 1995, Hym. Costa Rica: 586 (Costa Rica). - Rodríguez-Palafox, 1996, in Llorente-Bousquets et al., Biodiv. Taxon. Biogeogr. Artrópod. México: 482 (list). Distr.: U. S. A.: AZ (Nogales); Mexico: Baja California, Chiapas, D. F., Guerrero, México, Michoacán, Morelos, Nayarit, Oaxaca, Sinaloa, Tabasco, Tamaulipas, Veracruz, Yucatán; Belize; Guatemala; El Salvador; Honduras; Nicaragua; Costa Rica; Panama; Colombia: Amazonas, Cauca, Chocó, Magdalena, Meta, Nariño, Putumayo, Valle; Venezuela: Bolívar*; Ecuador: El Oro, Napo, Pastaza, Pichincha, Tungurahua; Peru: Cuzco, Huánuco, Loreto, Pasco; Bolivia: La Paz. dimorpha Richards Polybia dimorpha Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 40 (key), 57, female (in subgenus Myrapetra) - “SURINAM: Zanderij savannah” (Leiden); also from Brazil; Peru; Ecuador; Colombia. - Raw, 1989, Maracá Rainfor. Proj., Invert. Limnol., Prelim. Rep.: 34 (nest; resemblance to Polybia jurinei; Brazil), 36 (distr.); 1989, Maracá Rainfor. Proj., Invert. Limnol., Prelim. Rep.: 41, 42 (habitat preference). - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 358 (list). - Kojima and van Achterberg, 1997, Zool. Med., Leiden 71: 162 (list). - Carpenter, 1999, Am. Mus. Novitat. 3259: 13 (note on type). Distr.: Suriname; Ecuador: Napo; Peru: Cuzco; Brazil: Amazonas, Roraima. divisoria Richards Polybia divisoria Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 39 (key), 62, female, male (in subgenus Myrapetra) - “PERU: Huánuco, Cordillera Azul, Divisoria, 1300 m” (holotype female London); also from another locality in Huánuco; and Ecuador. Distr.: Ecuador: Tungurahua; Peru: Huánuco. erythrothorax Richards Polybia scutellaris; Fox, 1898, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad.: 449. Polybia erythrothorax Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 41 (key), 77, female, male (in subgenus Myrapetra) - “BRAZIL: MT, base camp, 12°50'S, 5°47'W” (holotype female Rio de Janeiro); also from other localities in Mato Grosso, and Pará, Goiás, São Paulo. - Almeida and Castro, 1991, Acta Biol. Par., Curitiba 20: 42 (note on type material). Polybia erythrogaster [!]; Carpenter and van der Vecht, 1991, Ann. Carnegie Mus. 60 (3): 215 (note on material seen by Fox). Distr.: Brazil: Goiás, Mato Grosso, Pará, São Paulo. fastidiosuscula de Saussure Polybia fastidiosuscula de Saussure, 1854, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2: 197, female (in division My) - “Le Brésil. Capitainerie de Goyaz” (lectotype Paris); 1855, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2.: pl. XXV fig. 4. - Fox, 1898, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad.: 448 (Brazil). - Dalla Torre, 1904, Gen. Ins. 19: 77 (cat.). - R. von Ihering, 1904, Rev. Mus. Paulista 6: 210. - Ducke, 1906, Rev. Entomol., Caen 25: 9 (Brazil); 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 496 (key), 499 (syns.: P. buyssoni R. von Ihering, P. sampaioi Ducke; male, nest; Brazil; Bolivia). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 58 (designation of lectotype). - Overal, 1978, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.), Zool. 94: 10 (list). - Carpenter and van der Vecht, 1991, Ann. Carnegie Mus. 60 (3): 215 (note on material seen by Fox). - Almeida and Castro, 1991, Acta Biol. Par., Curitiba 20: 46 (coll. list). - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 358 (list). - Garcete-Barrett, 1999, Avispas Soc. Parag.: 8 (mimic of Agelaia multipicta), 35 (key, figs. 5a, 5b), 37 (Paraguay). Polybia oecodoma; Fox, 1898, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad.: 449. Misidentification. Polybia Buyssoni R. von Ihering, 1903, Ann. Soc. Entomol. France 72: 151 - [Brazil:] “Piquete (Est. S. Paulo)” (lectotype female São Paulo); also from Ypiranga. - Dalla Torre, 1904, Gen. Ins. 19: 77 (cat.). - Ducke, 1906, Rev. Entomol., Caen 25: 8 (Brazil), 9 (compared to Monacanthocnemis buyssoni n. sp.). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 58 (designation of lectotype). - Carpenter, 1999, Am. Mus. Novitat. 3259: 12 (notes on types). Polybia Sampaioi Ducke, 1906, Rev. Entomol., Caen 25: 8, female - [Brazil:] “Curityba (État de Paraná)” (lectotype Paris); also from São Paulo. - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 58 (sampaioi; designation of lectotype). - Nascimento and Overal, 1979, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.) 95: 11 (sampaioi; list). - Carpenter, 1999, Am. Mus. Novitat. 3259: 15 (note on lectotype; syn. of fastidiosuscula de Saussure). Polybia fraterna “Sauss. i. litt.” Ducke, 1906, Rev. Entomol., Caen 25: 9 [nomen nudum]; 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 499 (syn. of Polybia fastidiosuscula var. Sampaioi). Polybia fastidiosuscula var. Sampaioi; Ducke, 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 499 (Brazil; Paraguay). Polybia fastidiosuscula var. Buyssoni; Ducke, 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 499 (Brazil), 521. Polybia fastidiosuscula morph fastidiosuscula; Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 37 (key), 58 (in subgenus Myrapetra). Polybia fastidiosuscula morph sampaioi; Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 37 (key), 58 (in subgenus Myrapetra). Polybia fastidiosuscula morph buyssoni; Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 37 (key), 58 (in subgenus Myrapetra). Distr.: Colombia: Putumayo; Ecuador: Guayas, Pichincha; Peru: Cajamarca, Junín, La Libertad, Lambayeque, San Martin, Tumbes; Brazil: Bahia, D. F., Espírito Santo, Goiás, Mato Grosso, Minas Gerais, Paraná, Rio Grande do Sul, Rio de Janeiro, Santa Catarina, São Paulo; Bolivia: La Paz; Paraguay: San Pedro, Canindeyú, Alto Paraná, Itapúa; Argentina: Corrientes, Misiones. ficaria Richards Polybia ficaria Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 41 (key), 80, female, male (in subgenus Myrapetra) - “PERU: Cajamarca, Celandin, 2600 m” (holotype male London). Distr.: Peru: Cajamarca. flavifrons barbatula Richards Polybia flavifrons barbatula Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 40 (key), 98, female, male (in subgenus Myrapetra) - “PERU: Lambayeque, Olmos, near Chiclayo” (holotype female London); also from Cajamarca, Huánuco; and Bolivia. Distr.: Peru: Cajamarca, Huánuco, Lambayeque; Bolivia: Cochabamba. flavifrons flavifrons Smith Polybia flavifrons Smith, 1857, Cat. Hym. Br. Mus. 5: 152, female - “Venezuela (Guayaquil)” [Ecuador] (London). - Dalla Torre, 1904, Gen. Ins. 19: 77 (cat.). Polybia saussurei Holmgren, 1868, K. Svenska Fregat. Eugenies Resa Omkring Jorden, Zool. 1, Ins., Hym.: 440 - [Ecuador] “California et Puna” (lectotype female Stockholm). - Dalla Torre, 1904, Gen. Ins. 19: 78 (cat.). - Ducke, 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 541 (? form of occidentalis). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 97 (designation of lectotype). Polybia occidentalis var. flavifrons; Bequaert, 1944, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 94: 286 [partim]. Polybia flavifrons flavifrons; Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 39 (key), 97 (in subgenus Myrapetra). Distr.: Ecuador: Esmereldas, Guayas, Loja, Manabi, I. Puná; Peru: Tumbes. flavifrons hecuba Richards Polybia parvula hecuba Richards, 1951, in Richards and Richards, Trans. Entomol. Soc. Lond. 102: 138, female - “BRAZIL: Theresopolis” (London). Polybia flavifrons hecuba; Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 40 (key), 98 (in subgenus Myrapetra). - Almeida and Castro, 1991, Acta Biol. Par., Curitiba 20: 47 (coll. list). - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 358 (list). Polybia flavifrons; West-Eberhard et al., 1995, Hym. Costa Rica: 586 (Costa Rica). Distr.: Costa Rica; Colombia: Caldas, Cauca, Putumayo; Venezuela; Peru: Cuzco; Brazil: Bahia, D. F., Espírito Santo, Goiás, Maranhão, Mato Grosso, Minas Gerais, Paraná, Rio Grande do Sul, Rio de Janeiro, Santa Catarina, São Paulo; Argentina: Misiones, Salta. juruana R. von Ihering Polybia occidentalis var. juruana R. von Ihering, 1904, Rev. Mus. Paul. 6: 198 - [Brazil:] “rio Jurúa, Amazonas” (lecotype female São Paulo); also from Peru. - Ducke, 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 496 (Brazil). - Bequaert, 1944, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 94: 287 [partim]. - Richards, 1951, in Richards and Richards, Trans. Entomol. Soc. London 102: 147. - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 79 (designation of lectotype). Polybia juruana; Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 41 (key), 79 (in subgenus Myrapetra). - Almeida and Castro, 1991, Acta Biol. Par., Curitiba 20: 47 (coll. list). - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 358 (Colombia: Cundinamarca; list). Distr.: Colombia: Cundinamarca; Peru: Cuzco, Junín, Loreto; Brazil: Acre, Amazonas, Mato Grosso; Bolivia: Beni. nidulatrix Bequaert Polybia nidulatrix Bequaert, 1933, in Rau, Jungle Bees Wasps Barro Colorado Is.: 312, fig. 2, female - [Panama] “Barro Colorado Island” (Cambridge). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 39 (key), 60 (in subgenus Myrapetra). - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 358 (list). - West-Eberhard et al., 1995, Hym. Costa Rica: 586 (Costa Rica). - Carpenter and Kojima, 2002, J. New York Entomol. Soc. 110: 212, 213, figs. 1-5, 16-19 (compared to P. selvana n. sp.). Distr.: Costa Rica; Panama; Colombia: I. Gorgona, Nariño; Ecuador: Esmereldas, Tungurahua. occidentalis bohemani Holmgren Polybia bohemani Holmgren, 1868, K. Svenska Fregat. Eugenies Resa Omkring Jorden, Zool. 1, Ins., Hym.: 441, female - [Panama] “Ins. S:t Joseph” (Stockholm). - Dalla Torre, 1904, Gen. Ins. 19: 77 (cat.). - Ducke, 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 539 (? Polybia, Stelopolybia or Megacanthopus). Polybia spilonota Cameron, 1904, Invert. Pacif. 1: 68, female - “San Marcos, Nicaragua” (lectotype London); 1907, Invert. Pacif. 1: 184 (spilopus [!]). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 69 (effective designation of lectotype; syn. of P. occidentalis bohemani). - Carpenter, 1999, Am. Mus. Novitat. 3259: 16 (notes on types). Polybia occidentalis var. spilonota; Bequaert, 1944, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 94: 287. Polybia parvula pseudospilonota Giordani Soika, 1965, Boll. Soc. Entomol. Ital. 95: 28, female - “Costa Rica: Sarapiqui, La Virgen” (Paris). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 68 (syn. of P. occidentalis bohemani). Polybia occidentalis invertita Giordani Soika, 1965, Boll. Soc. Entomol. Ital. 95: 30, female - “Costa Rica: Dint. di Cartago, 1500 m.” (Paris). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 68 (syn. of P. occidentalis bohemani). Polybia occidentalis spilonota; Windsor, 1972, Biotropica 4: 1-3 (nesting associations; Costa Rica). Polybia occidentalis bohemani; Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 42 (key), 69 (syns.: P. spilonota, P. parvula pseudospilonota, P. occidentalis invertita; in subgenus Myrapetra). - Almeida and Castro, 1991, Acta Biol. Par., Curitiba 20: 46 (coll. list). - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 358 (list). Polybia occidentalis; Windsor, 1976, Biotropica 8: 111-116 (predation by Leptodon cayanensis; Costa Rica). - Gorton, 1978, Ins. Soc. 25: 197-204 (nesting associations). - ? Maes, 1988, Rev. Nicarag. Entomol. 5: 87 (Nicaragua). - Starr, 1988, Biotropica 20: 171-173 (nesting associations). - O'Donnell and Jeanne, 1995, J. Kansas Entomol. Soc. 68: 43-50 (ethology); 1995, Experientia 51: 749-752 (ethology). - West-Eberhard et al., 1995, Hym. Costa Rica: 586 (Costa Rica) [partim]. Distr.: Mexico; Honduras; Nicaragua; Costa Rica; Panama; Colombia: Antioquia, Magdalena, Meta, Valle, Vaupés; Venezuela: Miranda; Ecuador: Pichincha. occidentalis cincta (Provancher) Eumenes cinctus Provancher, 1888, Faune Canada Hym. Suppl.: 422, female - “Trinidad” (Laval Univ., Quebec). Polybia occidentalis cincta; Vesey-Fitzgerald, 1956, Entomol. Mon. Mag. (4) 17: 163-164 (nest; Guyana). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 42 (key), 70 (cinctus; in subgenus Myrapetra). - Almeida and Castro, 1991, Acta Biol. Par., Curitiba 20: 46 (cinctus; coll. list). Distr.: Venezuela: Zulia; Trinidad, Tobago; Guyana; French Guiana; Brazil: Amapá, Pará. occidentalis grenadensis Richards Polybia occidentalis grenadensis Richards, 1951, in Richards and Richards, Trans. Entomol. Soc. London 102: 143, female - “GRENADA: St. George” (London); also from Balthazar; 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 42 (key), 70 (in subgenus Myrapetra). Distr.: Grenada; Balthazar; St. Vincent (?). occidentalis nigratella du Buysson Polybia occidentalis var. nigratella du Buysson, 1905, Bull. Soc. Entomol. France 1905: 9, female - “Mexique: environs d'Oaxaca” (? lectotype Paris). - Ducke, 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 501. - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 68 (designation of lectotype; syn.: P. occidentalis nausicaa Richards). - Carpenter, 1999, Am. Mus. Novitat. 3259: 14 (note on lectotype). Polybia occidentalis nausicaa Richards, 1951, in Richards and Richards, Trans. Entomol. Soc. London 102: 140, female, male - “MEXICO: N. Yucatan” (holotype female London). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 68 (syn. of P. occidentalis nigratella). Polybia occidentalis nigratella; Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 42 (key), 68 (in subgenus Myrapetra). - Rodriguez-Palafox, 1988, Fol. Entomol. Mex. 77: 500 (key), 514, figs. 3.1, 6.2; 1996, in Llorente-Bousquets et al., Biodiv. Taxon. Biogeogr. Artrópod. México: 482 (list). Polybia occidentalis; ? Maes, 1988, Rev. Nicarag. Entomol. 5: 87 (Nicaragua). - West-Eberhard et al., 1995, Hym. Costa Rica: 586 (Costa Rica) [partim]. Distr.: U. S. A.: AZ (Nogales); Mexico: Campeche, Chiapas, Colima, D. F., Durango, Guerrero, Hidalgo, Jalisco, Michoacán, Morelos, Nayarit, Nuevo León, Oaxaca, Quintana Roo, San Luis Potosí, Tabasco, Veracruz, Yucatán; Belize; Guatemala; El Salvador; Honduras; Nicaragua; Costa Rica; Panama*. occidentalis occidentalis (Olivier) Vespa occidentalis Olivier, 1792, Encyc. Méthod. 6 (2): 675 - [French Guiana] “Cayenne” (type lost). Vespa pygmaea Fabricius, 1793, Entomol. Syst. 2: 283 - [French Guiana] “Cajennae” (holotype female Kobenhavn). Polistes pygmaea; Fabricius, 1804, Syst. Piez.: 280. - Curtis, 1844, Trans. Linn. Soc. London 19: 258 (compared to Myraptera elegans n. sp.). Myraptera [!] elegans Curtis, 1844, Trans. Linn. Soc. London 19: 257, female - “Brazil” (type lost). Polybia pygmaea; de Saussure, 1854, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2.: 193, pl. XXIII fig. 5 (female, male; in division My). - Möbius, 1856, Abhand. Naturw. Vereins Hamburg 3: 137; 1856, Nester Gesell. Wespen: 17, 34 (key). - Fox, 1898, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad.: 449. - Dalla Torre, 1904, Gen. Ins. 19: 78 (cat.). - Cameron, 1907, Invert. Pacif. 1: 184 (Mexico). Polybia occidentalis; de Saussure, 1854, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2.: 194 (female, male; syn.: M. elegans Curtis, possible var.: P. pygmaea; in division My). - du Buysson and Marshall, 1892, Ann. Soc. Entomol. France 61: 59 (Venezuela). - Fox, 1898, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad.: 449 (Brazil). - Dalla Torre, 1904, Gen. Ins. 19: 78 (syn.: M. elegans Curtis; cat.). - R. von Ihering, 1904, Rev. Mus. Paul. 6: 198. - Ducke, 1904, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, Pará 4: 345 (key), 349 (Brazil); 1905, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, Pará 4: 654. - Cameron, 1906, Invert. Pacif. 1: 152 (Belize; Nicaragua; Brazil). - Zavattari, 1906, Mus. Zool. Anat. Comp. R. Univ. Torino 21 (529): 16 (Ecuador; Venezuela). - Ducke, 1906, Rev. Entomol., Caen 25: 9 (Brazil); 1908, Rev. Entomol., Caen 27: 85 (Brazil); 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 495 (key), 496 (syns.: P. pygmaea sensu de Saussure, P. parvula sensu de Saussure, P. oecodoma de Saussure, P. scutellaris sensu de Saussure, M. elegans Curtis, P. albopicta Smith, P. flavifrons Smith, P. ruficeps Schrottky, P. spilonota Cameron, P. fastidiosuscula var nigriceps Zavattari, mexicana sensu von Ihering; male, nest; Brazil; Mexico; Argentina). - Cameron, 1912, Timehri (3) 2: 215 (Guyana). - Ducke, 1918, Rev. Mus. Paul. 10: 332. - Martorell, 1939, J. Agric. Univ. Puerto Rico 23: 230 (Venezuela). - Vesey-Fitzgerald, 1939, Proc. R. Entomol. Soc. London (A) 14: 105 (mimicry). - Bequaert, 1944, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 94: 281 (key), 286 (typical occidentalis); 1949 (1948), Bol. Entomol. Venez. 7: 133 (Venezuela localities). - Jeanne, 1978, Biotropica 10: 234 (nesting). - Overal, 1978, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.), Zool. 94: 11 (list). - Raw, 1988, Entomologist 107: 104 (nest site), 106 (role in agriculture). - Queller et al., 1988, Science 242: 1155-1157 (genetics). - Carpenter and van der Vecht, 1991, Ann. Carnegie Mus. 60 (3): 215 (note on material seen by Fox). - Queller et al., 1993. Behav. Ecol. 4: 7-13 (genetics). - Queller et al., 1993, Nature 365: 639-641 (genetics). - Strassmann et al., 1996, Mol. Ecol. 5: 461(genetics). - Strassmann et al., 1998, Mol. Ecol. 7:709-718 (ethology). - Garcete-Barrett, 1999, Avispas Soc. Parag.: 8 (mimic), 36 (key, figs. 8a, 8c-d), 38 (Paraguay). Polybia pygmaea var minor Möbius, 1856, Abhand. Naturw. Vereins Hamburg 3: 166; 1856, Nester Gesell. Wespen: pl. IX, nest - [Venezuela] “Puerto Cabello” (? Hamburg). Polybia pygmaea var major Möbius, 1856, Abhand. Naturw. Vereins Hamburg 3: 166; ; 1856, Nester Gesell. Wespen: pl. X, nest - “Brasilien” (? Hamburg). Polybia albo-picta Smith, 1857, Cat. Hym. Br. Mus. 5: 131, female - “Brazil” (London). - Dalla Torre, 1904, Gen. Ins. 19: 76 (albopicta; cat.). - Cameron, 1906, Invert. Pacif. 1: 152 (syn. of occidentalis; Guyana); 1906, Invert. Pacif. 1: 156 (Brazil). Polybia fastidiosuscula var nigriceps Zavattari, 1906, Boll. Mus. Zool. Anat. Comp. R. Univ. Torino 21 (529): 16, female - [Ecuador] “Guayaquil, Vinces e Balzar” (lectotype Torino). - Bequaert, 1944, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 94: 286 (no more than individual variants of typical occidentalis). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 68 (designation of lectotype, as “holotype” from “NICARAGUA”; syn. of P. occidentalis nigratella du Buysson). REVISED SYNONYMY. Polybia occidentalis var. albopicta; Martorell and Salas, 1939, J. Agric. Univ. Puerto Rico 23: 251 (Venezuela: Monagas, Trujillo). Polybia occidentalis occidentalis; Machado, 1977, An. Soc. Entomol. Brasil 6: 7-24 (ethology). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 42 (key), 64 (in subgenus Myrapetra). - Gobbi, 1984, Rev. Brasil. Entomol. 28: 451-457 (ethology). - Gobbi et al., 1984, An. Soc. Entomol. Brasil 13: 63-69 (ethology). - Almeida and Castro, 1991, Acta Biol. Par., Curitiba 20: 46 (coll. list). - Maes, 1992, Rev. Nicarag. Entomol. 19: 40 (Nicaragua: Zelaya). Distr.: Colombia: Amazonas*; Venezuela: Aragua, Barinas, Carabobo, D. F., Trujillo; Guyana; Suriname; French Guiana; Peru: Huánuco; Brazil: Amazonas, Bahia, Ceará, D. F., Espírito Santo, Goiás, Maranhão, Mato Grosso, Minas Gerais, Pará, Paraiba, Paraná, Pernambuco, Rio Grande do Norte, Rio Grande do Sul, Rio de Janeiro, Rondônia, Roraima, São Paulo; Ecuador; Bolivia: Beni, Cochabamba, La Paz, Santa Cruz; Paraguay: Presidente Hayes, Central, Cordillera, Paraguarí, San Pedro, Amambay, Canindeyú, Alto Paraná, Itapúa; Argentina: Chaco, Corrientes, Entre Rios, Formosa, Jujuy, Misiones, Santa Fé. occidentalis venezuelana Giordani Soika ? Polybia occidentalis var. juruana; Myers, 1935, Trans. R. Entomol. Soc. London 83: 14 (nests associated with the bird, Synallaxis sp., in Venezuela). - Bequaert, 1949 (1948), Bol. Entomol. Venez. 7: 133 (list). Polybia occidentalis venezuelana Giordani Soika, 1965, Boll. Soc. Entomol. Ital. 95: 29, female - “Venezuela: I. Margarita” (Venezia); also from Guarico and Aragua. - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 42 (key), 70 (in subgenus Myrapetra). - Raw, 1989, Maracá Rainfor. Proj., Invert. Limnol., Prelim. Rep.: 34 (nest; Brazil), 36 (distr.), 38; 1989, Maracá Rainfor. Proj., Invert. Limnol., Prelim. Rep.: 41 (habitat preference). - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 358 (list). - Carpenter, 1999, Am. Mus. Novitat. 3259: 16 (note on type). Distr.: Colombia: Arauca, Boyacá, Cundinamarca, Guajira, Nariño, Putumayo; Venezuela: Apure, Aragua, Barinas, Bolívar, Guárico, Isla Margarita; Peru: Tumbes; Brazil: Roraima. parvulina Richards Polybia parvula; ? de Saussure, 1854, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2.: 196 (in division My). - Dalla Torre, 1904, Gen. Ins. 19: 78 (cat.). - Richards, 1951, in Richards and Richards, Trans. Entomol. Soc. London 102: 137. - Araujo, 1960, Studia Entomol. (N. S.) 3: 252 (Brazil: Amapá). Polybia diguetana; Martorell, 1939, J. Agric. Univ. Puerto Rico 23: 230. Polybia occidentalis var. parvula; Bequaert, 1944, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 94: 287; 1949 (1948), Bol. Entomol. Venez. 7: 133 (list). Polybia parvulina Richards, 1970, Proc. K. Ned. Akad. Weten. (C) 73: 305, female - “Guyana: New River” (London); Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 39 (key), 96 (in subgenus Myrapetra). - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 358 (list). - West-Eberhard et al., 1995, Hym. Costa Rica: 586 (Costa Rica). Distr.: Mexico; Guatemala; Costa Rica; Panama; Colombia: Huila, Valle; Venezuela: Aragua; Guyana; Suriname; French Guiana; Brazil: Amapá (?), Amazonas. paulista H. von Ihering Polybia scutellaris var. paulista H. von Ihering, 1896, Bull. Soc. Entomol. France 21: 160, female, male - “Brésil” (lectotype female São Paulo); 1896, Zool. Anz. 19: 450 (São Paulo). - R. von Ihering, 1904, Rev. Mus. Paul. 6: 257. - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 85 (designation of lectotype). Polybia occidentalis var. scutellaris form paulista; Ducke, 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 498. Polybia paulista; Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 41 (key), 85 (in subgenus Myrapetra). - Simôes and Mechi, 1983, Naturalia 8: 185-191 (ethology). - Gobbi, 1984, Rev. Brasil. Entomol. 28: 451-457 (ethology). - Gobbi and Machado, 1985, An. Soc. Entomol. Brasil 14: 189-195 (ethology). - Machado, 1985, Rev. Brasil. Zool. 2: 187-201 (ethology). - Almeida and Castro, 1991, Acta Biol. Par., Curitiba 20: 47 (coll. list). - Manzoli-Palma and Gobbi, 1994, An. Soc. Entomol. Brasil 23 (2): 291-298 (ethology). - Vitali and Machado, 1995, An. Soc. Entomol. Brasil 24 (1): 77-88 (flower visitation). - Garcete-Barrett, 1999, Avispas Soc. Parag.: 8 (mimic of Polybia scutellaris), 36 (key, figs. 8aa, 8cc-dd), 38 (Paraguay). - Carpenter, 1999, Am. Mus. Novitat. 3259: 15 (notes on types). - Kudo et al., 2001, Ethol. Ecol. Evol. 13: 351-360 (nest materials). Distr.: Brazil: Goiás, Mato Grosso, Minas Gerais, Paraná, São Paulo; Paraguay: Paraguarí, Canindeyú, Itapúa, San Pedro; Argentina: Corrientes, Misiones, San Juan. platycephala platycephala Richards Polybia occidentalis platycephala Richards, 1951, in Richards and Richards, Trans. Entomol. Soc. London 102: 43, 143, female, male - “BRITISH GUIANA: Mazaruni Station, clearing” (holotype female London); also from two other localities. Polybia platycephala platycephala; Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 41 (key), 90 (in subgenus Myrapetra). - Almeida and Castro, 1991, Acta Biol. Par., Curitiba 20: 47 (coll. list). Distr.: Guyana; Suriname; French Guiana; Peru: Huánuco, Loreto; Brazil: Amapá, Mato Grosso, Pará, Rondônia. platycephala sylvestris Richards Polybia platycephala sylvestris Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 41 (key), 91, female (in subgenus Myrapetra) - “Brazil: MT, base camp, 12°50'S, 51°47'W” (Rio de Janeiro); also from other localities in Mato Grosso, Goiás, Amazonas, Acre, Amapá, Rio de Janeiro, Minas Gerais, São Paulo; and Suriname; Peru. - Almeida and Castro, 1991, Acta Biol. Par., Curitiba 20: 43 (note on type material). - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 358 (list). Polybia platycephala; Garcete-Barrett, 2002 (2001), Bol. Mus. Nac. Hist. Nat. Parag. 13: 48 (Paraguay). Distr.: Colombia: Amazonas, Putumayo, Vaupés; Suriname; Peru: Junín, Loreto; Brazil: Acre, Amapá, Amazonas, Goiás, Mato Grosso, Minas Gerais, Pará, Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo; Paraguay: Canindeyú, San Pedro, Alto Paraguay, Itapúa. roraimae Raw Polybia occidentalis subspecies AR 1; Raw, 1989, Maracá Rainfor. Proj., Invert. Limnol., Prelim. Rep.: 34; 1989, Maracá Rainfor. Proj., Invert. Limnol., Prelim. Rep.: 42 (habitat preference); 1992, Nature Dynam. For.-Savan. Boundaries: 510. Polybia roraimae Raw, 1998, Maracá, Biodivers. Environ. Amazon. Rainfor.: 320. Nomen nudum. Polybia roraimae Raw, 2000 (1999), Rev. Bras. Zool. 16 (4): 987, 988, female, nest (in subgenus Myrapetra) - “Dry evergreen forest, 4 km from the eastern end of the Ilha de Maracá, and 2 km north of the Maracá branch of the river Uraricoera, Roraima, Brazil (3°38’N and 61°51’W)” (Manaus). Distr.: Brazil: Roraima. ruficeps asticta Richards Polybia ruficeps asticta Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 42 (key), 76, female (in subgenus Myrapetra) - “BOLIVIA: Cochabamba, Yungas, Esp. Santo” (Washington). Distr.: Bolivia: Cochabamba. ruficeps ruficeps Schrottky Polybia occidentalis var.; Fox, 1898, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad.: 449. Polybia ruficeps Schrottky, 1902, An. Mus. Nac. Hist. Nat. Buenos Aires (3) 8 (1): 116, female - “Argentinische ... Salta” (type lost?). - Dalla Torre, 1904, Gen. Ins. 19: 78 (cat.). - Carpenter and van der Vecht, 1991, Ann. Carnegie Mus. 60 (3): 215 (note on material seen by Fox). - Garcete-Barrett, 1999, Avispas Soc. Parag.: 8 (mimics), 36 (key, fig. 7b), 37 (Paraguay). Polybia occidentalis var. ruficeps; Bequaert, 1944, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 94: 287. Polybia occidentalis ruficeps; Richards, 1951, in Richards and Richards, Trans. Entomol. Soc. London 102: 138. - Willink, 1952, Acta Zool. Lilloana 10: 137. Polybia ruficeps ruficeps; Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 42 (key), 71 (in subgenus Myrapetra). - Almeida and Castro, 1991, Acta Biol. Par., Curitiba 20: 47 (coll. list). Distr.: Brazil: Ceará, Goiás, Maranhão, Mato Grosso, Santa Catarina; Bolivia: Beni, Chuquisaca, Cochabamba; Paraguay: Alto Paraguay, Concepción; Argentina: Buenos Aires, Catamarca, Chaco, Córdoba, Corrientes, Formosa, Jujuy, La Rioja, Mendoza, Salta, San Luis, Santiago del Estero, Tucumán. ruficeps xanthops Richards Polybia ruficeps xanthops Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 41 (key), 76, female, male (in subgenus Myrapetra) - “BRAZIL: MT, left bank R. Sucuriu, Três Lagoas, Faz. Canaa” (holotype female São Paulo); also from Barragem de Ilha Solteira, and Ceará, Minas Gerais, Bahia, Rio Grande do Norte. - Almeida and Castro, 1991, Acta Biol. Par., Curitiba 20: 42 (note on type material). Distr.: Brazil: Ceará, D. F., Goiás, Mato Grosso, Minas Gerais, Rio Grande do Norte. scrobalis pronotalis Richards Polybia scrobalis pronotatus West-Eberhard, 1975, Cespedesia 4 (16): 251. Nomen nudum. Polybia scrobalis pronotalis Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 40 (key), 88, female (in subgenus Myrapetra) - “COLOMBIA: Valle, Cali, 900 m” (London); also from another locality in Valle; and Ecuador. - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 358 (list). Distr.: Colombia: Amazonas, Putumayo, Valle; Ecuador: Napo, Pichincha; Peru: Pasco; Bolivia: Beni, Cochabamba, La Paz, Pando. scrobalis scrobalis Richards Polybia scrobalis scrobalis Richards, 1970, Proc. K. Ned. Akad. Weten. (C) 73: 302, 303, female - “Brazil: Mato Grosso, 12°49'S, 51°46'W, gallery forest” (holotype female Rio de Janeiro); also from Acre; Pará; Amazonas; and Peru; 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 40 (key), 86, 87 (in subgenus Myrapetra). - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 358 (Colombia: Amazonas, Caquetá; list). Distr.: Colombia: Amazonas, Caquetá; Ecuador: Morona-Santiago; Peru: Cuzco, Loreto; Brazil: Acre, Amazonas, D. F., Mato Grosso, Pará, Rondônia; Bolivia: Chuquisaca, La Paz. scrobalis surinama Richards Polybia scrobalis surinama Richards, 1970, Proc. K. Ned. Akad. Weten. (C) 73: 303, female - “Surinam: Coppername [Coppename] R., Voltz Mt.” (Leiden); also from elsewhere in Suriname; and Brazil; 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 40 (key), 88 (in subgenus Myrapetra). - Almeida and Castro, 1991, Acta Biol. Par., Curitiba 20: 47 (coll. list). - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 358 (list). - Kojima and van Achterberg, 1997, Zool. Med., Leiden 71: 163 (list). Polybia scrobalis; West-Eberhard et al., 1995, Hym. Costa Rica: 586 (Costa Rica). Distr.: Costa Rica; Panama; Colombia: Amazonas, Arauca, Magdalena, Meta, Nariño, Putumayo, Vaupés; Suriname; French Guiana; Brazil: Amapá, Amazonas. scutellaris (White) Myrapetra scutellaris White, 1841, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. 7: 322, pl. 4 figs. 1-3 (nest ), 4-7 - “banks of the Rio Yancay (Uruguay?)” (holotype female London). - Curtis, 1844, Trans. Linn. Soc. London 19: 258 (Myraptera [!]). - Lucas, 1885, Ann. Soc. Entomol. France, Bull. Entomol. (6) 5: liv (Myraptera [!]; nest; Uruguay). Polybia scutellaris; de Saussure, 1854, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2.: 192, pl. XXIII fig. 4 (female, male; in division My). - R. von Ihering, 1903, Zool. Anz. 27: 115 (ethology). - Dalla Torre, 1904, Gen. Ins. 19: 78 (cat.). - Schrottky, 1904, Allg. Zeitschr. Entomol. 9: 345 (Paraguay); 1906, An. Cient. Paraguay (1) 6: 10 (mimicry). - Ducke, 1906, Rev. Entomol., Caen 25: 9 (Brazil). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 41 (key), 81, fig. 52 (in subgenus Myrapetra). - Almeida and Castro, 1991, Acta Biol. Par., Curitiba 20: 47 (coll. list). - Cascone et al., 1995, Toxicon 33 (5): 659-665 (venom chemistry). - Garcete-Barrett, 1999, Avispas Soc. Parag.: 8 (mimics), 35 (key, figs. 6a, 6d), 37. Polybia occidentalis var. scutellaris; Ducke, 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 497 (nest; Brazil; Argentina; French Guiana) [partim]. - Bequaert, 1944, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 94: 287. - Richards, 1951, in Richards and Richards, Trans. Entomol. Soc. London 102: 147. Polybia scutellaris uruguayensis Giordani Soika, 1965, Boll. Soc. Entomol. Ital. 95: 30, female - “Uruguay: Buschental, S. Josè” (Paris); also from two other localities. Distr.: Brazil: Bahia, D. F., Espírito Santo, Goiás, Mato Grosso, Minas Gerais, Paraná, Rio Grande do Sul, Rio de Janeiro, Santa Catarina*, São Paulo; Paraguay; Uruguay; Argentina: Buenos Aires, Córdoba, Corrientes, Entre Rios, Formosa, Jujuy, Mendoza, Misiones, San Juan, Santa Fé, Tucumán. selvana Carpenter Polybia selvana Carpenter, 2002, in Carpenter and Kojima, J. New York Entomol. Soc. 110: 212, 213, figs. 11-15, 24-45, female. male, larva, nest (in subgenus Myrapetra) - “COSTA RICA, Heredia Prov., La Selva Biol. Sta., 3 km S Pto. Viejo, 10°26’N 84°01’W” (holotype female San Jose). Distr.: Costa Rica. Subgenus Pedothoeca Richards Pedothoeca Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: v, 35, 113, subgenus of Polybia Lepeletier. Type species: Polybia singularis Ducke, 1909, by original designation. brunnea (Curtis) Myraptera [!] brunnea Curtis, 1844, Trans. Linn. Soc. London 19: 256, pl. XXXI figs. 8-10, female - “Brazil” (lectotype female London). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 120 (designation of lectotype). Polybia brunnea; de Saussure, 1854, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2.: 211, species dubiae. - Dalla Torre, 1904, Gen. Ins. 19: 77 (brunea [!]; cat.). - Ducke, 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 539. - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 45 (key), 120 (in subgenus Pedothoeca). Distr.: Brazil. emaciata Lucas Polybia fasciata; Lepeletier, 1836, Hist. Nat. Ins. Hym. 1: 534 (syn.: Vespa fulvo fasciata DeGeer; French Guiana). - Ducke, 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 540, species dubiae. Polybia fasciata de Saussure, 1854, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2: 182, pl. XXIV fig. 6, female (in division Iota) - “Panama” (London) [non Olivier, 1792, treated by de Saussure as a synonym of P. phthisica]. - Fox, 1898, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad.: 448 (Brazil). - Dalla Torre, 1904, Gen. Ins. 19: 77 (cat.). - Schrottky, 1904, Allg. Zeitschr. Entomol. 9: 345 (Paraguay). - Zavattari, 1906, Boll. Mus. Zool. Anat. Comp. Torino 21 (529): 13 (syn.: P. septentrionalis R. von Ihering; Ecuador). - Cameron, 1906, Invert. Pacif. 1: 150 (Belize). - Ducke, 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 493 (key), 513 (syns.: cayennensis sensu Moebius, emaciata Lucas, phthisica sensu du Buysson, fulvofasciata sensu Schulz, caementaria Ducke; nest; Panama; Venezuela; Brazil); 1918, Rev. Mus. Paul. 10: 340. - Martorell, 1939, J. Agric. Univ. Puerto Rico 23: 230. - Overal, 1978, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.), Zool. 94: 10 (list). - Carpenter and van der Vecht, 1991, Ann. Carnegie Mus. 60 (3): 215 (note on material seen by Fox). - Carpenter, 1999, Am. Mus. Novitat. 3259: 13 (note on type). Polybia cayennensis [!]; Möbius, 1856, Abhand. Naturw. Vereins Hamburg 3: 131; 1856, Nester Gesell. Wespen: 11, 34 (key), pls. V-VI, VII fig. 9 (nest; Venezuela: Puerto Cabello). Polybia emaciata Lucas, 1879, Ann. Soc. Entomol. France (5) 9: 363, pl. 9 figs. 1-2, female - “Brésil” (? Paris). - Dalla Torre, 1904, Gen. Ins. 19: 77 (cat.). - Bequaert, 1944, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 94: 280 (key), 281; 1949 (1948), Bol. Entomol. Venez. 7: 132 (Venezuela localities). - Hebling and Letizio, 1973, Bull. Soc. Entomol. 7: 23-24 (caste polymorphism). - West-Eberhard, 1975, Cespedesia 4 (16): 256 (Colombia). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 45 (key), 117, fig. 61 (in subgenus Pedothoeca). - Almeida and Castro, 1991, Acta Biol. Par., Curitiba 20: 47 (coll. list). - Strassmann et al., 1992, Am. Nat. 140: 363-372 (ethology). - Queller et al., 1993, Nature 365: 639-641 (genetics). - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 358 (list). - West-Eberhard et al., 1995, Hym. Costa Rica: 586 (Costa Rica). - Rodríguez-Palafox, 1996, in Llorente-Bousquets et al., Biodiv. Taxon. Biogeogr. Artrópod. México: 482 (list). - Strassmann et al., 1996, Mol. Ecol. 5: 461(genetics). - Mejdalani and Felix, 1997, Proc. Entomol. Soc. Wash. 99 (1):159 (mimicry by Lissocarta beckeri (Homoptera: Cicadellidae)). Polybia phthisica; du Buysson, 1899, Bull. Soc. Entomol. France: 129. Misidentification. Polybia caementaria Ducke, 1904, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, Pará 4: 348 (key), 355, female, nest - [Brazil:] “Belem do Pará, nas mattas, ... alto Purús (Estado do Amazonas)” (Bern, Paris, Belém). - Overal, 1978, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.), Zool. 94: 10 (possible syntypes in Belém). - Nascimento and Overal, 1979, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.) 95: 10 (list). - Carpenter, 1999, Am. Mus. Novitat. 3259: 13 (notes on types). Distr.: Mexico: Tabasco; Guatemala; Honduras; Nicaragua; Costa Rica; Panama; Colombia: Amazonas, Arauca, Caquetá, Cauca, Magdalena, Meta, Nariño, Putumayo, Vaupés; Venezuela: Barinas, Carabobo, Miranda, Portuguesa; Guyana; Suriname; French Guiana; Ecuador: Napo, Pastaza, Pichincha; Peru: Cuzco, Huánuco, Junín, Loreto; Brazil: Acre, Amapá, Amazonas, D. F., Goiás, Mato Grosso, Minas Gerais, Pará, Rio de Janeiro, Rondônia, São Paulo; Bolivia: Beni, Cochabamba, Pando; Paraguay. singularis Ducke Polybia emaciata; Ducke, 1905, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, Pará 4: 680, pl. 4 fig. 17, female, nest - [Brazil:] “Obidos.” Polybia singularis Ducke, 1909, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 7: 627 (lectotype female London) [name for P. emaciata sensu Ducke, 1905]; 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 494 (key), 512, fig. 9 (Brazil). - Bequaert, 1944, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 94: 280 (key), 288. - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 45 (key), 114, fig. 63 (designation of lectotype; in subgenus Pedothoeca). - Overal, 1978, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.), Zool. 94: 11 (list). - Nascimento and Overal, 1979, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.) 95: 11 (list). - Almeida and Castro, 1991, Acta Biol. Par., Curitiba 20: 47 (coll. list). - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 358 (list). - Carpenter, 1999, Am. Mus. Novitat. 3259: 16 (notes on types). - Cooper, 2000, Entomol. Mon. Mag. 136: 196 (nest association with Azteca; Agelaia pallidiventris; Polybia rejecta, Synoeca virginea, Chartergus chartarius, and Icteridae). Distr.: Colombia: Meta, Putumayo; Guyana; Suriname; Ecuador: Napo; Peru: Huánuco; Brazil: Amazonas, Goiás, Mato Grosso, Pará, Rondônia. spinifex Richards Polybia spinifex Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 38, fig. 62, 45 (key), 119, fig. 62, female (in subgenus Pedothoeca) - “SURINAM: Sarakreek, Afobaka” (Leiden). - Raw, 1988, Entomologist 107: 105 (nest site; Brazil), 106 (role in agriculture), 107 (prey: Cirphis sp.). - Kojima and van Achterberg, 1997, Zool. Med., Leiden 71: 163 (list). Distr.: Suriname; Brazil: Rondônia. Subgenus Platypolybia Richards Platypolybia Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: v, 35, 124, subgenus of Polybia Lepeletier. Type species: Polybia incerta Ducke, 1907, by original designation. Platycephala Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 46. Incorrect spelling of Platypolybia Richards. incerta Ducke Polybia incerta Ducke, 1907, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, Pará 5: 175 (key), 179, female - “Teffé (Estado do Amazonas)” (lectotype São Paulo); 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 495 (key), 500 (female; Brazil). - Bequaert, 1943 (1942), J. New York Entomol. Soc. 50: 296 (key), 297 (Peru). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 124 (designation of lectotype). - Overal, 1978, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.), Zool. 94: 10 (list). - Nascimento and Overal, 1979, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.) 95: 10 (list). - Carpenter, 1999, Am. Mus. Novitat. 3259: 14 (notes on types). Polybia “weyrauchi nov. spec., Bequaert” Weyrauch, 1943, Bol. Mus. Hist. Nat. Javier Prado 7: 72. Nomen nudum. Polybia incerta var. (or subsp.) weyrauchi Bequaert, 1943 (1942), J. New York Entomol. Soc. 50: 298, fig. 1A-C, female - “PERU: Oxapampa ... at 1800 m.” (Cambridge); also from 1200 m. Polybia incerta morph incerta; Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 46 (incerata [!]; key), 125 (in subgenus Platypolybia). Polybia incerta morph weyrauchi; Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 46 (key), 125 (in subgenus Platypolybia). Distr.: Ecuador: Pastaza; Peru: Ayacucho, Huánuco, Junín, Pasco; Brazil: Amazonas, Pará; Bolivia: Chuquisaca, Cochabamba, La Paz (?). procellosa dubitata Ducke Polybia theresiana ?; Ducke, 1907, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, Pará 5. Polybia dubitata Ducke, 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 495 (key), 500, female - “Obidos” (lectotype São Paulo); also from Belém, and Amazonas (Tabatinga). - Overal, 1978, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.), Zool. 94: 10 (list). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 126 (designation of lectotype). - Nascimento and Overal, 1979, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.) 95: 10 (list). - Carpenter, 1999, Am. Mus. Novitat. 3259: 13 (notes on types). Polybia procellosa var. dubitata; Bequaert, 1943 (1942), J. New York Entomol. Soc. 50: 295, 297 (Guyana; Peru); 1944, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 94: 288. Polybia procellosa dubitata; Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 46 (key), 126 (in subgenus Platypolybia). - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 358 (dubidata [!]; list). Distr.: Colombia: Vaupés; Guyana; Suriname; French Guiana; Peru: Cuzco, Huánuco, Junín, Loreto; Brazil: Amazonas, Pará; Bolivia: Cochabamba. procellosa procellosa Zavattari Polybia procellosa Zavattari, 1906, Boll. Mus. Zool. Anat. Comp. R. Univ. Torino 21 (529): 14, female - [Ecuador] “San José” (Torino). - Ducke, 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 495 (key), 500 (female; Ecuador). - Bequaert, 1943 (1942), J. New York Entomol. Soc. 50: 295 (key), 297, fig. 1E-F (Ecuador); 1944, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 94: 281 (key), 288 (typical procellosa). Polybia procellosa procellosa; Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 46 (key), 126 (in subgenus Platypolybia). - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 358 (list). Distr.: Colombia: Meta, Putumayo; Ecuador: Napo, Pichincha, Zamora-Chinchipe; Peru: Huánuco (?). Subgenus Polybia Lepeletier Polybia Lepeletier, 1836, Hist. Nat. Ins. Hym. 1: 533, genus (3 species). Type species: Polistes liliacea Fabricius, 1804, by subsequent designation of Ashmead, 1902, Can. Entomol. 34: 166. Iota de Saussure, 1854, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2: 174, division II of subgenus Polybia of genus Polybia Lepeletier (12 species); at plates 22 and 24: division of genus Polybia. Type species: “Polybia liliacea (F.)” [= Polistes liliacea Fabricius, 1804], by subsequent designation of Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 33. Jota Dalla Torre, 1894, Cat. Hym. 9: 161; 1904, Genera Insect. 19: 76. Unjustified emendation of Iota de Saussure, 1854. Eupolybia Dalla Torre, 1904, Genera Insect. 19: 76, name for subgenus Polybia of genus Polybia Lepeletier in de Saussure, 1854, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2: 167 (53 species). Type species: Polistes liliacea Fabricius, 1804, by subsequent designation of Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 33, 46. Iota Richards, 1978, Social Wasps Am.: 33, 46, in synonymy of Polybia Lepeletier. Unjustified emendation of Jota Dalla Torre, 1894; unavailable under Article 11.6 of the Code; junior homonym of Iota de Saussure, 1854. liliacea (Fabricius) Polistes liliacea Fabricius, 1804, Syst. Piez.: 271 - “America meridionali” (Kobenhavn). Polybia liliacea; Lepeletier, 1836, Hist. Nat. Ins. Hym. 1: 533 (French Guiana). - de Saussure, 1854, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2.: 174 (in division Iota; French Guiana) [partim]. - Fox, 1898, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad.: 450 [partim]. - Dalla Torre, 1904, Gen. Ins. 19: 77 (cat.). - R. von Ihering, 1904, Rev. Mus. Paul. 6: 199. - Ducke, 1904, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, Pará 4: 345 (key), 350 (Brazil). - Zavattari, 1906, Boll. Mus. Zool. Anat. Comp. Torino 21 (529): 12 (Ecuador). - Ducke, 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 494 (key), 508 (female, male, nest; Venezuela; French Guiana; Brazil). - Cameron, 1912, Timehri (3) 2: 208 (key), 211 (Guyana). - Bequaert, 1944, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 94: 278 (key), 282; 1949 (1948), Bol. Entomol. Venez. 7: 133 (list). - Araujo, 1960, Studia Entomol. (N. S.) 3: 252 (Brazil: Amapá). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 35 (key), 46, fig. 43 (in subgenus Polybia). - Overal, 1978, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.), Zool. 94: 10 (list). - Raw, 1989, Maracá Rainfor. Proj., Invert. Limnol., Prelim. Rep.: 33 (nest; Brazil), 36 (distr.); 1989, Maracá Rainfor. Proj., Invert. Limnol., Prelim. Rep.: 41, 42, 44 (habitat preference). - Carpenter and van der Vecht, 1991, Ann. Carnegie Mus. 60 (3): 217 (note on material seen by Fox). - Almeida and Castro, 1991, Acta Biol. Par., Curitiba 20: 46 (coll. list). - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 358 (list). Distr.: Panama; Colombia: Boyacá, Meta, Nariño, Vaupés; Venezuela; Guyana; Suriname; French Guiana; Ecuador; Peru: Loreto; Brazil: Acre, Amapá, Amazonas, Goiás, Maranhão, Mato Grosso, Pará, Rondônia, Roraima, São Paulo; Bolivia: Beni. striata (Fabricius) Vespa striata Fabricius, 1787, Mantissa Insect.: 288 - [French Guiana] “Cajennae” (Kobenhavn). Polistes striata; Fabricius, 1804, Syst. Piez.: 271. - Dalla Torre, 1904, Gen. Ins. 19: 72 (striatus; species dubiae). Polybia liliacea; de Saussure, 1854, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2: 174, pl. XXII fig. 7 [partim]. - Fox, 1898, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad.: 450 [partim]. - Dalla Torre, 1904, Gen. Ins. Misidentification. Polybia sycophanta Gribodo, 1892 (1891), Boll. Soc. Entomol. Ital. 23: 251, female - “Miarim (Brasile)” [Mearim] (Genova, Zürich). - Dalla Torre, 1904, Gen. Ins. 19: 78 (cat.). - Ducke, 1904, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, Pará 4: 345 (key), 350 (Brazil); 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 494 (key), 509 (female; Brazil). - Vesey-Fitzgerald, 1939, Proc. R. Entomol. Soc. London (A) 14: 105 (mimicry). - Overal, 1978, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.), Zool. 94: 11 (list). - Carpenter, 1999, Am. Mus. Novitat. 3259: 16 (notes on types). Polybia striata; Bequaert, 1944, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 94: 278 (key), 282 (syn.: sycophanta); 1949 (1948), Bol. Entomol. Venez. 7: 134 (Venezuela: Táchira, Bolívar). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 35 (key), 47, fig. 44 (in subgenus Polybia). - Raw, 1988, Entomologist 107: 106 (role in agriculture). - Carpenter and van der Vecht, 1991, Ann. Carnegie Mus. 60 (3): 218 (note on material seen by Fox). - Almeida and Castro, 1991, Acta Biol. Par., Curitiba 20: 46 (coll. list). - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 358 (list). Distr.: Colombia: Arauca, Boyacá, Meta, Putumayo, Vaupés; Venezuela: Bolívar, D. F.*, Táchira; Trinidad; Guyana; Suriname; French Guiana; Ecuador: Napo; Peru: Huánuco, Junín, Loreto, Madre de Dios, Pasco; Brazil: Acre, Amazonas, D. F., Espírito Santo, Goiás, Maranhão, Mato Grosso, Mato Grosso do Sul, Pará, Rio de Janeiro, Rondônia, São Paulo; Bolivia: Beni, La Paz, Santa Cruz. Subgenus Synoecoides Ducke Synoecoides Ducke, 1905, Rev. Entomol., Caen 24: 9, 16, genus. Type species: Synoecoides depressa Ducke, 1905, by monotypy. depressa (Ducke) Synoecoides depressa Ducke, 1905, Rev. Entomol., Caen 24: 16, female - [Brazil:] “Teffé (Haut-Amazone) dans la forêt” (Belém); 1905, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, Pará 4: 670; 1907, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, Pará 5: 163, pl. 3 fig. 7 (nest), 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 489. - Zavattari, 1911, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 9: 343 (depressus; compared to Mocsáryi n. sp.). - Ducke, 1918, Rev. Mus. Paul. 10: 331 (depressa; cat.). - Araujo, 1944, Rev. Bras. Biol. 4: 340, figs. 1-5 (depressus; male; distinction of mocsaryi doubtful). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 158 (depressus; syn.: mocsaryi Zavattari; Peru; Colombia). - Overal, 1978, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.), Zool. 94: 1 (depressus; designation of holotype as “lectotype”), 11 (list). - Nascimento and Overal, 1979, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.) 95: 11 (list). - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 359 (list). - Carpenter, 1999, Am. Mus. Novitat. 3259: 19 (note on type). - Carpenter et al., 2000, Am. Mus. Novitat.3298: 1-24, figs. 1, 10, 21, 30, 43 (depressus; Synoecoides reduced to subgenus of Polybia). Synoecoides Mocsáryi Zavattari, 1911, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 9: 343, female - “Brésil: Piauhy” [Piaui] (Budapest). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 158 (syn. of depressus). Distr.: Colombia: Meta*, Nariño, Vaupés; Ecuador*: Napo; Peru: Loreto; Brazil: Amazonas, Piaui; Bolivia*: Beni. Subgenus Trichinothorax Carpenter and Day Trichinothorax Carpenter and Day, 1988, Proc. Entomol. Soc. Wash. 90: 323, 327, subgenus of Polybia Lepeletier, replacement name for Trichothorax Richards, 1978, non Montrouzier, 1860. Type species: Vespa chrysothorax Lichtenstein, 1796, by original designation as type species of Trichothorax Richards. Trichothorax Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: v, 35, 101, subgenus of Polybia Lepeletier. Junior homonym of Trichothorax Montrouzier, 1860 (Coleoptera). Type species: Vespa chrysothorax Lichtenstein, 1796, by original designation. Trichthorax Snelling, 1981, Social Insects II (5): 416. Incorrect spelling of Trichothorax Richards. affinis du Buysson Polybia flavitincta; Zavattari, 1906, Boll. Mus. Zool. Anat. Comp. Torino 21 (529): 12 (Ecuador). Polybia affinis du Buysson, 1908, Rev. Entomol., Caen 27: 216, female - “Guyane française ... Saint-Jean-du-Maroni” (lectotype Paris); also from three other localities in French Guiana. - Ducke, 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 493 (key), 504 (female; French Guiana; Brazil; Ecuador). - Bequaert, 1944, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 94: 278 (key), 281. - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 44 (key), 111 (designation of lectotype; in subgenus Trichothorax). - Overal, 1978, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.), Zool. 94: 10 (list). - Almeida and Castro, 1991, Acta Biol. Par., Curitiba 20: 47 (coll. list). - Carpenter, 1999, Am. Mus. Novitat. 3259: 12 (notes on types). Distr.: Guyana; Suriname; French Guiana; Ecuador; Brazil: Amapá, Amazonas, Mato Grosso, Pará, Rondônia. batesi Richards Polybia batesi Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 44 (key), 110, female (in subgenus Trichothorax) - “BRAZIL: Amazonas, Tefé (=Ega)” (London). - Cooper, 1993, Entomol. Mon. Mag. 129. Distr.: Peru: Pasco; Brazil: Amazonas. chrysothorax (Lichtenstein) Vespa chrysothorax Lichtenstein, 1796, Cat. Mus. Zool. Dit. Hamburgi ... Sect. Tertia Ins.: 203 - “America” (type depository unknown). - Weber, 1801, Observ. Entomol.: 103. - Kerzhner, 1994, Bull. Zool. Nomencl. 51 (2): 111, 112, 113 (proposed conservation). - Opinion 1820, 1995, Bull. Zool. Nomencl. 52: 283 (available under the plenary powers of the ICZN). Polistes aurulenta Fabricius, 1804, Syst. Piez.: 275 - “America meridionali” (Kobenhavn). Polybia aurichalcea de Saussure, 1854, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2: 178, female (in division Iota) - “Le Brésil” (lectotype Paris). - Dalla Torre, 1904, Gen. Ins. 19: 77 (cat.). - Ducke, 1906, Rev. Entomol., Caen 25: 7 (Brazil). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 108 (designation of lectotype). - Carpenter, 1999, Am. Mus. Novitat. 3259: 12 (note on type). Polybia tapajosensis Cameron, 1906, Entomologist 39: 151, female - [Brazil:] “Rio Tapajos, Amazons” (London). - Ducke, 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 541 (? Polybia, Stelopolybia or Megacanthopus). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 108 (syn. of P. chrysothorax (Lichtenstein)). Polybia chrysothorax; de Saussure, 1854, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2: 178, pl. XXIV fig. 3 (syn.: P. aurulenta Fabricius; in division Iota; French Guiana; Brazil). - Fox, 1898, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad.: 451 (Brazil). - Dalla Torre, 1904, Gen. Ins. 19: 77 (syn.: aurulenta Fabricius; cat.). - R. von Ihering, 1904, Rev. Mus. Paul. 6: 203. - Ducke, 1904, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, Pará 4: 343 (key), 351 (Brazil); 1908, Rev. Entomol., Caen 27: 85 (Brazil); 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 492 (key), 504 (syns.: P. aurulenta Fabricius, P. aurichalcea de Saussure; male, nest; Colombia; French Guiana; Brazil). - Cameron, 1912, Timehri (3) 2: 208 (key), 210 (Guyana). - Bequaert, 1944, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 94: 278 (key), 284; 1949 (1948), Bol. Entomol. Venez. 7: 132 (Venezuela). - Vesey-Fitzgerald, 1956, Entomol. Mon. Mag. (4) 17: 164-165 (nest; Guyana). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 44 (key), 108 (syn.: P. tapajosensis; in subgenus Trichothorax). - Schremmer, 1986, Öko-L 8 (nest). - Overal, 1978, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.), Zool. 94: 10 (list). - Carpenter and van der Vecht, 1991, Ann. Carnegie Mus. 60 (3): 218 (note on material seen by Fox). - Almeida and Castro, 1991, Acta Biol. Par., Curitiba 20: 47 (coll. list). - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 358 (in subgenus Trichinotorax [!]; list). - Garcete-Barrett, 1999, Avispas Soc. Parag.: 8 (mimic of Polybia sericea), 34 (key, figs. 4aa, 4bb, 4cc), 37 (Paraguay). Distr.: Panama; Colombia: Arauca, Magdalena; Venezuela: Barinas; Guyana; Suriname; French Guiana; Ecuador: Esmereldas; Brazil: Amazonas, Bahia, Ceará, Espírito Santo, Goiás, Maranhão, Mato Grosso, Minas Gerais, Pará, Paraná, Rio Grande do Norte, São Paulo; Paraguay: Concepción, Canindeyú; Boliva: Beni, Cochabamba, Santa Cruz; Argentina: Jujuy. eberhardae Cooper Polybia eberhardae Cooper, 1993, Entomol. Mon. Mag. 129: 33, female, male - “ECUADOR: Napo, Muyuna, 5 km west of Tena, 550 m” (holotype female London); also from four other localities in Ecuador; and Colombia; Peru; Brazil; Bolivia. Distr.: Colombia: Caquetá, Valle (?), Vaupés; Ecuador: Morona-Santiago, Napo; Peru: Junín, Loreto; Brazil: Amazonas, Mato Grosso; Bolivia: Beni, Pando, Santa Cruz. flavitincta Fox Polybia flavitincta Fox, 1898, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad.: 452, female - [Brazil:] “Santarem” (lectotype Pittsburgh). - Dalla Torre, 1904, Gen. Ins. 19: 77 (cat.). - R. von Ihering, 1904, Rev. Mus. Paul. 6: 185. - Ducke, 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 540. - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 44 (key), 113 (designation of lectotype, stated to be in Philadelphia; syn.: P. mediamericana; in subgenus Trichothorax). - Carpenter and van der Vecht, 1991, Ann. Carnegie Mus. 60 (3): 219 (note on type series). - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 358 (in subgenus Trichinotorax [!]; list). - West-Eberhard et al., 1995, Hym. Costa Rica: 586 (Costa Rica). Polybia mediamericana Bequaert, 1933, in Rau, Jungle Bees Wasps Barro Colorado Is.: 314, fig. 3, female - [Panama] “Barro Colorado Island” (Cambridge). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 113 (syn. of P. flavitincta). Distr.: Belize*; Guatemala; Honduras; Costa Rica; Panama; Colombia: Arauca, Huila, Meta, Nariño, Valle; Venezuela; Ecuador: El Oro, Esmereldas, Guayas, Pichincha, Tungurahua; Peru: Cuzco; Brazil: Amazonas, Pará; Bolivia: La Paz. gorytoides gorytoides Fox Polybia gorytoides Fox, 1898, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad.: 454, female - [Brazil:] “Chapada” (lectotype Pittsburgh); also from Amazonas. - Dalla Torre, 1904, Gen. Ins. 19: 77 (cat.). - Ducke, 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 494 (key), 509 (syn.: P. sculpturata Ducke; female, male, nest; Brazil). - Bequaert, 1944, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 94: 281 [partim]. - Overal, 1978, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.), Zool. 94: 10 (list). - Carpenter and van der Vecht, 1991, Ann. Carnegie Mus. 60 (3): 219 (designation of lectotype). - Almeida and Castro, 1991, Acta Biol. Par., Curitiba 20: 47 (coll. list). Polybia gorytoides gorytoides; Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 43 (key), 102 (in subgenus Trichothorax). Distr.: Brazil: Amazonas, Mato Grosso. gorytoides sculpturata Ducke Polybia sculpturata Ducke, 1904, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, Pará 4: 347 (key), 356, female - [Brazil:] “Macapá” (lectotype Belém); also from Pará; 1907, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, Pará 5: 181 (syn. of P. gorytoides Fox). - Overal, 1978, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.), Zool. 94: 3 (designation of lectotype). - Nascimento and Overal, 1979, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.) 95: 11 (list). - Carpenter, 1999, Am. Mus. Novitat. 3259: 15 (notes on types). Polybia gorytoides sculpturata; Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 43 (key), 102 (in subgenus Trichothorax). - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 358 (in subgenus Trichinotorax [!]; list). Distr.: Colombia: Amazonas, Meta; Venezuela*; Guyana; Suriname; Ecuador: Napo; Peru: Loreto; Brazil: Amapá, Amazonas, Pará; Bolivia: Santa Cruz. ignobilis (Haliday) Polistes ignobilis Haliday, 1836, Trans. Linn. Soc. London 17: 322, female - [Brazil:] “St. Paul's” (London). Polybia atra; de Saussure, 1854, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2: 181, not pl. XXIV fig. 5 (female, male; in division Iota; syn.: P. ignobilis Haliday); 1854, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2.: VV, revised explanation of pl. XXIV fig. 1. - Fox, 1898, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad.: 450 (Brazil: Amazonas, Mato Grosso). - Dalla Torre, 1904, Gen. Ins. 19: 77 (cat.). - Ducke, 1904, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, Pará 4: 344 (key), 351 (Brazil). - Cameron, 1907, Invert. Pacif. 1: 183 (Belize), 184 (Nicaragua). - Ducke, 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 493 (key), 502 (syn.: P. nigra de Saussure; female, male, nest; Brazil; Colombia; Venezuela; French Guiana); 1913, Deutsch. Entomol. Zeitschr.: 332 (syn.: P. socialis de Saussure). - Hase, 1936, Sitzungsber. Ges. Naturforsch. Freunde Berlin 1936: 1-51. - Carpenter and van der Vecht, 1991, Ann. Carnegie Mus. 60 (3): 217 (note on material seen by Fox). Misidentification. Polybia socialis; de Saussure, 1854, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2: V, explanation of pl. XXIV fig. 1. - Carpenter, 1999, Am. Mus. Novitat. 3259: 16. Polybia nigra de Saussure, 1858, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2: VV, revised explanation of plate, female (in division Iota) - “Le Brésil” (Paris). - R. von Ihering, 1904, Rev. Mus. Paul. 6: 188. - Schrottky, 1904, Allg. Zeitschr. Entomol. 9: 345 (Paraguay). - Zavattari, 1906, Boll. Mus. Zool. Anat. Comp. Torino 21 (529): 12 (Ecuador). - Ducke, 1906, Rev. Entomol., Caen 25: 8 (Brazil), 11 (compared to P. deuteroleucus n. sp.); 1908, Rev. Entomol., Caen 27: 85 (Brazil). - Martorell, 1939, J. Agric. Univ. Puerto Rico 23: 230 (Venezuela: Aragua, D. F.). - Martorell and Salas, 1939, J. Agric. Univ. Puerto Rico 23: 251 (Venezuela: Monagas). - Weyrauch, 1943, Bol. Mus. Hist. Nat. Javier Prado 7: 71 (negra [!]). - Carpenter, 1999, Am. Mus. Novitat. 3259: 16 (notes on types). Polybia ignobilis; Bequaert, 1944 (1943), Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 36: 723, fig. 1D-F; 1944, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 94: 279 (key), 289; 1949 (1948), Bol. Entomol. Venez. 7: 132 (Venezuela localities). - West-Eberhard, 1975, Cespedesia 4 (16): 256 (Colombia: Cauca). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 43 (ignoblis [!]; key), 106 (in subgenus Trichothorax). - Gobbi and Machado, 1986, An. Soc. Entomol. Brasil 15 (Supl.): 117-124 (ethology). - Raw, 1989, Maracá Rainfor. Proj., Invert. Limnol., Prelim. Rep.: 35 (Brazil), 36 (distr.); 1989, Maracá Rainfor. Proj., Invert. Limnol., Prelim. Rep.: 41, 42 (habitat preference). - Almeida and Castro, 1991, Acta Biol. Par., Curitiba 20: 47 (coll. list). - Sarmiento, 1993, Bol. Mus. Entomol. Univ. Valle 1 (2): 7 (nest; Colombia: Boyacá); 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 358 (in subgenus Trichinotorax [!]; list). - O'Donnell, 1995, Biotropica 27: 136 (morphology). - Garcete-Barrett, 1999, Avispas Soc. Parag.: 8 (mimics), 34 (lignobilis [!]; key, figs. 3aa, 3cc), 37 (Paraguay). Distr.: Belize; Nicaragua; Costa Rica; Panama; Colombia: Antioquia, Arauca, Bolívar, Boyacá, Cauca, Cundinamarca, Guajira, Huila, Magdalena, Meta, Nariño, Santander, Valle; Venezuela: Aragua, Barinas, Bolívar, D. F., Guárico, Monagas, Trujillo; Guyana; French Guiana; Peru: Amazonas, Cajamarca, Cuzco, Lambayeque, Loreto, Piura, Puno; Brazil: Amazonas, Bahia, Ceará, D. F., Espírito Santo, Goiás, Maranhão, Mato Grosso, Minas Gerais, Pará, Paraiba, Paraná, Pernambuco, Rio Grande do Norte, Rio Grande do Sul, Rio de Janeiro, Rondônia, Roraima, Santa Catarina, São Paulo; Bolivia: Beni, Chuquisaca, Cochabamba, La Paz, Santa Cruz; Paraguay: Asunción; Uruguay; Argentina: Buenos Aires, Catamarca, Chaco, Córdoba, Corrientes, Entre Rios, Formosa, Jujuy, La Rioja, Misiones, Salta, San Juan, San Luis, Santa Fé, Santiago del Estero, Tucumán. lugubris de Saussure Polybia lugubris de Saussure, 1854, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2: 180, pl. XXIV fig. 2, female (in division Iota) - “La Guyanne” (Paris). - Fox, 1898, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad.: 450 (Brazil: Rio de Janeiro). - Dalla Torre, 1904, Gen. Ins. 19: 77 (cat.). - Ducke, 1906, Rev. Entomol., Caen 25: 7 (Brazil); 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 493 (key), 506 (female, nest; Brazil). - Bequaert, 1944, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 94: 281 (Guiana locality doubtful). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 44 (key), 112 (in subgenus Trichothorax). - Overal, 1978, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.), Zool. 94: 10 (list). - Carpenter and van der Vecht, 1991, Ann. Carnegie Mus. 60 (3): 218 (note on material seen by Fox). - Almeida and Castro, 1991, Acta Biol. Par., Curitiba 20: 47 (coll. list). Distr.: Panama; French Guiana; Brazil: Espírito Santo, Paraná, Rio Grande do Sul, Rio de Janeiro, Santa Catarina, São Paulo. micans Ducke Polybia micans Ducke, 1904, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, Pará 4: 347 (key), 351, female - [Brazil:] “Amapá” (lectotype Belém); also from Pará; 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 493 (key), 505 (female, nest; Brazil; French Guiana). - Bequaert, 1944, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 94: 279 (key), 284 (typical micans). - Araujo, 1960, Studia Entomol. (N. S.) 3: 252 (Brazil: Amapá). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 44 (key), 110 (in subgenus Trichothorax). - Overal, 1978, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.), Zool. 94: 3 (designation of lectotype), 10 (list). - Nascimento and Overal, 1979, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.) 95: 10 (list). - Almeida and Castro, 1991, Acta Biol. Par., Curitiba 20: 47 (coll. list). - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 358 (in subgenus Trichinotorax [!]; Colombia: Caquetá, Putumayo, Vaupés; list). - Carpenter, 1999, Am. Mus. Novitat. 3259: 14 (notes on types). Polybia sericeibalteata Cameron, 1906, Entomologist 39: 152, female - [Brazil:] “Rio Purus” (London). - Ducke, 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 541, species dubiae. Distr.: Colombia: Caquetá, Putumayo, Vaupés; Guyana; Suriname; French Guiana; Ecuador: Napo; Peru: Huánuco, Junín, Loreto; Brazil: Amapá, Amazonas, Maranhão, Mato Grosso, Pará; Bolivia: Beni, Cochabamba, La Paz. minarum Ducke Polybia minarum Ducke, 1906, Rev. Entomol., Caen 25: 8, female - [Brazil:] “Barbacena” (lectotype London); 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 495 (key), 501 (female; Brazil; Paraguay). - Araujo, 1945, Rev. Bras. Biol. 5: 157, figs. 1-5. - Willink, 1952, Acta Zool. Lilloana 10: 130. - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 43 (key), 105 (designation of lectotype; in subgenus Trichothorax). - Overal, 1978, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.), Zool. 94: 11 (list). - Nascimento and Overal, 1979, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.) 95: 10 (list). - Almeida and Castro, 1991, Acta Biol. Par., Curitiba 20: 47 (coll. list). - Garcete-Barrett, 1999, Avispas Soc. Parag.: 34 (key, figs. 3a, 3c), 37. - Carpenter, 1999, Am. Mus. Novitat. 3259: 14 (notes on types). Distr.: Brazil: Bahia, Minas Gerais, Paraná, Rio Grande do Sul, Rio de Janeiro, Santa Catarina, São Paulo; Paraguay: Alto Paraná; Argentina: Misiones. nigrina Richards Polybia nigratella; Bequaert, 1943 (1942), J. New York Entomol. Soc. 50: 300. - Richards, 1951, in Richards and Richards, Trans. Entomol. Soc. London 102: 136. Polybia nigrina Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 44 (key), 105, female (in subgenus Trichothorax) - “MEXICO: N. Yucatán” (London); also from elsewhere in Yucatán, Veracruz. - Rodríguez-Palafox, 1996, in Llorente-Bousquets et al., Biodiv. Taxon. Biogeogr. Artrópod. México: 482 (list). Distr.: Mexico: Veracruz, Yucatán. punctata du Buysson Polybia aurichalcea; Ducke, 1907, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, Pará 5: 181. Polybia punctata du Buysson, 1908, Rev. Entomol., Caen 27: 216, female - “Brésil, Barbacena” (lectotype Paris). - Ducke, 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 492 (key), 504 (female; Brazil). - Araujo, 1950, Arch. Inst. Biol. São Paulo 19: 269, figs. 1-3, pls. 1-2. - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 44 (key), 112 (designation of lectotype; in subgenus Trichothorax). - Overal, 1978, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.), Zool. 94: 11 (list). - Almeida and Castro, 1991, Acta Biol. Par., Curitiba 20: 47 (coll. list). - Carpenter, 1999, Am. Mus. Novitat. 3259: 154 (note on lectotype). Distr.: Brazil: Bahia, Espírito Santo, Minas Gerais, Paraná, Rio Grande do Sul, Rio de Janeiro, Santa Catarina, São Paulo. raui raui Bequaert Polybia raui Bequaert, 1933, in Rau, Jungle Bees Wasps Barro Colorado Is.: 309, fig. 1 A-D, female - [Panama] “Barro Colorado Island” (Cambridge); 1944 (1943), Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 36: 727. - West-Eberhard et al., 1995, Hym. Costa Rica: 586 (Costa Rica). Polybia raui raui; Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 43 (key), 103 (in subgenus Trichothorax). - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 358 (in subgenus Trichinotorax [!]; list). - Rodríguez-Palafox, 1996, in Llorente-Bousquets et al., Biodiv. Taxon. Biogeogr. Artrópod. México: 482 (list). Distr.: Mexico: Tabasco, Veracruz; Belize; Guatemala; Costa Rica; Panama; Colombia: Boyacá, Magdalena, Nariño, Putumayo, Valle; Venezuela: Falcón*. raui taeniata Richards Polybia raui taeniata Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 43 (key), 103, female (in subgenus Trichothorax) - “ECUADOR: ? Napo, 'de Tandapi à Garretas'“ (Paris); also from Pichincha. Distr.: Ecuador: Napo (?); Pichincha. rufitarsis peruviana Bequaert Polybia “rufitarsis nov. var. peruviana Bequaert” Weyrauch, 1943, Bol. Mus. Hist. Nat. Javier Prado 7: 72. Nomen nudum. Polybia rufitarsis var. (or subsp.) peruviana Bequaert, 1944 (1943), Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 36: 729, fig. 1M-N, female - “PERU: Valle Chanchamayo, 1100 m.” (Cambridge); also from five other localities in Peru; and Ecuador; Bolivia. Polybia rufitarsis peruviana; Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 43 (key), 104 (in subgenus Trichothorax). - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 358 (in subgenus Trichinotorax [!]; list). Distr.: Colombia: Amazonas, Putumayo; Ecuador: Napo, Tungurahua; Peru: Cuzco, Huánuco, Junín, Loreto, Pasco; Brazil: Amazonas; Bolivia: Beni, La Paz. rufitarsis rufitarsis Ducke Polybia rufitarsis Ducke, 1904, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, Pará 4: 344 (key), 351, female - [Brazil:] “Itaituba (Rio Tapajoz)” (Belém); 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 493 (key), 502 (female, nest; Brazil). - Bequaert, 1944, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 94: 279 (key), 289 (typical form). - Overal, 1978, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.), Zool. 94: 3 (designation of holotype as “lectotype”), 11 (list). - Nascimento and Overal, 1979, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.) 95: 11 (list). - Carpenter, 1999, Am. Mus. Novitat. 3259: 15 (note on type). Polybia rufitarsis var. rufitarsis; Bequaert, 1944 (1943), Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 36: 728. Polybia rufitarsis rufitarsis; Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 43 (key), 104 (in subgenus Trichothorax). Distr.: Guyana; Brazil: Amazonas, Amapá, Pará. sericea (Olivier) Vespa sericea Olivier, 1792, Encyc. Méthod. 6 (2): 675 - [French Guiana] “Cayenne” (type lost). - Latreille, 1824, Mém. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris 11: 316 (compared to P. lecheguana n. sp.). Polistes nigripennis Fabricius, 1804, Syst. Piez.: 272 - “America meridionali” (Kobenhavn). - Dalla Torre, 1904, Gen. Ins. 19: 71 (species dubiae). Rhopalidia rufithorax Lepeletier, 1836, Hist. Nat. Ins. Hym. 1: 539, female? - [French Guiana] “Cayenne, Amérique méridionale” (Torino?). - de Saussure, 1854, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2.: 179 (syn. of Polybia sericea (Olivier)). Apoica cubitalis de Saussure, 1854, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2: 109, pl. XVIII fig. 3, female - [Brazil:] “Bahia” (Paris). - Dalla Torre, 1904, Gen. Ins. 19: 79 (cat.). - du Buysson, 1906, Ann. Soc. Entomol. France 75: 333 (syn. of P. sericea(Olivier)). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 107 (notes on type). - Carpenter, 1999, Am. Mus. Novitat. 3259: 13 (notes on type). Polybia sericea; de Saussure, 1854, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2.: 179, pl. XXIV fig. 4 (in division Iota; syn.: R. rufithorax Lepeletier; Brazil; French Guiana). - Möbius, 1856, Nester Gesell. Wespen: 8, 34 (key), pl. III (nest; Brazil). - Fox, 1898, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad.: 451. - Dalla Torre, 1904, Gen. Ins. 19: 78 (syn.: R. rufithorax Lepeletier; cat.). - Ducke, 1904, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, Pará 4: 343 (key), 350 (Brazil); 1906, Rev. Entomol., Caen 25: 7 (Brazil); 1908, Rev. Entomol., Caen 27: 85 (Brazil); 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 492 (key), 503 (syns.: R. rufithorax Lepeletier, A. cubitalis de Saussure; male, nest; Brazil). - du Buysson, 1910, Zool. Jahrb., Abt. Syst. 29 (2): 232. - Cameron, 1912, Timehri (3) 2: 208 (key), 210 (Guyana). - Myers, 1935, Trans. R. Entomol. Soc. London 83: 15 (nest associated with unidentified bird in Venezuela). - Martorell, 1939, J. Agric. Univ. Puerto Rico 23: 231 (Venezuela). - Bequaert, 1944, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 94: 278 (key), 284 (typical form); 1949 (1948), Bol. Entomol. Venez. 7: 133 (Venezuela localities). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 44 (key), 107 (in subgenus Trichothorax). Overal, 1978, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.), Zool. 94: 11 (list). - Jeanne and Castellón Bermúdez, 1980, J. Kansas Entomol. Soc. 53: 274 (interaction with male Mischocyttarus drewseni). - Jeanne, 1981, Anim. Behav. 29:102-113 (chemical communication); 1981, Acta Amazon. 11: 153-156 (trail pheromone). - Machado et al., 1988, Rev. Bras. Zool. 5: 261-266 (ethology). - Queller et al., 1988, Science 242: 1155-1157 (genetics). - Raw, 1989, Maracá Rainfor. Proj., Invert. Limnol., Prelim. Rep.: 35 (Brazil), 36 (distr.); 1989, Maracá Rainfor. Proj., Invert. Limnol., Prelim. Rep.: 41 (habitat preference). - Carpenter and van der Vecht, 1991, Ann. Carnegie Mus. 60 (3): 218 (note on material seen by Fox). - Almeida and Castro, 1991, Acta Biol. Par., Curitiba 20: 47 (coll. list). - Raveret-Richter and Jeanne, 1991, Ins. Soc. 38 (2): 139-147 (ethology). - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 358 (in subgenus Trichinotorax [!]; list). - O'Donnell, 1995, Biotropica 27: 136 (morphology). - Garcete-Barrett, 1999, Avispas Soc. Parag.: 8 (mimics), 34 (key, figs. 4a, 4b, 4c), 37 (Paraguay). Polybia melanocephala Cameron, 1906, Entomologist 39: 152 (in division “M.Y”) - [Brazil:] “Rio Purus, Amazons” (holotype female London). - Ducke, 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 540, species dubiae. Polybia nigriceps Cameron, 1912, Timehri (3) 2: 208 (key), 210, female - locality not stated [Guyana] (London) [non Zavattari, 1906]. - Myers, 1935, Trans. R. Entomol. Soc. London 83: 14 (nests associated with birds, Tyrannidae spp., in Brazil). - Bequaert, 1944, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 94: 263 (species of Mischocyttarus). Polybia sericea var. nigripennis; Bequaert, 1944, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 94: 284; 1949 (1948), Bol. Entomol. Venez. 7: 134 (Venezuela). - Vesey-Fitzgerald, 1956, Entomol. Mon. Mag. (4) 17: 164 (nest; Guyana). Distr.: Colombia: Boyacá, Magdalena, Meta, Vaupés; Venezuela: Aragua, Barinas, Bolívar, Zulia; Guyana; Suriname; French Guiana; Peru: Cajamarca, Cuzco, San Martin; Brazil: Amapá, Amazonas, Bahia, Ceará, D. F., Espírito Santo, Goiás, Maranhão, Mato Grosso, Minas Gerais, Pará, Paraiba, Paraná, Rio Grande do Norte, Rio Grande do Sul, Rio de Janeiro, Rondônia, Roraima, Santa Catarina, São Paulo; Bolivia: La Paz, Santa Cruz; Paraguay; Uruguay; Argentina: Buenos Aires, Chaco, Corrientes, Entre Rios, Formosa, Jujuy, Misiones, Salta, San Juan, Santa Fé. tinctipennis nebulosa Bequaert Polybia tinctipennis var. (or subsp.) nebulosa Bequaert, 1944 (1943), Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 36: 728, female - “TRINIDAD” (Cambridge); also from Guyana; and possibly Brazil; 1944, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 94: 289; 1949 (1948), Bol. Entomol. Venez. 7: 134 (Venezuela: Mérida). Polybia tinctipennis nebulosa; Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 43 (key), 104 (in subgenus Trichothorax). - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 358 (in subgenus Trichinotorax [!]; Colombia: Magdalena, Putumayo; list). Distr.: Costa Rica; Colombia: Magdalena, Putumayo; Venezuela: Mérida; Trinidad; Guyana; Ecuador: Napo; Brazil: Pará (?). tinctipennis tinctipennis Fox Polybia tinctipennis Fox, 1898, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad.: 452, female - [Brazil:] “Chapada” (lectotype Pittsburgh). - Dalla Torre, 1904, Gen. Ins. 19: 78 (cat.). - Ducke, 1904, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, Pará 4: 344 (key), 352 (Brazil); 1906, Rev. Entomol., Caen 25: 7 (Brazil); 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 493 (key), 502 (syn.: P. ypiranguensis R. von Ihering; Brazil). - Bequaert, 1944, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 94: 279 (key), 289 (typical form). - Overal, 1978, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.), Zool. 94: 11 (list). - Carpenter and van der Vecht, 1991, Ann. Carnegie Mus. 60 (3): 219 (designation of lectotype). - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 358 (in subgenus Trichinotorax [!]; Colombia: Vaupés; list). - West-Eberhard et al., 1995, Hym. Costa Rica: 586 (Costa Rica). Polybia ypiranguensis R. von Ihering, 1904, Rev. Mus. Paul. 6: 170 (key), 188, figs. 1, 3, female - “Brazil” (London, Washington). Polybia tinctipennis var. tinctipennis; Bequaert, 1944 (1943), Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 36: 727. Polybia tinctipennis tinctipennis; Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 43 (key), 103 (in subgenus Trichothorax). - Almeida and Castro, 1991, Acta Biol. Par., Curitiba 20: 47 (coll. list). - Rodríguez-Palafox, 1996, in Llorente-Bousquets et al., Biodiv. Taxon. Biogeogr. Artrópod. México: 482 (list). Distr.: Mexico: Chiapas; Guatemala; Honduras; Costa Rica; Panama; Colombia: Vaupés; Ecuador: Napo; Peru: Junín, Loreto; Brazil: Amazonas, Espírito Santo, Goiás, Mato Grosso, Minas Gerais, Pará, Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo; Bolivia: Beni. velutina Ducke Polybia lugubris; Ducke, 1905, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, Pará 4: 682. Polybia chrysothorax; Zavattari, 1906, Boll. Mus. Zool. Anat. Comp. Torino 21 (529): 12 (Ecuador). Polybia velutina Ducke, 1907, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, Pará 5: 171 (key), 180, female, male - [Brazil:] “Rio Japurá” (lectotype female London); also from Teffé, Tabatinga; and Peru; 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 493 (key), 505 (female, male, nest; Brazil; Ecuador). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 44 (key), 110 (designation of lectotype; in subgenus Trichothorax). - Overal, 1978, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.), Zool. 94: 11 (list). - Nascimento and Overal, 1979, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.) 95: 11 (list). - Almeida and Castro, 1991, Acta Biol. Par., Curitiba 20: 47 (coll. list). - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 358 (in subgenus Trichinotorax [!]; list). - Carpenter, 1999, Am. Mus. Novitat. 3259: 16 (notes on types). Polybia micans var. velutina; Bequaert, 1944, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 94: 284. Distr.: Panama*; Colombia: Amazonas, Caquetá, Meta, Putumayo, Vaupés; Guyana; French Guiana; Ecuador: Napo; Peru: Cuzco, Huánuco, Junín, Loreto; Brazil: Acre, Amazonas, Bahia; Bolivia: La Paz, Pando. Genus Protonectarina Ducke Protonectarina Ducke, 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 451, 477, genus. Type species: Polybia sylveirae de Saussure, 1854, by monotypy. sylveirae (de Saussure) Polybia sylveirae de Saussure, 1854, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2: 171 (sylveibae [!]), pl. XXII fig. 2, Errata: 256, female (in division Alpha) - “Le Brésil” (Paris). - Fox, 1898, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad.: 450 (Brazil: Rio de Janeiro). - R. von Ihering, 1903, Ann. Soc. Entomol. France 72: 152 (nest; Brazil: São Paulo). - Ducke, 1906, Rev. Entomol., Caen 25: 7 (Brazil); 1908, Rev. Entomol., Caen 27: 85 (Brazil). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 127 (invalid designation of lectotype). - Carpenter and van der Vecht, 1991, Ann. Carnegie Mus. 60 (3): 217 (note on material seen by Fox). - Almeida and Castro, 1991, Acta Biol. Par., Curitiba 20: 47 (coll. list). - Carpenter, 1999, Am. Mus. Novitat. 3259: 17 (notes on types). Polybia Enxuy Smith, 1863, Trans. Entomol. Soc. London (3) 1: 511, female - “Brazil” (London). - Dalla Torre, 1904, Gen. Ins. 19: 77 (enxius [!]; cat.). Protonectarina sylveirae; Ducke, 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 477 (syn.: Polybia enxuy Smith; female, male, nest; Paraguay; Brazil). - Araujo, 1946, Arq. Inst. Biol., São Paulo 17 (14): 229-238, pl. 15. - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 127. - Overal, 1978, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.), Zool. 94: 11 (list). - Dohtsu et al., 1993, Nat. Toxins 1 (5): 271-276 (venom chemistry). - Garcete-Barrett, 1999, Avispas Soc. Parag.: 32, fig. (Paraguay). Distr.: Brazil: Bahia, Ceará, D. F., Espírito Santo, Goiás, Mato Grosso, Minas Gerais, Paraná, Rio Grande do Sul, Rio de Janeiro, Santa Catarina, São Paulo; Paraguay: Alto Paraná, Concepción, Alto Paraguay; Argentina: Misiones. Genus Protopolybia Ducke Protopolybia Ducke, 1905, Rev. Entomol., Caen 24: 7, 9, 17, genus (9 species, partly doubtful). Type species: Polybia bella R. von Ihering, 1903, by subsequent designation of Bequaert, 1944, Rev. Entomol., Rio de Janeiro 15: 97. Pseudochartergus Ducke, 1905, Rev. Entomol., Caen 24: 9, 15, genus (2 species). Rejected by Carpenter and Wenzel, 1990 (1989), Psyche 96:185, acting as first reviser. Type species: Charterginus cinctellus Fox, 1898 [= Nectarina chartergoides Gribodo, 1891], by subsequent designation of Bequaert, 1938, Rev. Entomol., Rio de Janeiro 9: 103. acutiscutis (Cameron) Polybia acutiscutis Cameron, 1906, Zeitschr. Syst. Hym. Dipt. 6: 385, female - “British Honduras” (London); 1907, Invert. Pacif. 1: 183. - Ducke, 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 539 (probably var. of Protopolybia sedula). Protopolybia pumila var. acutiscutis; Bequaert, 1944, Rev. Entomol., Rio de Janeiro 15: 123 (key), 125 (Guatemala; Honduras; Costa Rica; Panama; Colombia; Brazil; Peru; Bolivia); 1949 (1948), Bol. Entomol. Venez. 7: (Venezuela: Mérida). Protopolybia acutiscutis; Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 140 (key), 150. - Carpenter and Wenzel, 1990 (1989), Psyche 96: 182, 184 (nest). - Almeida and Castro, 1991, Acta Biol. Par., Curitiba 20: 47 (coll. list). - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 359 (list). - West-Eberhard et al., 1995, Hym. Costa Rica: 586 (Costa Rica). Distr.: Belize; Guatemala; Honduras; Costa Rica; Panama; Colombia: Antioquia, Caquetá, Cauca, Magdalena, Meta, Nariño, Putumayo; Venezuela: D. F., Mérida; Ecuador: Napo; Peru: Junín, Loreto; Brazil: Maranhão, Mato Grosso, Pará, Rondônia; Bolivia: Beni, La Paz. aliciae Silveira Protopolybia aliciae Silveira, 2004, Zootaxa 598: 1, 2, figs. 1-3, female, nest - “Brasil, PA, Melgaço, Caxiuanã, ECFPn, 1:44 S / 51:28 O” (Belem). Distr.: Brazil: Pará. alvarengai Richards Protopolybia alvarengai Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 139 (key), 146, female - “BRAZIL: Rondônia, Pimenta Bueno” (Curitiba). - Almeida and Castro, 1991, Acta Biol. Par., Curitiba 20: 43 (note on type material). - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 359 (Colombia: Nariño; list). Distr.: Colombia: Nariño; Brazil: Rondônia. amarella Bequaert Protopolybia amarella Bequaert, 1944, Rev. Entomol., Rio de Janeiro 15: 101 (key), 113, female - “British Guiana: Source of Essequibo River” (Cambridge); also from Colombia; 1944, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 94: 266 (key), 267 (“new species”), fig. 1. - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 139 (key), 149. - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 359 (list). Protopolybia “'mellea' Ducke” Overal, 1978, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.), Zool. 94: 11. Nomen nudum. Distr.: Colombia: Amazonas; Guyana; Peru: Huánuco, Loreto; Brazil: Acre; Bolivia: Pando. bella (R. von Ihering) Polybia bella R. von Ihering, 1903, Ann. Soc. Entomol. France 72: 146 - “Surinam” (holotype female São Paulo); 1904, Rev. Mus. Paul. 6: 177, pl. 4 fig. 5. - Dalla Torre, 1904, Gen. Ins. 19: 77 (cat.). Protopolybia bella; Ducke, 1905, Rev. Entomol., Caen 24: 18; 1905, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, Pará 4: 674, pl. 3 fig. 12 (female, male; nest; Brazil: Lower Japurá); 1907, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, Pará 5: 165, 166; 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 469 (key), 473, fig. 2 (syn.: Polybia cameranii Zavattari; female, male, nest; Suriname; Brazil; Panama); 1918, Rev. Mus. Paul. 10: 324. - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 139 (key), 146. - Overal, 1978, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.), Zool. 94: 11 (list). - Silveira and Carpenter, 1996 (1995), J. New York Entomol. Soc. 103: 49 (male; Panama). Protopolybia picteti var. bella; Bequaert, 1944, Rev. Entomol., Rio de Janeiro 15: 117 (key), 118; 1944, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 94: 266 (list). - Araujo, 1960, Studia Entomol. (N. S.) 3: 252 (Brazil: Amapá). Distr.: Panama; Suriname; Peru: Huánuco, Junín; Brazil: Amapá, Amazonas; Bolivia. biguttata Bequaert Protopolybia picteti var. (or subsp.) biguttata Bequaert, 1944, Rev. Entomol., Rio de Janeiro 15: 116 (key), 119, female - “Peru: El Campamiento, Col. Perene” (Ithaca). Protopolybia biguttata; Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 139 (key), 148. Distr.: Peru: Junín, Madre de Dios. bituberculata Silveira and Carpenter Protopolybia sedula var. exigua; Ducke, 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 474 [partim]. Protopolybia bituberculata Silveira and Carpenter, 1996 (1995), J. New York Entomol. Soc. 103: 48, figs. 1A, 2A, 3, female, male, nest - “Brazil: Pará, Vigia, Campo do Palha” (holotype female Belém); also from Amazonas and Maranhão; and Peru; Ecuador. Distr.: Ecuador: Napo; Peru: Loreto; Brazil: Amazonas, Maranhão Pará. cameranii (Zavattari) Polybia Cameranii Zavattari, 1906, Boll. Mus. Zool. Anat. Comp. R. Univ. Torino 21 (529): 10, female - [Panama] “Punta de Sabana” (Torino). Protopolybia picteti var. cameranii; Bequaert, 1944, Rev. Entomol., Rio de Janeiro 15: 117 (key), 120. Protopolybia cameranii; Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 145. Distr.: Panama. chanchamayensis Bequaert Protopolybia “chanchamayensis Bequaert nov. spec.” Weyrauch, 1943, Bol. Mus. Hist. Nat. Javier Prado 7: 73. Nomen nudum. Protopolybia chanchamayensis Bequaert, 1944, Rev. Entomol., Rio de Janeiro 15: 100 (key), 101, fig. 1A-D, female - “Peru: San Ramon, Valle Chanchamayo, near the confluence of the Rio Perene and the Rio Chanchamayo, 800 m.” (Cambridge); also from Hacienda San Juan, Col. Perene. - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 137 (key), 140, fig. 72. - Carpenter and Wenzel, 1990 (1989), Psyche 96: 179 (characters). Distr.: Peru: Junín. chartergoides boshelli (Bequaert) Pseudochartergus chartergoides var. boshelli Bequaert, 1938, Rev. Entomol., Rio de Janeiro 9: 104, female - “El Retiro near Restrepo, Int. Meta, Colombia” (holotype Cambridge); also from elsewhere in Meta, and Antioquia. Pseudochartergus chartergoides boshelli; Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 155 (key), 157. Protopolybia chartergoides boshelli; Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 359 (list). Distr.: Colombia: Antioquia, Meta; Ecuador: Napo; Peru: Huánuco, Loreto; Bolivia: Beni, Cochabamba. chartergoides chartergoides (Gribodo) Nectarina chartergoides Gribodo, 1892 (1891), Boll. Soc. Entomol. Ital. 23: 253, female - [French Guiana] “Caienna” (Genova). - Dalla Torre, 1904, Gen. Ins. 19: 86 (cat.). - Ducke, 1905, Rev. Entomol., Caen 24: 11; 1905, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, Pará: 663 (not a Nectarina). Charterginus cinctellus Fox, 1898, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad.: 460 - “Brazil ... Chapada” (lectotype female Pittsburgh). - Dalla Torre, 1904, Gen. Ins. 19: 85 (cat.). - R. von Ihering, 1904, Rev. Mus. Paul. 6: 117, 234, pl. 6 fig. 11. - Carpenter and van der Vecht, 1991, Ann. Carnegie Mus. 60 (3): 222 (designation of lectotype). Chartergus cinctellus; Ducke, 1904, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, Pará 4: 325, 329 (key), 337 (Brazil). - Cameron, 1907, Invert. Pacif. 1: 181 (critellus [!]). Chartergus chartergoides; Ducke, 1904, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, Pará 4: 325. Pseudochartergus chartergoides; Ducke, 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 466 (female, male, nest; key; syns.: Charterginus cinctellus Fox, Chartergus acutiscutis Cameron, Chartergus panamensis Zavattari; Belize; Panama; Peru; Brazil). - Bequaert, 1938, Rev. Entomol., Rio de Janeiro 9: 104 (typical chartergoides). - Overal, 1978, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.), Zool. 94: 11 (list). - Carpenter and Wenzel, 1990 (1989), Psyche 96: 182-183 (nest). Pseudochartergus chartergoides var. cinctellus; Bequaert, 1938, Rev. Entomol., Rio de Janeiro 9: 104 (syns.: acutiscutis Cameron, panamensis Zavattari) [partim]; 1944, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 94: 264 (probable syn.: “Charterginus”pallidibalteatus Cameron). Protopolybia chartergoides chartergoides; Araujo, 1960, Studia Entomol. (N. S.) 3: 252 (Brazil: Amapá). - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 359 (list). Pseudochartergus chartergoides chartergoides morph chartergoides; Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 154 (key), 156. Pseudochartergus chartergoides chartergoides morph cinctellus; Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 155 (key), 156. - Almeida and Castro, 1991, Acta Biol. Par., Curitiba 20: 47 (coll. list). Protopolybia chartergoides; Carpenter and van der Vecht, 1991, Ann. Carnegie Mus. 60 (3): 222. Distr.: Colombia: Amazonas*, Caquetá, Magdalena, Meta, Putumayo, Tolima*, Valle, Vaupés; Venezuela: Zulia*; Guyana; Suriname; French Guiana; Ecuador: Esmereldas*, Manabi, Napo, Tungurahua; Peru: Cuzco, Huánuco, Loreto; Brazil: Acre, Amapá, Amazonas, Maranhão, Mato Grosso, Pará, Rondônia, São Paulo; Bolivia: La Paz. chartergoides isthmensis (Richards) Pseudochartergus chartergoides isthmensis Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 155 (key), 157, female - “PANAMA: Sabanas” (Washington); also from Tocumen; and Costa Rica. Protopolybia chartergoides; West-Eberhard et al., 1995, Hym. Costa Rica: 586 (Costa Rica). - O'Donnell, 1995, Biotropica 27: 136 (morphology). Distr.: Belize; Costa Rica; Panama; Colombia: Tolima*. duckei (du Buysson) Charterginus duckei du Buysson, 1905, Bull. Soc. Entomol. France 1905: 126, female - “Brésil, Bahia” (? Wien). - Ducke, 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 470 (syn. of Protopolybia emortualis (de Saussure)). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 144 (syn. of emortualis). - Carpenter, 1999, Am. Mus. Novitat. 3259: 17 (note on type). Protopolybia emortualis var. duckei; Bequaert, 1944, Rev. Entomol., Rio de Janeiro 15: 116, fig. 2 (“scarcely worthy of a name”; Guyana); 1944, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 94: 270 (separation from typical form doubtful). - Richards, 1951, in Richards and Richards, Trans. Entomol. Soc. London 102: 22 (syn.: Charterginus rufo-ornatus Cameron; nest; Guyana). Protopolybia duckei; Carpenter et al., 2001, J. New York Entomol. Soc. 109: 180 (valid species; French Guiana). Distr.: French Guiana; Brazil: Bahia. duckeianus (Richards) Pseudochartergus duckeianus Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 154 (key), 155, fig. 73, female - “BRAZIL: AP, Oiapoque (Oyapock)” (London). - Carpenter and Wenzel, 1990 (1989), Psyche 96: 179-181, 184 (characters). Distr.: Suriname; Brazil: Amapá. emortualis (de Saussure) Chartergus emortualis de Saussure, 1855, Rev. Mag. Zool. 7: 374 - “Brésil (Santarem, vallée des Amazones)” (holotype female London). - Smith, 1857, Cat. Hym. Br. Mus. 5: 135. - Dalla Torre, 1894, Cat. Hym. 9: 168; 1904, Gen. Ins. 19: 85 (cat.). - Ducke, 1904, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, Pará 4: 326. Chartergus rufiventris Ducke, 1904, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, Pará 4: 325, 329 (key), 335, female - [Brazil:] “Belem do Pará” (lectotype Paris); 1907, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, Pará 5: 166 (syn. of Protopolybia emortualis (de Saussure)).. - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 144 (designation of lectotype). - Nascimento and Overal, 1979, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.) 95: 9 (list). Protopolybia rufiventris; Ducke, 1905, Rev. Entomol., Caen 24: 18; 1905, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, Pará 4: 662 (nest), 673 (male; Brazil); 1907, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, Pará 5: pl. 2 fig. 2a-b. Charterginus rufo-ornatus Cameron, 1912, Timehri (3) 2: 220, female - locality not stated [Guyana] (lectotype London). - Richards, 1951, in Richards and Richards, Trans. Entomol. Soc. London 102: 22 (syn. of Protopolybiaemortualis var. duckei); 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 144 (rufoornatus; designation of lectotype). - Carpenter, 1999, Am. Mus. Novitat. 3259: 18 (notes on types). Protopolybia emortualis; Ducke, 1907, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, Pará 5: 165 (key), 166, pl. 2 fig. 2a-b (syn.: Chartergus rufiventris Ducke; nest; Peru; Brazil; Suriname); 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 468 (key), 470, fig. 1 (syn.: Charterginus duckei du Buysson; female, male, nest; ethology); 1914, Zool. Jahrb. (Syst.) 36: 309; 1918, Rev. Mus. Paul. 10: 324. - Bequaert, 1944, Rev. Entomol., Rio de Janeiro 15: 101 (key), 115 (typical emortualis; Suriname); 1944, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 94: 265 (key), 270 (typical emortualis). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 138 (key), 144. - Overal, 1978, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.), Zool. 94: 11 (list). - Carpenter and Wenzel, 1990 (1989), Psyche 96: 179-181, 184 (characters). - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 359 (Colombia: Meta, Tolima, Santander del Sur, Cundinamarca, Magdalena; list). - Carpenter et al., 2001, J. New York Entomol. Soc. 109: 179 (Brazil; French Guiana), 180 (syn.: rufoornatus). Protopolybia laboriosa; Bodkin, 1918, Trans. Entomol. Soc. Lond. 1917: 297-321. Misidentification. Protopolybia rufo-ornata; Bequaert, 1944, Rev. Entomol., Rio de Janeiro 15: 131 (unrecognized species; possibly variant of P. picteti); 1944, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 94: 270 (possibly color form of P. picteti). Distr.: Colombia: Cundinamarca, Magdalena, Meta, Santander del Sur, Tolima; Guyana; Suriname; French Guiana; Peru: Huánuco, Loreto; Brazil: Acre, Amazonas, Pará. exigua binominata (Schulz) Polybia minutissima de Saussure, 1854, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2: 170, female (in division Alpha) - “L'Amérique méridionale. Quixos” [Ecuador] (? Torino) [junior secondary homonym of Protopolybia minutissima (Spinola, 1851)]. - Dalla Torre, 1894, Cat. Hym. 9: 164; 1904, Gen. Ins. 19: 78 (cat.). Polybia binominata Schulz, 1906, Spolia Hym.: 233. Replacement name for P. minutissima de Saussure, 1854. Protopolybia sedula; Rau, 1933, Jungle Bees Wasps Barro Col. Is.: 87, figs. 41-42. Misidentification. Protopolybia sedula var. exigua; Brèthes, 1920, An. Soc. Cient. Argent. 89: 51. Misidentification. Protopolybia minutissima var. binominata; Bequaert, 1944, Rev. Entomol., Rio de Janeiro 15: 106 (key), 107 (nest) [partim]; 1944, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 94: 267. Protopolybia exigua binominata; Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 138 (key), 143. - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 359 (list). - Silveira and Carpenter, 1996 (1995), J. New York Entomol. Soc. 103: figs. 1B, 2B. Distr.: Costa Rica; Panama; Colombia: Amazonas, Meta, Nariño, Putumayo, Santander, Vaupés; Guyana; Suriname; French Guiana*; Ecuador: Napo, Pastaza; Peru: Cuzco, Huánuco, Junín; Bolivia: Beni, La Paz, Pando. exigua exigua (de Saussure) Polybia exigua de Saussure, 1854, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2: 173, pl. XXII fig. 1, female (in division Alpha) - “Le Brésil. Capitainerie de Goyaz” (Paris). - Smith, 1857, Cat. Hym. Br. Mus. 5: 125. - Rudow, 1901, Berlin. Entomol. Zeitschr. 46: 341 (nest). - Dalla Torre, 1904, Gen. Ins. 19: 77 (cat.). ? Polybia sedula; Möbius, 1856, Abhand. Naturw. Vereins Hamburg 3: 126; 1856, Nester Gesell. Wespen: 6, 34 (key), pl. II (nest; Brazil; Venezuela: Puerto Cabello); 1856, Arch. Naturgesch. 22: 330 (key), fig. 4. - Smith, 1857, Cat. Hym. Br. Mus. 5: 124. - Fox, 1898, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad.: 451 (Brazil: Amazonas, Mato Grosso). - Rudow, 1898, Illus. Zeitschr. Entomol. 3: 25 (nest); 1901, Berlin. Entomol. Zeitschr. 46: 341 (nest). - Brèthes, 1903, An. Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires 9: 28. - Ducke, 1904, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, Pará 4: 342 (key), 349 (in subgenus Polybia; female; nest; Brazil: Pará). - Zavattari, 1906, Boll. Mus. Zool. Anat. Comp. Torino 21 (529): 10 (Panama). - Carpenter and van der Vecht, 1991, Ann. Carnegie Mus. 60 (3): 218 (note on material seen by Fox). Misidentification. Polybia diligens Smith, 1857, Cat. Hym. Br. Mus. 5: 132, female - “Brazil (Santarem)” (London). - Dalla Torre, 1904, Gen. Ins. 19: 77 (cat.). Polybia palmarum Blanchard, 1868, Métamorph. Mouers Instincts Ins.: 414 fig., 415, female - “commune au Guatémala” (Paris). - Ducke, 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 474 (syn. of sedula var. exigua). - Bequaert, 1944, Rev. Entomol., Rio de Janeiro 15: 110 (probably syn. of pumila var. acutiscutis (Cameron)). - Silveira and Carpenter, 1996 (1995), J. New York Entomol. Soc. 103: 53 (syn. of P. exigua de Saussure). - Carpenter, 1999, Am. Mus. Novitat. 3259: 17 (notes on types). Polybia minutissima sedula; R. von Ihering, 1904, Rev. Mus. Paul. 6: 179, 247, pl. 6 fig. 9 (nest; Brazil: São Paulo, Bahia, Espírito Santo, Amazonas; Peru; Suriname) [partim]. Protopolybia sedula; Ducke, 1907, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, Pará 5: 166 (key), 167; 1907, Rev. Entomol., Caen 26: 94 (Brazil); 1908, Rev. Entomol., Caen 27: 85 (Brazil); 1910, Rev. Entomol., Caen 28: 118 (var.: exigua Saussure); 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 470 (key), 474, fig. 3 (syns.: P. exigua de Saussure, P. pumila de Saussure, P. palmarum Blanchard, P. diligens Smith, P. punctulata Ducke; female, male, nest; Central America; Brazil; Paraguay; French Guiana) [partim]; 1914, Zool. Jahrb. (Syst.) 36: 309-311, figs. B-D (nest); 1918, Rev. Mus. Paul. 10: 324 (many additional localities in Brazil; Paraguay; Peru; French Guiana). - Bertoni, 1918, An. Cient. Parag. (2) 3: 204 (Paraguay). - da Fonseca, 1927, Rev. Mus. Paul. 14: 171 (nest). Misidentification. Protopolybia exigua; Ducke, 1908, Rev. Entomol., Caen 27: 85 (Brazil). - Machado and Rodrigues, 1975, Rev. Agric., Piracicaba 50: 95-102 (caste polymorphism). - ? Raw, 1989, Maracá Rainfor. Proj., Invert. Limnol., Prelim. Rep.: 33, 36 (distr.); 1989, Maracá Rainfor. Proj., Invert. Limnol., Prelim. Rep.: 41 (habitat preference). - Carpenter and Wenzel, 1990 (1989), Psyche 96: 179 (characters). - Gastreich et al., 1993, Ethol. Ecol. Evol. 5 (4): 529-539 (genetics). - Queller et al., 1993, Nature 365: 639-641 (genetics). - West-Eberhard et al., 1995, Hym. Costa Rica: 586 (Costa Rica). - O'Donnell, 1995, Biotropica 27: 136 (morphology). - Strassmann et al., 1998, Mol. Ecol. 7:709-718 (ethology). - Garcete-Barrett, 2002 (2001), Bol. Mus. Nac. Hist. Nat. Parag. 13: 48 (Paraguay). Protopolybia sedula var. exigua; Ducke, 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 474 (syn.: diligens Smith); 1918, Rev. Mus. Paul. 10: 324 (Brazil). Polybia nana Cameron, 1912, Timehri (3) 2: 208 (key), 209, female - locality not stated [Guyana] (lectotype London) [junior primary homonym of Polybia nana de Saussure, 1863]. - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 142 (designation of lectotype). Protopolybia minutissima var. sedula; Martorell and Salas, 1939, J. Agric. Univ. Puerto Rico 23: 251 (Venezuela: Trujillo). - Bequaert, 1944, Rev. Entomol., Rio de Janeiro 15: 106 (key), 109; 1944, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 94: 267; 1949 (1948), Bol. Entomol. Venez. 7: 131 (Venezuela localities). Misidentification. Protopolybia minutissima var. exigua; Bequaert, 1944, Rev. Entomol., Rio de Janeiro 15: 106 (key), 108 (Colombia; Venezuela; Trinidad; Brazil; Bolivia); 1944, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 94: 267. Protopolybia nana; Bequaert, 1944, Rev. Entomol., Rio de Janeiro 15: 133 (unrecognized species); 1944, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 94: 270 (unrecognized). Protopolybia exigua exigua; Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 138 (key), 142. - Simões and Zucchi, 1980, Naturalia 5: 79-87 (ethology). - Almeida and Castro, 1991, Acta Biol. Par., Curitiba 20: 47 (coll. list). - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 359 (list). - Silveira and Carpenter, 1996 (1995), J. New York Entomol. Soc. 103: 49 (male; Brazil: Goiás). - Simões et al., 1996, Sociobiol. 28 (1): 121-129 (ethology; parasitism by Megaselia (Phoridae)). Distr.: Guatemala; Costa Rica; Panama; Colombia: Amazonas*, Arauca, Meta; Venezuela: Barinas, Bolívar, Carabobo, D. F.*, Falcón*, Monagas, Trujillo, Zulia; Trinidad; Guyana; Suriname; French Guiana; Ecuador: Esmereldas, Napo; Peru: Loreto, Madre de Dios; Brazil: Acre, Amazonas, Bahia, Ceará, D. F., Espírito Santo, Goiás, Maranhão, Mato Grosso, Minas Gerais, Pará, Pernambuco, Rio de Janeiro, Roraima, Santa Catarina, São Paulo; Bolivia: Cochabamba, Santa Cruz; Paraguay: Concepción. fuscatus (Fox) Charterginus fuscatus Fox, 1898, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad.: 459, female - “Brazil ... Mararu” (Pittsburgh). - Dalla Torre, 1904, Gen. Ins. 19: 85 (cat.). Chartergus fuscatus; Ducke, 1904, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, Pará 4: 325, 329 (key), 338 (Brazil). Pseudochartergus fuscatus; Ducke, 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 466 (female; key; Brazil; Peru). - Bequaert, 1938, Rev. Entomol., Rio de Janeiro 9: 105 (Colombia: Boyacá; Peru). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 154 (key), 155. - Overal, 1978, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.), Zool. 94: 11 (list). - Carpenter and Wenzel, 1990 (1989), Psyche 96: 180 (characters), 183 (nest). Protopolybia fuscatus; Carpenter and van der Vecht, 1991, Ann. Carnegie Mus. 60 (3): 222. - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 359 (list). Distr.: Colombia: Boyacá, Putumayo, Valle; Ecuador: Napo; Peru: Huánuco, Junín, Loreto; Brazil: Amazonas, Pará; Bolivia: Beni, La Paz. holoxantha (Ducke) Polybia holoxantha Ducke, 1904, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, Pará 4: 342 (key), 349, female, nest - [Brazil:] “Oyapoc” (lectotype London). - Cameron, 1912, Timehri (3) 2: 207 (key), 209 (Guyana). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 140 (designation of lectotype). - Nascimento and Overal, 1979, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.) 95: 10 (list). - Carpenter, 1999, Am. Mus. Novitat. 3259: 17 (notes on types). Protopolybia holoxantha; Ducke, 1905, Rev. Entomol., Caen 24: 18; 1905, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, Pará 4: 675 (Brazil), pl. 3 fig. 11 (nest); 1907, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, Pará 5: 166, 168 (French Guiana); 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 469 (key), 477 (female, male, nest; French Guiana; Brazil). - Bequaert, 1944, Rev. Entomol., Rio de Janeiro 15: 100 (key), 104 (Guyana), fig. 1E-G; 1944, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 94: 265 (key), 266 (list). - Araujo, 1960, Studia Entomol. (N. S.) 3: 252 (Brazil: Amapá). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 137 (key), 140. - Overal, 1978, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.), Zool. 94: 11 (list). - Silveira and Carpenter, 1996 (1995), J. New York Entomol. Soc. 103: 49 (male; Guyana). - Carpenter and Wenzel, 1990 (1989), Psyche 96: 179-180 (characters). Distr.: Guyana; French Guiana; Brazil: Amapá, Amazonas. iheringi Ducke Polybia pumila; R. von Ihering, 1904, Rev. Mus. Paul. 6: 176, 247 [partim]. Protopolybia Iheringi Ducke, 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 469 (key), 474, female, nest - “Pérou, oriental subandin, Marcapata” (lectotype São Paulo). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 139 (key), 148 (iheringi; designation of lectotype). - Overal, 1978, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.), Zool. 94: 11 (ihering [!]; list). - Nascimento and Overal, 1979, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.) 95: 11 (iheringi; list). - Carpenter, 1999, Am. Mus. Novitat. 3259: 17 (notes on types). Distr.: Peru: Cuzco. laboriosa (de Saussure) Polybia laboriosa de Saussure, 1854, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2: 171, female (in division Alpha) - “Le Mexique” (Torino?). - Dalla Torre, 1904, Gen. Ins. 19: 77 (cat.). Protopolybia laboriosa; Bequaert, 1944, Rev. Entomol., Rio de Janeiro 15: 130 (unrecognized species). - Rodríguez-Palafox, 1996, in Llorente-Bousquets et al., Biodiv. Taxon. Biogeogr. Artrópod. México: 482 (list). Distr.: Mexico. minutissima (Spinola) Polistes minutissima Spinola, 1851, preprint of Mem. R. Accad. Sci. Torino (2) 13: 62, female - [Brazil:] “Para” (? Torino). - Dalla Torre, 1894, Cat. Hym. 9: 132; 1904, Gen. Ins. 19: 70 (cat.). Rhopalidia minutissima; Spinola, 1854, in Osculati, Esplorazione lungo il Napo ed Amazzoni: 201. - Dalla Torre, 1894, Cat. Hym. 9: 164. Polybia minutissima; Smith, 1857, Cat. Hym. Br. Mus. 5: 124. - R. von Ihering, 1904, Rev. Mus. Paul. 6: 178 (Brazil: Espírito Santo, São Paulo). - Zavattari, 1906, Bol. Mus. Zool. Anat. Comp. Torino 21 (529): 10 (Panama). Protopolybia minutissima; Ducke, 1905, Rev. Entomol., Caen 24: 18; 1905, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, Pará 4: 675 (Brazil: Teffé); 1906, Rev. Entomol., Caen 25: 7 (Brazil); 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 470 (key), 476 (nest; Ecuador; Panama; French Guiana; Brazil); 1918, Rev. Mus. Paul. 10: 325. - da Fonseca, 1926, Rev. Mus. Paul. 14: 171 (nest). - Bequaert, 1944, Rev. Entomol., Rio de Janeiro 15: 106 (typical minutissima; earlier references probably based on more than one color form of this species).; 1944, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 94: 265 (key), 267 (typical minutissima). - Richards and Richards, 1951, Trans. Entomol. Soc. London 102: 19. - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 138 (key), 141. - Overal, 1978, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.), Zool. 94: 11 (list). - Carpenter and Wenzel, 1990 (1989), Psyche 96: 179-180 (characters). - Almeida and Castro, 1991, Acta Biol. Par., Curitiba 20: 47 (coll. list). - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 359 (Colombia: Santander del Sur; list). Distr.: Panama; Colombia: Santander del Sur; Guyana; Suriname; French Guiana; Ecuador: Napo; Peru: Huánuco, Junín, Loreto; Brazil: Minas Gerais; Mato Grosso, Pará, Rondônia; Bolivia: Cochabamba, Pando. nitida (Ducke) Chartergus nitidus Ducke, 1904, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, Pará 4: 325, 327 (key), 338, female - [Brazil:] “Obidos” (lectotype London); also from Oyapoc. - Bequaert, 1944, Rev. Entomol., Rio de Janeiro 15: 118 (syn. of Protopolybia pictetivar. bella (R. von Ihering)). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 145 (designation of lectotype). - Nascimento and Overal, 1979, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.) 95: 9 (list). - Carpenter, 1999, Am. Mus. Novitat. 3259: 17 (notes on types). Protopolybia nitida; Ducke, 1905, Rev. Entomol., Caen 24: 18; 1905, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, Pará 4: 674; 1907, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, Pará 5: 165; 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 469 (key), 473 (female; Brazil); 1918, Rev. Mus. Paul. 10: 324 (Peru). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 139 (key), 145. - Overal, 1978, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.), Zool. 94: 11 (list). Distr.: Ecuador: Napo; Peru: Huánuco; French Guiana*; Brazil: Amapá, Pará. pallidibalteatus (Cameron) Charterginus pallidibalteatus Cameron, 1912, Timehri (3) 2: 219, female - locality not stated [Guyana] (London). Chartergus pallidilineatus [!]; Bodkin, 1918, Trans. Entomol. Soc. Lond. 1917: 297-321. Pseudochartergus pallidibalteatus; Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 154 (key), 157. - Carpenter and Wenzel, 1990 (1989), Psyche 96: 180 (characters), 182 (nest). Distr.: Guyana; Suriname; French Guiana. panamensis (Zavattari) Chartergus panamensis Zavattari, 1906, Boll. Mus. Zool. Anat. Comp. R. Univ. Torino 21 (529): 4, female - [Panama] “Colon” (Torino). - Bequaert, 1938, Rev. Entomol., Rio de Janeiro 9: 104 (syn. of Pseudochartergus chartergoides var. cinctellus (Fox)). Chartergus acutiscutis Cameron, 1907, Invert. Pacif. 1: 183, female - “Belize” (London) [secondary junior homonym of Polybia acutiscutis Cameron, 1906]. - Bequaert, 1938, Rev. Entomol., Rio de Janeiro 9: 104 (syn. of Pseudochartergus chartergoides var. cinctellus (Fox)). Pseudochartergus chartergoides var. cinctellus; Bequaert, 1938, Rev. Entomol., Rio de Janeiro 9: 104 [partim]; 1944, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 94: 264 (specimens from Belize, Honduras, Panama, Colombia, are Pseudochartergus panamensis (Zavattari)). Pseudochartergus panamensis; Bequaert, 1944, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 94: 264. - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 154 (key), 157. - Carpenter and Wenzel, 1990 (1989), Psyche 96: 183 (nest). Protopolybia panamensis; Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 359 (list). - West-Eberhard et al., 1995, Hym. Costa Rica: 586 (Costa Rica). - Silveira and Carpenter, 1996 (1995), J. New York Entomol. Soc. 103: 49 (male; Panama). Distr.: Belize; Guatemala; Honduras; Costa Rica; Panama; Colombia: Antioquia, Boyacá, Cundinamarca, Magdalena, Santander. perfulvula Bequaert Protopolybia picteti var. (or subsp.) perfulvula Bequaert, 1944, Rev. Entomol., Rio de Janeiro 15: 117 (key), 121, female - “Panama: Rio Agua Salud, C. Z.” (Cambridge); also from Barro Colorado Island; and Costa Rica. Protopolybia perfulvula; Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 139 (key), 147. - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 359 (list). - West-Eberhard et al., 1995, Hym. Costa Rica: 586 (Costa Rica). Distr.: Costa Rica; Panama; Colombia: Atlantico, Valle. picteti fulvotincta (Cameron) Polybia fulvotincta Cameron, 1907, Invert. Pacif. 1: 184, female (in subgenus Clypearia) - “Belize” (lectotype London). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 147 (designation of lectotype). Protopolybia fulvotincta; Ducke, 1908, Deutsch. Entomol. Zeitschr.: 696 (female, male); 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 469 (key), 472 (female, male; Belize). - Overal, 1978, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.), Zool. 94: 11 (list). Protopolybia picteti var. fulvotincta; Bequaert, 1944, Rev. Entomol., Rio de Janeiro 15: 117 (key), 120. Protopolybia picteti var. iheringi; Bequaert, 1944, Rev. Entomol., Rio de Janeiro 15: 116 (key), 120 (Costa Rica). Misidentification. Protopolybia picteti fulvotincta; Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 139 (key), 147. Protopolybia picteti; West-Eberhard et al., 1995, Hym. Costa Rica: 586 (Costa Rica). Distr.: Belize; Costa Rica. picteti picteti (de Saussure) Polybia picteti de Saussure, 1854, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2: 168, pl. XXI fig. 2, female (in division Alpha) - “Lébao [Libano]. Colombie” (Paris). - Smith, 1857, Cat. Hym. Br. Mus. 5: 124. - Dalla Torre, 1894, Cat. Hym. 9: 165. - Rudow, 1901, Berlin. Entomol. Zeitschr. 46: 341 (nest from Venezuela). - Dalla Torre, 1904, Gen. Ins. 19: 78 (cat.). Protopolybia picteti; Ducke, 1905, Rev. Entomol., Caen 24: 18; 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 468 (key), 471 (female, nest; Colombia). - Bequaert, 1944, Rev. Entomol., Rio de Janeiro 15: 117 (typical picteti; male; Panama; Colombia); 1949 (1948), Bol. Entomol. Venez. 7: 131 (record by Rudow unreliable). Protopolybia picteti picteti; Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 139 (key), 147. - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 359 (list). Distr.: Panama; Colombia: Magdalena, Tolima; Venezuela: D. F. rotundata Ducke Polybia pumila; Fox, 1898, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad.: 449 [partim]. Protopolybia rotundata Ducke, 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 469 (key), 472, female - “La Mana, Guyane française” (lectotype Paris). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 138 (key), 145 (designation of lectotype). - Overal, 1978, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.), Zool. 94: 11 (list). - Nascimento and Overal, 1979, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.) 95: 11 (list). - Carpenter and van der Vecht, 1991, Ann. Carnegie Mus. 60 (3): 215 (note on material seen by Fox). - Carpenter, 1999, Am. Mus. Novitat. 3259: 18 (notes on types). Protopolybia pumila var. rotundata; Bequaert, 1944, Rev. Entomol., Rio de Janeiro 15: 123 (key), 126; 1944, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 94: 270 (list). Distr.: French Guiana; Brazil: Mato Grosso. rubrithorax Bequaert Protopolybia “rubrithorax Bequaert nov. spec.” Weyrauch, 1943, Bol. Mus. Hist. Nat. Javier Prado 7: 73. Nomen nudum. Protopolybia minutissima var. (or subsp.) rubrithorax Bequaert, 1944, Rev. Entomol., Rio de Janeiro 15: 106 (key), 110, fig. 1L-N, female, nest - “Peru: Tingo Maria, Rio Huallaga, 700 m.” (holotype female Cambridge). Protopolybia rubrithorax; Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 138 (key), 142. - Carpenter and Wenzel, 1990 (1989), Psyche 96: 179 (characters). Distr.: Peru: Huánuco. rugulosa Ducke Protopolybia minutissima; Ducke, 1905, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, Pará 4: 697, pl. 3 fig. 10. Protopolybia rugulosa Ducke, 1907, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, Pará 5: 166 (key), 167, female - [Brazil:] “Teffé” (lectotype London); 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 476 (syn. of P. laboriosa (de Saussure)). - Bequaert, 1944, Rev. Entomol., Rio de Janeiro 15: 130. - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 137 (key), 143 (designation of lectotype). - Nascimento and Overal, 1979, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.) 95: 11 (list). - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 359 (Colombia: Amazonas; list). - Carpenter, 1999, Am. Mus. Novitat. 3259: 18 (notes on types). ? Protopolybia laboriosa; Ducke, 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 470 (key), 476 (female, nest; Mexico; Brazil). - Overal, 1978, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.), Zool. 94: 11 (list). Misidentification. Distr.: Colombia: Amazonas; Suriname; French Guiana; Brazil: Amazonas. scutellaris Bequaert Protopolybia scutellaris Bequaert, 1944, Rev. Entomol., Rio de Janeiro 15: 100 (key), 111, fig. 1H-K, female - “Costa Rica: Suretka, Province Limon” (Ithaca). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 137 (key), 141, fig. 71 (nest; Panama; Colombia). - Carpenter and Wenzel, 1990 (1989), Psyche 96: 179-180 (characters), 182 (nest). - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 359 (list). - West-Eberhard et al., 1995, Hym. Costa Rica: 586 (Costa Rica). Distr.: Costa Rica; Panama*; Colombia: Nariño, Valle. sedula (de Saussure) Polybia sedula de Saussure, 1854, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2: 169, pl. XXI figs. 3-6, female (in division Alpha) - [Brazil:] “Bahia” (Paris, Genève). - Dalla Torre, 1904, Gen. Ins. 19: 78 (cat.). - Carpenter, 1999, Am. Mus. Novitat. 3259: 18 (notes on types). Polybia pumila de Saussure, 1863, Mém. Soc. Phys. Hist. Nat. Genève 17: 239, female (in division Alpha) - “Brésil” (Frankfurt). - Dalla Torre, 1894, Cat. Hym. 9: 165. - Fox, 1898, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad.: 449 [partim] (Brazil: Mato Grosso). - Dalla Torre, 1904, Gen. Ins. 19: 78 (cat.). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 150 (designation of lectotype; syn. of Protopolybia sedula (de Saussure)). - Carpenter and van der Vecht, 1991, Ann. Carnegie Mus. 60 (3): 215 (note on material seen by Fox). - Carpenter, 1999, Am. Mus. Novitat. 3259: 18 (notes on type; syn. confirmed). Protopolybia pumila; Ducke, 1905, Rev. Entomol., Caen 24: 18. - Bequaert, 1944, Rev. Entomol., Rio de Janeiro 15: 101 (key), 123 (typical pumila; male; nest; Colombia; Venezuela; Guyana; Suriname; Brazil; Peru; Bolivia); 1944, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 94: 266 (key), 270 (typical pumila); 1949 (1948), Bol. Entomol. Venez. 7: 131 (Venezuela: D. F.). - Machado and Rodrigues, 1975, Rev. Agric., Piracicaba 50: 95-102 (caste polymorphism). - Machado, 1977, Rev. Brasil. Biol. 37: 771-784 (ethology). - Overal, 1978, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.), Zool. 94: 11 (list). Protopolybia punctulata Ducke, 1907, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, Pará 5: 166 (key), 167, female - “Iquitos (Perú amazonico) e Barbacena (Minas Geraes) ... La Mana (Guyana franceza) ... de diversas localidades do Estado de São Paulo” (Bern). - Nascimento and Overal, 1979, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.) 95: 11 (list). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 142 (syn. of exigua de Saussure). - Obrecht and Huber, 1993, Jahrb. Naturhist. Mus. Bern 11: 178 (syntype in Bern corresponds to sedula de Saussure). - Carpenter, 1999, Am. Mus. Novitat. 3259: 1, 18 (notes on types; syn. of sedula de Saussure). Protopolybia sedula; Ducke, 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 474 [partim]. - Overal, 1978, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.), Zool. 94: 11 (list). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 144 (syn.: P. pumila de Saussure). - Carpenter and Wenzel, 1990 (1989), Psyche 96: 180 (characters), 183 (nest). - Machado, 1982, in Jaisson, Soc. Ins. Tropics 1: 189-192 (ethology). - Almeida and Castro, 1991, Acta Biol. Par., Curitiba 20: 47 (coll. list). - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 359 (list). - Silveira and Carpenter, 1996 (1995), J. New York Entomol. Soc. 103: 49 (male; Peru). - Garcete-Barrett, 1999, Avispas Soc. Parag.: 32, fig. Protopolybia sedula morph sedula; Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 140 (key), 150. Distr.: Colombia: Amazonas, Caquetá, Magdalena, Putumayo; Venezuela: D. F.; Guyana; Suriname; French Guiana; Ecuador: Napo; Peru: Huánuco, Junín, Loreto, Pasco; Brazil: Bahia, D. F., Espírito Santo, Goiás, Maranhão, Mato Grosso, Minas Gerais, Pará, Paraná, Rio de Janeiro, Santa Catarina, São Paulo; Bolivia: Beni, La Paz; Paraguay: Asunción, Alto Paraná; Argentina: Misiones. steinbachi Richards Protopolybia steinbachi Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 139 (key), 148, female - “BOLIVIA” (London). Distr.: Bolivia. weyrauchi Bequaert Protopolybia “weyrauchi Bequaert nov. spec.” Weyrauch, 1943, Bol. Mus. Hist. Nat. Javier Prado 7: 73. Nomen nudum. Protopolybia weyrauchi Bequaert, 1944, Rev. Entomol., Rio de Janeiro 15: 101 (key), 126, fig. 3A-G, female, male, nest - “Peru: San Ramon, Valle Chanchamayo, 800 m.” (holotype female Cambridge). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 140 (key), 149. - Carpenter and Wenzel, 1990 (1989), Psyche 96: 180 (characters), 183 (nest). - Silveira and Carpenter, 1996 (1995), J. New York Entomol. Soc. 103: 49, fig. 2C (male; Peru). Distr.: Peru: Junín. wheeleri Bequaert Protopolybia picteti var. (or subsp.) wheeleri Bequaert, 1944, Rev. Entomol., Rio de Janeiro 15: 117 (key), 121, fig. 3H-N, female, male, nest - “Panama: Frijoles, C. Z.” (holotype female Cambridge). Protopolybia wheeleri; Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 139 (key), 146. - Silveira and Carpenter, 1996 (1995), J. New York Entomol. Soc. 103: 49 (male; Panama). Distr.: Nicaragua; Panama; Colombia*. Genus Pseudopolybia de Saussure Pseudopolybia de Saussure, 1863, Mém. Soc. Phys. Hist. Nat. Genève 17: 237, division of genus Polybia Lepeletier, 1836. Type species: Polybia vespiceps de Saussure, 1863, by monotypy. Xanthocaba Meade Waldo, 1914, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (8) 14: 406, in synonymy of Parachartergus vespiceps var. testacea Ducke. Unavailable under Article 11.6 of the Code. compressa (de Saussure) Chartergus compressus de Saussure, 1854, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2: 217 (key), 223, pl. XXXI fig. 6, male - “Les Amazones” (London). - Dalla Torre, 1904, Gen. Ins. 19: 85 (cat.). - Ducke, 1904, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, Pará 4: 325. - Carpenter, 1999, Am. Mus. Novitat. 3259: 18 (note on type). Chartergus luctuosus Smith, 1857, Cat. Hym. Br. Mus. 5: 135, female - “Brazil (Santarem)” (London). - Gribodo, 1892 (1891), Boll. Soc. Entomol. Ital. 23: 257 (Venezuela: Mérida). - Dalla Torre, 1904, Gen. Ins. 19: 85 (cat.). - Ducke, 1904, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, Pará 4: 325. Chartergus laticinctus Ducke, 1904, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, Pará 4: 323, 326 (key), 330, female - [Brazil:] “Belem do Pará” (lectotype Paris). - Zavattari, 1906, Boll. Mus. Zool. Anat. Comp. R. Univ. Torino 21 (529): 4 (Ecuador). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 228 (designation of lectotype). - Nascimento and Overal, 1979, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.) 95: 9 (list). - Carpenter, 1999, Am. Mus. Novitat. 3259: 19 (notes on lectotype; syn. of compressa (de Saussure)). Parachartergus luctuosus; Ducke, 1905, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, Pará 4: 662 (nest). Parachartergus compressus; Ducke, 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 527 (key), 530, fig. 15 (syns.: C. luctuosus Smith, C. laticinctus Ducke; female, male, nest; Ecuador; Brazil). Pseudopolybia compressa; Bequaert, 1938, Rev. Entomol., Rio de Janeiro 9: 113 (typical form); Martorell and Salas, 1939, J. Agric. Univ. Puerto Rico 23: 251 (Venezuela: Aragua). - Almeida and Castro, 1991, Acta Biol. Par., Curitiba 20: 48 (coll. list). - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 360 (list). - West-Eberhard et al., 1995, Hym. Costa Rica: 586 (Costa Rica). - O'Donnell, 1995, Biotropica 27: 136 (morphology). - Carpenter and Mateus, 2004, Rev. Bras. Entomol. 48 (3): fig. 8 (male genitalia). - Andena et al., 2007, Am. Mus. Novitat. 3586: 1 (phylogenetic relationships), 10 (key), 11 (Brazil; Suriname; Trinidad; Peru; Ecuador; Panama), table 1 (characters), figs. 2A1, 2B1, 2C1, 2D1. Pseudopolybia compressa var. laticincta; Bequaert, 1938, Rev. Entomol., Rio de Janeiro 9: 113 (Colombia; Brazil); 1949 (1948), Bol. Entomol. Venez. 7: 135 (Venezuela: Mérida). Pseudopolybia compressa var. luctuosa; Bequaert, 1938, Rev. Entomol., Rio de Janeiro 9: 113 (Panama; Peru; Bolivia); 1949 (1948), Bol. Entomol. Venez. 7: 135 (Venezuela localities). Pseudopolybia compressa morph compressa; Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 225 (key), 227. Pseudopolybia compressa morph luctuosa; Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 225 (key), 227. Pseudopolybia compressa morph laticincta; Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 225 (key), 228. Parachartergus compressus; Overal, 1978, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.), Zool. 94: 10 (list). Distr.: Nicaragua; Costa Rica; Panama; Colombia: Antioquia, Cauca; Venezuela: Aragua, Mérida; Trinidad; Suriname; French Guiana*; Ecuador: Napo; Peru: Cuzco, Huánuco, Junín; Madre de Dios; Brazil: Amapá, Amazonas, Espirito Santo, Goiás, Mato Grosso, Pará, Rio de Janeiro; Bolivia: Beni. difficilis (Ducke) Parachartergus difficilis Ducke, 1905, Rev. Entomol., Caen 24: 14, female - [Brazil:] “dans le grand bois de la rive brésilienne du fleuve Oyapoc” (Paris); 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 527 (key), 528, fig. 13 (female, male, nest; Brazil). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 227 (designation of holotype as “lectotype”). - Nascimento and Overal, 1979, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.) 95: 10 (list). - Carpenter, 1999, Am. Mus. Novitat. 3259: 19 (notes on type). - Carpenter and Mateus, 2004, Rev. Bras. Entomol. 48 (3): fig. 9 (male genitalia). Pseudopolybia difficilis; Bequaert, 1938, Rev. Entomol., Rio de Janeiro 9: 112 (Guayana; Peru; Bolivia); 1944, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 94: 299. - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 225 (key), 227, fig. 92. - Overal, 1978, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.), Zool. 94: 11 (list). - O'Donnell, 1995, Biotropica 27: 136 (morphology). - Mejdalani and Felix, 1997, Proc. Entomol. Soc. Wash. 99 (1):159 (mimicry by Lissocarta beckeri (Homoptera: Cicadellidae)). - Andena et al., 2007, Am. Mus. Novitat. 3586: 1 (phylogenetic relationships), 10 (key), 11 (Brazil; Peru), table 1 (characters), fig. 3B1. Distr.: Guyana; Peru; Brazil: Amapá, Amazonas, Mato Grosso, Pará, Rondônia; Bolivia. langi Bequaert Pseudopolybia langi Bequaert, 1944, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 94: 299, fig. 2, female - “BRITISH GUIANA: Kamakusa” (Cambridge). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 224 (key), 230. - Andena et al., 2007, Am. Mus. Novitat. 3586: 1 (phylogenetic relationships), 10 (key), 11 (Brazil; Guyana), table 1 (characters), figs. 2C2, 3A1. Distr.: Guyana; Suriname; French Guiana; Ecuador: Napo; Brazil: Amapá, Amazonas. vespiceps (de Saussure) Polybia vespiceps de Saussure, 1863, Mém. Soc. Phys. Hist. Nat. Genève 17: 237, pl. 2 fig. 27, female - “Brésil” (Frankfurt). - Fox, 1898, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad.: 450 (Brazil: Mato Grosso). - Dalla Torre, 1904, Gen. Ins. 19: 78 (cat.). - Carpenter and van der Vecht, 1991, Ann. Carnegie Mus. 60 (3): 217 (note on material seen by Fox). - Carpenter, 1999, Am. Mus. Novitat. 3259: 19 (note on type). Chartergus vespiceps; Ducke, 1904, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, Pará 4: 323, 326 (key), 329 (Brazil). Parachartergus vespiceps; Ducke, 1906, Rev. Entomol., Caen 25: 6 (Brazil); 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 527 (key), 530, fig. 14 (typical vespiceps; male; Brazil). Parachartergus vespiceps var. testacea Ducke, 1907, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, Pará 5: 160 - “Suriname” (lectotype female São Paulo); also from French Guiana; Brazil; 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 530 (testaceus; French Guiana; Suriname; Brazil; ? Uruguay). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 225 (designation of lectotype). - Nascimento and Overal, 1979, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.) 95: 10 (list). - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 360 (Colombia: Amazonas, Caquetá; list). - Carpenter, 1999, Am. Mus. Novitat. 3259: 19 (notes on types; syn. of vespiceps (de Saussure)). Pseudopolybia vespiceps; Bequaert, 1938, Rev. Entomol., Rio de Janeiro 9: 112 (typical vespiceps); 1944, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 94: 299. - Overal, 1978, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.), Zool. 94: 11 (list). - Raw, 1989, Maracá Rainfor. Proj., Invert. Limnol., Prelim. Rep.: 31 (Brazil), 36 (distr.), 38; 1989, Maracá Rainfor. Proj., Invert. Limnol., Prelim. Rep.: 41 (habitat preference). - Almeida and Castro, 1991, Acta Biol. Par., Curitiba 20: 48 (coll. list). - Andena et al., 2007, Am. Mus. Novitat. 3586: 1 (phylogenetic relationships), 10 (key), 11 (Brazil; Peru), table 1 (characters), figs. 2A2, 2B2, 2D2, 3A2, 3B2, 4. Pseudopolybia vespiceps var. testacea; Bequaert, 1938, Rev. Entomol., Rio de Janeiro 9: 112 (syn.: Xanthocaba nigrolineata Meade-Waldo; Brazil). Pseudopolybia vespiceps morph vespiceps; Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 225. - Raw, 1989, Maracá Rainfor. Proj., Invert. Limnol., Prelim. Rep.: 38 (Brazil). Pseudopolybia vespiceps morph testacea; Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 225. - Raw, 1989, Maracá Rainfor. Proj., Invert. Limnol., Prelim. Rep.: 38 (Brazil). Distr.: Colombia: Amazonas, Caquetá; Venezuela: Amazonas*; Guyana; Suriname; French Guiana; Ecuador: Napo; Peru: Junín, Loreto, Pasco; Brazil: Amapá, Amazonas, Bahia, D. F., Espirito Santo, Goiás, Maranhão, Mato Grosso, Minas Gerais, Pará, Pernambuco, Rio de Janeiro, Rondônia, Roraima, Santa Catarina, São Paulo; ? Uruguay. Genus Synoeca de Saussure Synoeca de Saussure, 1852, Ann. Soc. Entomol. Fr. (2) 10: 550, 551, genus (6 species). Type species: Vespa surinama Linnaeus, 1767, by subsequent designation of Ashmead, 1902, Can. Entomol. 34: 165. Synaeca Brèthes, 1906, An. Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires 13: 313. Incorrect spelling of Synoeca de Saussure. chalibea de Saussure Synoeca chalibea de Saussure, 1852, Ann. Soc. Entomol. France (2) 10: 556, female - [French Guiana] “Cayenne” (? Paris); 1854, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2: 161, pl. XVIII fig. 5 (chalybea [!]). - Dalla Torre, 1904, Gen. Ins. 19: 81 (chalybea; cat.). - Ducke, 1904, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, Pará 4: 340 (chalybea [!]; Brazil). - Bequaert, 1944, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 94: 274 (key), 276 (chalybea; typical form). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 179 (key), 181, fig. 80 (syn.: S. irina var. splendens). - Almeida and Castro, 1991, Acta Biol. Par., Curitiba 20: 48 (coll. list). - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 359 (list). - Garcia and Gaiani, 1996 (1994), Bol. Entomol. Venez. 9 (2): 152 (key), 153 (Venezuela), fig. 2. - West-Eberhard et al., 1995, Hym. Costa Rica: 587 (Costa Rica). Synoeca irina var. splendens du Buysson, 1906, Ann. Soc. Entomol. France 75: 358, female - “Pérou: Valcanota; Bolivie: Songo” (Budapest). - Ducke, 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 487. - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 181 (syn. of S. chalibea de Saussure). Synoeca irina var. chalybea; Ducke, 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 487 (Colombia). Synoeca chalybea var. splendens; Bequaert, 1944, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 94: 276 (distinction doubtful). Distr.: Costa Rica; Panama; Colombia; Venezuela: Amazonas; Guyana; French Guiana; Ecuador: Napo; Peru: Cuzco, Huánuco, Junín, Loreto, Pasco; Brazil: Amazonas, Pará, Mato Grosso; Bolivia: Beni, Pando, Santa Cruz. cyanea (Fabricius) Vespa cyanea Fabricius, 1775, Syst. Entomol.: 372 - “Brasilia” (London); 1781, Spec. Ins.: 1: 469; 1787, Mant. Ins.: 293. - Christ, 1791, Naturgesch. Ins.: 227. - Olivier, 1792, Encyc. Méthod. 6 (2): 674. - Fabricius, 1793, Entomol. Syst. 2: 282. - Ducke, 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 486 (syn. of S. surinama (Linnaeus)). Polistes cyanea; Fabricius, 1804, Syst. Piez.: 279. - Lepeletier and Serville, 1825, Encyc. Méthod. 10: 172. Epipone [!] cyanea; Haliday, 1836, Trans. Linn. Soc. London 17: 322 (Brazil: São Paulo; Colombia). Synoeca cyanea; de Saussure, 1852, Ann. Soc. Entomol. France (2) 10: 553, pl 11 fig. 2 (French Guiana; Suriname; Brazil); 1854, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2.: 159. - Möbius, 1856, Nester Gesell. Wespen: 5, 35 (key), pl. I (nest; Brazil). - Fox, 1898, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad.: 446 (Rio de Janeiro). - Dalla Torre, 1904, Gen. Ins. 19: 81 (cat.). - Schrottky, 1904, Allg. Zeitschr. Entomol. 9: 345 (nest; Paraguay). - Ducke, 1906, Rev. Entomol., Caen 25: 7 (Brazil). - Schremmer, 1973, in Wolf, Encyc. Cinematograph. (film). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 179 (key), 180. - Schremmer, 1986, Öko-L 8 (nest). - Carpenter and van der Vecht, 1991, Ann. Carnegie Mus. 60 (3): 214 (note on material seen by Fox). - Almeida and Castro, 1991, Acta Biol. Par., Curitiba 20: 48 (coll. list). - Garcete-Barrett, 1999, Avispas Soc. Parag.: 8 (mimics), 31, fig. (Paraguay). Synoeca azurea de Saussure, 1852, Ann. Soc. Entomol. France (2) 10: 554, female - “Le Brésil, Bahia” (Paris); also from Mexico; 1854, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2.: 160. - Dalla Torre, 1904, Gen. Ins. 19: 81 (cat.). - Ducke, 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 542 (syn. of S. surinama (Linnaeus)). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 180 (invalid designation of lectotype; syn. of cyanea (Fabricius)). - Carpenter, 1999, Am. Mus. Novitat. 3259: 19 (notes on types). Synoeca ultramarina de Saussure, 1852, Ann. Soc. Entomol. France (2) 10: 554, pl 11 fig. 1, male, female - “Sainte-Catharine au Brésil” (lectotype female Paris); 1854, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2.: 160. - Dalla Torre, 1904, Gen. Ins. 19: 82 (cat.). - Ducke, 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 486 (syn. of S. surinama (Linnaeus)). - Bequaert, 1944, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 94: 275 (syn. of Synoeca surinama, typical form). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 180 (designation of lectotype). Synoeca violacea de Saussure, 1852, Ann. Soc. Entomol. France (2) 10: 555, female - “Le Brésil. Rapporté de Sainte-Catharine” (Paris); 1854, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2.: 161. - Dalla Torre, 1904, Gen. Ins. 19: 82 (cat.). - Ducke, 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 486 (syn. of S. surinama (Linnaeus)). Distr.: Brazil: Bahia, D. F., Espírito Santo, Minas Gerais, Pernambuco, Paraná, Rio Grande do Sul, Rio de Janeiro, Santa Catarina, São Paulo; Paraguay: Cordillera, Paraguarí, San Pedro, Canindeyú, Concepción, Alto Paraná, Guairá; Argentina: Misiones. septentrionalis Richards Synoeca cyanea; Zavattari, 1906, Boll. Mus. Zool. Anat. Comp. R. Univ. Torino 21 (529): 9 (Ecuador). - Cameron, 1907, Invert. Pacif. 1: 183 (Belize). Synoeca surinama var. cyanea; du Buysson, 1906, Ann. Soc. Entomol. France 75: 353 (northern Venezuela). - Martorell, 1939, J. Agric. Univ. Puerto Rico 23: 230 (Venezuela: Aragua, D. F.). - Bequaert, 1944, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 94: 275; 1949 (1948), Bol. Entomol. Venez. 7: 132 (Venezuela localities). Synoeca sp.; Skutch, 1959, Anim. King. 57: 8-13 (predation by Daptrius americanus; Costa Rica). Synoeca septentrionalis West-Eberhard, 1975, Cespedesia 4 (16): 255. Nomen nudum. Synoeca surinamensis [!]; Windsor, 1976, Biotropica 8: 112 (Costa Rica). - Maes, 1988, Rev. Nicarag. Entomol. 5: 18, 80, 83, 89 (surinama; Nicaragua) [misidentification]. Synoeca septentrionalis Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 179 (key), 180, female, male - “MEXICO: Guerrero, Tepetlapa, 3000 ft (914 m)” (holotype female London); also from Chiapas, Colima, D. F., Guanajuato, Morelos, Oaxaca, Puebla, Tabasco, Veracruz, Yucatán; Belize; and Guatemala; El Salvador; Honduras; Nicaragua; Costa Rica; Panama; Colombia; Venezuela; Ecuador; Peru. - Starr, 1988, Biotropica 20: 171 (nesting associations). - Starr and Bozzoli, 1990, in Overal, Ethnobiol., Part B, Ethnozool.: 191 (ethnobiology in Costa Rica). - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 359 (list). - Garcia and Gaiani, 1996 (1994), Bol. Entomol. Venez. 9 (2): 153 (key), 154 (Venezuela), 158 (prey records), figs. 1, 3. - West-Eberhard et al., 1995, Hym. Costa Rica: 587 (Costa Rica). - O'Donnell, 1995, Biotropica 27: 136 (morphology). - Rodríguez-Palafox, 1996, in Llorente-Bousquets et al., Biodiv. Taxon. Biogeogr. Artrópod. México: 482 (list). Distr.: Mexico: Chiapas, Colima, D. F., Guanajuato, Guerrero, Morelos, Nayarit*, Oaxaca, Puebla, Tabasco, Veracruz, Yucatán; Belize; Guatemala; El Salvador; Honduras; Nicaragua; Costa Rica; Panama; Colombia: Antioquia, Arauca, Cauca, Cundinamarca, Magdalena, Meta, Nariño, Tolima, Valle; Venezuela: Aragua, Barinas, Carabobo, Cojedes, D. F., Falcon, Lara, Mérida, Miranda, Monagas, Tachira, Trujillo, Yaracuy; Ecuador: El Oro, Esmereldas, Guayas, Manabi, Pichincha; Peru: Tumbes. surinama (Linnaeus) Vespa surinama Linnaeus, 1767, Syst. Nat., Ed. 12: 952 - “Surinami” (type depository unknown); 1767, Syst. Nat., ed. 12: 952. - Christ, 1791, Naturgesch. Ins.: 215. - Olivier, 1792, Encyc. Méthod. 6 (2): 676. Vespa nigricornis Olivier, 1792, Encyc. Méthod. 6 (2): 675 - [French Guiana] “Cayenne” (type lost). Polistes coerulea Fabricius, 1804, Syst. Piez.: 279 - “America meridionali” (Kobenhavn). Synoeca coerulea; de Saussure, 1852, Ann. Soc. Entomol. France (2) 10: 552 (syns.: V. nigricornis Olivier, 1792, ? V. surinama). Synoeca surinama; de Saussure, 1854, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2.: 158 (syns.: V. nigricornis Olivier, P. coerulea Fabricius; French Guiana). - Fox, 1898, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad.: 446 (Brazil: Amazonas, Mato Grosso, Rio de Janeiro). - Dalla Torre, 1904, Gen. Ins. 19: 81 (syns.: V. nigricornis Olivier, P. coerulea Fabricius; cat.). - Ducke, 1904, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, Pará 4: 340, pl. 2 fig. 10 (male; Brazil). - Zavattari, 1906, Boll. Mus. Zool. Anat. Comp. R. Univ. Torino 21 (529): 10 (surimana [!]; Ecuador). - du Buysson, 1906, Ann. Soc. Entomol. France 75: 353 (Venezuela: Apure). - Ducke, 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 486, fig. 7 (syns.: V. nigricornis Olivier, P. coeruleus Fabricius, V. cyanea Fabricius, S. violacea de Saussure, S. ultramarina de Saussure; female, male; Brazil). - Vesey-Fitzgerald, 1939, Proc. R. Entomol. Soc. London (A) 14: 105 (surinamensis [!]; mimicry). - Bequaert, 1944, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 94: 274, 275 (typical form; Mexico); 1949 (1948), Bol. Entomol. Venez. 7: 131 (Venezuela). - Vesey-Fitzgerald, 1956, Entomol. Mon. Mag. (4) 17: 165 (surinamensis [!]; Guyana). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 179, fig. 79. - Overal, 1978, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.), Zool. 94: 11 (list). - Castellon, 1980, Acta Amazon. 10: 679-690 (population dynamics); 1980, Acta Amazon. 10: 883-896 (nest); 1981, Acta Amazon. 11: 377-382 (ethology); 1982, Acta Amazon. 12: 665-666 (mating behavior). - Raw, 1988, Entomologist 107: 105 (nest site), 106 (role in agriculture), 107 (prey: Spodoptera probably frugiperda, Alabama argillacea (Hueb.)). - Raw, 1989, Maracá Rainfor. Proj., Invert. Limnol., Prelim. Rep.: 36 (Brazil), 36 (distr.); 1989, Maracá Rainfor. Proj., Invert. Limnol., Prelim. Rep.: 41, 42 (habitat preference). - Carpenter and van der Vecht, 1991, Ann. Carnegie Mus. 60 (3): 213 (note on material seen by Fox). - Almeida and Castro, 1991, Acta Biol. Par., Curitiba 20: 48 (coll. list). - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 359 (list). - Garcia and Gaiani, 1996 (1994), Bol. Entomol. Venez. 9 (2): 153 (key), 157 (Venezuela), 158 (morphometric comparison with septentrionalis). - Carpenter et al., 1996, J. Hym. Res. 5: 160 (male genitalia). Synoeca azurea; Fox, 1898, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad.: 446 (Brazil: Mato Grosso). Misidentification. Distr.: Colombia: Amazonas, Caquetá, Meta, Valle, Vaupés; Venezuela: Amazonas, Apure, Aragua, Barinas, Bolívar, Carabobo, Guárico*, Miranda, Sucre; Trinidad; Guyana; Suriname; French Guiana; Ecuador: Napo, Pastaza*, Zamora-Chinchipe*; Peru: Huánuco, Junín, Loreto; Brazil: Amazonas, Bahia, D. F., Goiás, Maranhão, Mato Grosso, Minas Gerais, Pará, Paraiba, Pernambuco, Rio de Janeiro, Rondônia, Roraima; Bolivia: Beni, Cochabamba, La Paz, Santa Cruz. virginea (Fabricius) Polistes virginea Fabricius, 1804, Syst. Piez.: 277 - “America meridionali” (Kobenhavn). Polistes irina Spinola, 1851, preprint of Mem. R. Accad. Sci. Torino (2) 13: 59, female - [Brazil:] “Para” (Torino). Synoeca testacea de Saussure, 1854, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2: 162, female - [Brazil:] “Le Para” (London). - Fox, 1898, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad.: 446 (Brazil: Amazonas). - Dalla Torre, 1904, Gen. Ins. 19: 82 (cat.). - Ducke, 1904, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, Pará 4: 340 (Brazil). - Carpenter and van der Vecht, 1991, Ann. Carnegie Mus. 60 (3): 213 (note on material seen by Fox). Polybia irina; de Saussure, 1854, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2.: 212, species dubiae. - Dalla Torre, 1904, Gen. Ins. 19: 77 (cat.). Synoeca irina; Ducke, 1905, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, Pará 4: 660 (nest); 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 486 (key), 487 (syns.: S. testacea de Saussure, S. chalybea; female, male, nest; Brazil). - Overal, 1978, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.), Zool. 94: 11 (list). Synoeca virginea; Schulz, 1912, Berl. Entomol. Zeitschr. 57: 84 (syns.: P. irina Spinola, S. testacea de Saussure). - Bequaert, 1944, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 94: 274 (key), 275; 1949 (1948), Bol. Entomol. Venez. 7: 132 (Venezuela: Bolívar). - Hamilton, 1972, Annu. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 3: 225 (ethology). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 179 (key), 182. - Overal, 1982, J. Georgia Entomol. Soc. 17: 1-4 (ethology). - Raw, 1989, Maracá Rainfor. Proj., Invert. Limnol., Prelim. Rep.: 36 (Brazil), 37 (distr.); 1989, Maracá Rainfor. Proj., Invert. Limnol., Prelim. Rep.: 41, 42 (habitat preference). - Almeida and Castro, 1991, Acta Biol. Par., Curitiba 20: 48 (coll. list). - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 359 (list). - Garcia and Gaiani, 1996 (1994), Bol. Entomol. Venez. 9 (2): 153 (key; Venezuela). - Carpenter et al., 1996, J. Hym. Res. 5: 162 (nest). - Cooper, 2000, Entomol. Mon. Mag. 136: 196 (nest association with Azteca; Agelaia pallidiventris; Polybia rejecta, P. singularis, Chartergus chartarius, and Icteridae). Distr.: Colombia: Amazonas, Caquetá, Meta, Putumayo, Vaupés; Venezuela: Amazonas, Bolívar; Guyana; Suriname; Ecuador: Napo, Pastaza*; Peru: Cuzco, Huánuco, Loreto*, Madre de Dios, San Martin; Brazil: Acre, Amazonas, Mato Grosso, Pará, Piaui, Rondônia, Roraima; Bolivia.
  7. Genus Belonogaster de Saussure Belonogaster de Saussure, 1854, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2: 235, genus, replacement name for Raphigaster de Saussure, 1853. Type species: Vespa juncea Fabricius, 1781, by subsequent designation of Bingham, 1897, Fauna Br. India, Hym. 1: 468. Raphigaster de Saussure, 1853, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2: 12, genus (7 species). Non Raphigaster Laporte, 1832. Belenogaster Walker, 1871, List Hym. Collected by J. K. Lord, Egypt and Arabia etc. (London): 39; Kirby, 1881, Proc. Zool. Soc. London: 649. Incorrect spelling of Belonogaster de Saussure. Lit.: Richards, 1982, Bull. Br. Mus. (Nat. Hist.) Entomol. 44: 31--114 (revision). -- Hensen and Blommers, 1987, Tijdschr. Entomol. 130: 11--31 (revision of Malagasy species). -- Gadagkar, 1991, in Ross and Matthews, Soc. Biol. Wasps: 149--190 (ethology). Species list abyssinica du Buysson Raphigaster junceus var. de Saussure, 1853, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2: pl. 2 fig. 2. Belonogaster abyssinicus du Buysson, 1906, Bull. Soc. Entomol. France 1906: 190, female, male -- “Abyssinie” (lectotype female Paris); 1909, Ann. Soc. Entomol. France 78 (2): 214, 223, 263, pl. 4 fig. 4, pl. 5 fig. 6 (ethology). -- von Schulthess, 1912, Soc. Entomol. 27: 42 (compared to B. atratus n. sp.); 1913, Mitt. Zool. Mus. Berlin 6 (3): 338. -- Bequaert, 1918, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. 39: 328 (cat.). -- Scott, 1933, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. 12: 120 (Ethiopia; Eritrea). -- Giordani Soika, 1939, Atti Mus. Civ. Stor. Nat. Trieste 14 (11): 170 (distr.); 1940, Atti Mus. Civ. Stor. Nat. Trieste 14 (18): 286 (distr.). -- Richards, 1982, Bull. Br. Mus. (Nat. Hist.) Entomol. 44: 40, 44--45 (key), 96, fig. 71 (abyssinica; designation of lectotype; distr.). DISTRIBUTION: Ethiopia; Eritrea; Djibouti. acaulis Richards Belonogaster acaulis Richards, 1982, Bull. Br. Mus. (Nat. Hist.) Entomol. 44: 34 (key), 61, fig. 18, female -- “South Africa: Natal National Park” (London). DISTRIBUTION: South Africa. adenensis adenensis Giordani Soika Belonogaster abyssinicus adenensis Giordani Soika, 1957, Br. Mus. (Nat. Hist.), Exp. S. W. Arabia 1937--38, 1 (31): 484, female, male -- “WESTERN ADEN PROTECTORATE: Jebel Jihaf, 7100 ft” (holotype female London); 1973, Boll. Mus. Civ. Stor. Nat. Venezia 24: 47. Belonogaster adenensis adenensis; Richards, 1982, Bull. Br. Mus. (Nat. Hist.) Entomol. 44: 40, 46 (key), 99, fig. 77 (distr.); 1985 (1984), Fauna Saudi Arabia 6: 436, 437 (key), 438 (distr.). DISTRIBUTION: Yemen. adenensis somaliensis Richards Belonogaster adenensis somaliensis Richards, 1982, Bull. Br. Mus. (Nat. Hist.) Entomol. 44: 40, 46 (key), 100, female, male -- “Somali Republic” (holotype female London); also from Ethiopia. DISTRIBUTION: Somalia; Ethiopia. ambiko Hensen and Blommers Belonogaster ambiko Hensen and Blommers, 1987, Tijdschr. Entomol. 130: 12 (key), 14, figs. 5--6, male -- “Madagascar; (Tamat.); Périnet; 950 m; 48°16E, 18°56S” (Leiden). -- Kojima and van Achterberg, 1997, Zool. Meded., Leiden 71: 162 (holotype depository). DISTRIBUTION: Madagascar. apicalis de Saussure Belonogaster apicalis de Saussure, 1900, Abh. Senckenb. Naturforsch. Ges. 26 (2): 207 (key), 208, female -- “Madagascar” (holotype Genève). -- Dalla Torre, 1904, Genera Insectorum 19: 80 (cat.). -- du Buysson, 1909, Ann. Soc. Entomol. France 78 (2): 214, 230 (ethology). -- Bequaert, 1918, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. 39: 329 (cat.). -- Richards, 1982, Bull. Br. Mus. (Nat. Hist.) Entomol. 44: 47(key), 105, figs. 85--86 (designation of "lectotype"; distr.). -- Hensen and Blommers, 1987, Tijdschr. Entomol. 130: 14 (key), 15. — Kojima, 2001a, Nat. Hist. Bull. Ibaraki Univ. (5): 11 (the specimen that Richards (1982) designated as the lectotype but not labeled is actually the unique holotype), 12 (Richards' males are different species; descriptionof male), figs. 13-21. DISTRIBUTION: Madagascar. arabica Giordani Soika Belonogaster grisea arabicus Giordani Soika, 1957, Br. Mus. (Nat. Hist.), Exp. S. W. Arabia 1937--38, 1 (31): 484, female, male -- “Western Aden Protectorate: Dhala, 4800--5500 ft.” (holotype female London); also from other localities; 1973, Boll. Mus. Civ. Stor. Nat. Venezia 24: 47. Belonogaster arabica; Richards, 1982, Bull. Br. Mus. (Nat. Hist.) Entomol. 44: 40, 45 (key), 96, figs. 72--73 (distr.).; 1985 (1984), Fauna Saudi Arabia 6: 436, 437 (key), 438 (distr.). DISTRIBUTION: Yemen; Saudi Arabia. atrata von Schulthess Belonogaster atratus von Schulthess, 1912, Soc. Entomol. 27: 41, female -- “Westafrika, Uelleburg” (lectotype Zürich); 1913, Mitt. Zool. Mus. Berlin 6 (3): 337, fig. 1 (female). -- Richards, 1982, Bull. Br. Mus. (Nat. Hist.) Entomol. 44: 34 (key), 59 (atrata; designation of lectotype). DISTRIBUTION: Cameroon. aurata Richards Belonogaster aurata Richards, 1982, Bull. Br. Mus. (Nat. Hist.) Entomol. 44: 34 (key), 59, fig. 14, female -- “Nigeria: Lagos” (London). DISTRIBUTION: Nigeria. barbata Richards Belonogaster barbata Richards, 1982, Bull. Br. Mus. (Nat. Hist.) Entomol. 44: 39 (key), 92, fig. 66, female -- “Congo: Voka” (Paris). DISTRIBUTION: Congo. betsileo Hensen and Blommers Belonogaster brevipetiolata; Richards, 1982, Bull. Br. Mus. (Nat. Hist.) Entomol. 44: 101, fig. 80 (male) [partim]. Belonogaster betsileo Hensen and Blommers, 1987, Tijdschr. Entomol. 130: 12 (key), 15, figs. 7--8, male -- “Betsileo, Madagascar” (London). DISTRIBUTION: Madagascar. bicolor de Saussure Belonogaster bicolor de Saussure, 1900, Abh. Senckenb. Naturforsch. Ges. 26 (2): 207 (key), 208, female -- “Madagascar” (lectotype Genève). -- Dalla Torre, 1904, Genera Insectorum 19: 80 (cat.). -- Richards, 1982, Bull. Br. Mus. (Nat. Hist.) Entomol. 44: 47 (key), 104 (designation of lectotype; distr.). -- Hensen and Blommers, 1987, Tijdschr. Entomol. 130: 12 (key), 16, fig. 10 (syn.: malagassus de Saussure; distr.). — Kojima, 2001a, Nat. Hist. Bull. Ibaraki Univ. (5): 12 (bicolor and malagassa are different secies), 13 (key), figs. 23, 25-26, 28.. Belonogaster prasinus var. bicolor; du Buysson, 1909, Ann. Soc. Entomol. France 78 (2): 229. -- Bequaert, 1918, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. 39: 336 (cat.). DISTRIBUTION: Madagascar. bimaculata Richards Belonogaster bimaculata Richards, 1982, Bull. Br. Mus. (Nat. Hist.) Entomol. 44: 37, 45 (key), 78, figs. 49--50, female, male -- “Zambia: Abercorn” (holotype female London); also from 6 other localities in Zambia. DISTRIBUTION: Zambia. brachystoma Kohl Belonogaster brachystomus Kohl, 1894 (1893), Ann. Naturhist. Hofmus. Wien 9: 322 (key), 326, 334, pl. 15 fig. 78, pl. 17 fig. 136, female, male -- “Ostafrika Delagoa-Bay” (lectotype male Wien). -- Dalla Torre, 1894, Cat. Hym. 9: 114 (brachystoma; cat.); 1904, Genera Insectorum 19: 80 (brachystoma; cat.). -- du Buysson, 1909, Ann. Soc. Entomol. France 78 (2): 217, 219, 252, 265. -- von Schulthess, 1914, Dtsch. Entomol. Z. 1914: 290 (compared to B. rothkirchi n. sp.). -- Bequaert, 1918, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. 39: 329 (cat.). -- Giordani Soika, 1961, S. Afr. Anim. Life 8: 450 (distr.). -- Richards, 1982, Bull. Br. Mus. (Nat. Hist.) Entomol. 44: 39, 41 (key), 68, figs. 33--34 (brachystoma; distr.). DISTRIBUTION: Zambia; Zimbabwe; Tanzania (including Zanzibar); Malawi; Mozambique; South Africa (Kwazulu-Natal, Transvaal). brevipetiolata de Saussure Belonogaster brevipetiolatus de Saussure, 1890, in Grandidier, Hist. Madagascar 20, Hym. 1: 89 (key), 98, pl. 4 fig. 1, female, male -- “Madagascar. -- Fianarantsoa (pays des Betsileo.) et environs d’Andgrangoloaka (à la limite est de la province d’Imerina) ... Còte sud ... Nosibé” (Genève). -- Kohl, 1894 (1893), Ann. Naturhist. Hofmus. Wien 9: 321, 323 (key), 334, pl. 15 fig. 83, pl. 16 figs. 95, 99, 120. -- Gribodo, 1894, in Emery et al., Mem. R. Accad. Sci. Bologna (5) 4: 123. -- Dalla Torre, 1894, Cat. Hym. 9: 114 (brevipetiolata; cat.). -- de Saussure, 1900, Abh. Senckenb. Naturforsch. Ges. 26 (2): 207 (key). -- Dalla Torre, 1904, Genera Insectorum 19: 80 (brevipetiolata; cat.). -- du Buysson, 1909, Ann. Soc. Entomol. France 78 (2): 214, 227, 263, pl. 6 fig. 1 (ethology). -- Bequaert, 1918, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. 39: 329 (cat.). -- van der Vecht, 1968, Proc. K. Ned. Akad. Wet. Ser. C Biol. Med. Sci. 71: fig. 4d (brevipetiolata; morphology). -- Richards, 1982, Bull. Br. Mus. (Nat. Hist.) Entomol. 44: 33, 46 (key), 101, fig. 79 (brevipetiolata; nest; distr.) [partim, not male]. -- Hensen and Blommers, 1987, Tijdschr. Entomol. 130: 12 (key), 16, figs. 11, 12 (brevipetiolata; compared to B. erythrocephala n. sp.; distr.). — Kojima, 2001a, Nat. Hist. Bull. Ibaraki Univ. (5): 10 (notes on lectotype and paralectotypes). DISTRIBUTION: Madagascar. brevitarsus Richards Belonogaster brevitarsus Richards, 1982, Bull. Br. Mus. (Nat. Hist.) Entomol. 44: 35, 39, 42 (key), 92, figs. 67, 68, male, female -- “Uganda: Mabira forest, Chagwe, 3500--3800 ft, [1070--1160 m]” (holotype male London); also from two other localities in Uganda; and Kenya; Zaire; Rwanda. DISTRIBUTION: Uganda; Kenya; Rwanda; Zaire. brunnea brunnea Ritsema Belonogaster brunneus Ritsema, 1874, Tijdschr. Entomol. 17: 177, 202, female -- “Neder-Guinea” [labeled “Congo” (= Congo River)] (unique Leiden). -- Kohl, 1894 (1893), Ann. Naturhist. Hofmus. Wien 9: 334. -- Dalla Torre, 1894, Cat. Hym. 9: 114 (brunea [!]; cat. [erroneously recorded from “Austr., New Guinea”]). -- Gribodo, 1895, Mem. R. Accad. Sci. Bologna (5) 5: 335. -- Dalla Torre, 1904, Genera Insectorum 19: 80 (brunea [!]; cat.; recorded from “Unter-Guinea”). -- du Buysson, 1909, Ann Soc. Entomol. France 78 (2): 217, 219, 245, 264, pl. 6 fig. 2 (male; ethology); 1914, in Voy. Alluaud et Jeannel Afr. Or., Rés. Sci., Ins. Hym. 3, Vesp.: 162. -- Schulz, 1906, Spolia Hym.: 226. -- Bequaert, 1918, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. 39: 234, 329 (cat.; syn.: B. distinguendus Kohl). -- Salt and Bequaert, 1929, Psyche 36: 262 (distr.; record of stylopized specimen). -- Bequaert, 1938, Explor. Parcs Nation. Congo Belge Miss. G. F. de Witte (1933--1935) 11: 8, 9, 10 (distr.). -- Benoit, 1956, Ann. Mus. R. Congo Belge 8 (Sci. Zool.) 51: 552 (distr.). -- Kojima and van Achterberg, 1997, Zool. Meded., Leiden 71: 162 (holotype depository). Belonogaster distinguendus Kohl, 1894 (1893), Ann. Naturhist. Hofmus. Wien 9: 322, 323 (key), 328, 335, pl. 15 figs. 79--81, 94, pl. 16 fig. 98, pl. 17 fig. 141, female, male -- “Westafrika: Chutes de Samlia, Riv. N. Gamio, Mocquereys Grand Bana ...” (lectotype male Wien). -- Dalla Torre, 1894, Cat. Hym. 9: 114 (distinguenda; cat.); 1904, Genera Insectorum 19: 80 (distinguenda; cat.). -- Schulz, 1905, Hym. Studien: 15. -- Bequaert, 1918, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. 39: 329 (syn. of B. brunneus Ritsema). -- Richards, 1982, Bull. Br. Mus. (Nat. Hist.) Entomol. 44: 64 (designation of lectotype; marked as “Syn. n.”). Belonogaster brunnea brunnea; Richards, 1982, Bull. Br. Mus. (Nat. Hist.) Entomol. 44: 38, 41--43 (key), 64, figs. 23--25 (distr.). DISTRIBUTION: Sierra Leone; Liberia; Ghana; Nigeria; Bioko; Gabon; Congo; Zaire; Rwanda; Burundi. brunnea nigriclava Richards Belonogaster brunnea nigriclava Richards, 1982, Bull. Br. Mus. (Nat. Hist.) Entomol. 44: 38, 43 (key), 66, figs. 26--27, male, female -- “Uganda: Mt Kokanjero, SW. Mt Elgon, 6400 ft [1950m]” (holotype male London); also from 12 other localities in Uganda; and Kenya; Zambia; Malawi; Tanzania; Zaire. — Kojima, 2001a, Nat. Hist. Bull. Ibaraki Univ. (5): 20. DISTRIBUTION: Uganda; Kenya; Zaire; Tanzania; Zambia; Malawi. brunnescens Richards Belonogaster brunnescens Richards, 1982, Bull. Br. Mus. (Nat. Hist.) Entomol. 44: 38, 45 (key), 70, male, female -- “Zimbabwe: Mashonaland” (holotype male London); also from Ethiopia; Gabon; Congo; Zaire; Zimbabwe; Zambia; Kenya; Uganda; Mozambique; Malawi; Tanzania (Zanzibar); South Africa (Transvaal). DISTRIBUTION: Ethiopia; Kenya; Uganda; Tanzania (including Zanzibar); Congo; Zaire; Gabon; Malawi; Zambia; Zimbabwe; Mozambique; South Africa (Transvaal). clypeata clypeata Kohl Belonogaster clypeatus Kohl, 1894 (1893), Ann. Naturhist. Hofmus. Wien 9: 321 (key), 328, 335, pl. 15 figs. 88, 91, pl. 17 figs. 124, 144, 149, female, male -- “Deutsch-Mozambique” (lectotype male Wien); also from Madagascar [error]. -- Dalla Torre, 1894, Cat. Hym. 9: 114 (clypeata; cat.). -- Stadelmann, 1898, Deutsch Ost-Afrika 4, Hym.: 35. -- von Schulthess, 1899, Bull. Soc. Vaud. Sci. Nat. (4) 35: 269 (distr.). -- Dalla Torre, 1904, Genera Insectorum 19: 80 (clypeata; cat.). -- du Buysson, 1909, Ann. Soc. Entomol. France 78 (2): 217, 219, 244, 264, pl. 2 figs. 9, 10, pl. 5 figs. 1, 2 (ethology); 1914, in Voy. Alluaud et Jeannel Afr. Or., Rés. Sci., Ins. Hym. 3, Vesp.: 162. -- Bequaert, 1918, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. 39: 329 (cat.). -- Schouteden, 1919, Rev. Zool. Afr. 6: 185 (distr.). -- Giordani Soika, 1935, Mem. Estud. Mus. Zool. Univ. Coimbra (1) 82: 14 (distr.). -- Bequaert, 1938, Explor. Parcs Nation. Congo Belge Miss. G. F. de Witte (1933--1935) 11: 9 (distr.). -- Guiglia, 1940, Boll. Lab. Zool. Gen. Agrar. Fac. Agrar. Portici 31: 278 (distr.). -- Richards, 1982, Bull. Br. Mus. (Nat. Hist.) Entomol. 44: 67 (designation of lectotype). Belonogaster clypeata clypeata; Richards, 1982, Bull. Br. Mus. (Nat. Hist.) Entomol. 44: 34, 41 (key), 67, figs. 28--31 (distr.). DISTRIBUTION: Uganda; Tanzania (including Zanzibar); Zaire; Malawi; Zambia; Zimbabwe; Mozambique; South Africa (Transvaal, Kwazulu-Natal, Western Cape). clypeata fuscata Richards Belonogaster clypeata fuscata Richards, 1982, Bull. Br. Mus. (Nat. Hist.) Entomol. 44: 34, 41 (key), 67, female, male -- “Uganda: Ankole‑Toro border, east of Lake George, 4500 ft [1370 m]” (holotype female London); also from five other localities in Uganda; and Zambia; Angola; Zaire. DISTRIBUTION: Uganda; Zaire; Zambia; Angola. confusa Kojima Belonogaster pictus de Saussure, 1900, Abh. Senckenb. Naturforsch. Ges. 26 (2): 207 (key) [Junior primary homonym of Belonogaster pictus Kohl, 1894]. — Kojima, 2001a, Nat. Hist. Bull. Ibaraki Univ. (5): 16 (designation of lectotype). Belonogaster hildebrandti var.; de Saussure, 1900, Abh. Senckenb. Naturforsch. Ges. 26 (2): 210 Belonogaster confusa Kojima, 2001a: 16, figs. 54-60, 19 (key). Replacement name for Belonogaster pictus de Saussure, 1900. DISTRIBUTION: Madagascar. dayi Hensen and Blommers Belonogaster dayi Hensen and Blommers, 1987, Tijdschr. Entomol. 130: 12 (key), 16, figs. 9, 36, 37, 42, male, female -- “Madagascar: Tamat.; Périnet” (holotype female London); also from 3 other localities in Madagascar; nest is also noted. DISTRIBUTION: Madagascar. discifera Hensen and Blommers Belonogaster discifera Hensen and Blommers, 1987, Tijdschr. Entomol. 130: 14 (key), 18, figs. 13, 14, male, female -- “Rép. Malgache, Manjakandriana, Mandraka, 1300 m” (holotype male Amsterdam); also from other locality in Madagascar. -- Wenzel, 1991, in Ross and Matthews, Soc. Biol. Wasps: 506 (nest). -- Kojima and van Achterberg, 1997, Zool. Meded., Leiden 71: 166 (holotype depository). DISTRIBUTION: Madagascar. dubia Kohl Belonogaster dubius Kohl, 1894 (1893), Ann. Naturhist. Hofmus. Wien 9: 322, 323 (key), 329, 335, pl. 15 figs. 79, 80, 94, pl. 16 fig. 100, pl. 18 fig. 145, female, male -- “Ostafrika: Dar es Salaam” (lectotype male Wien). -- Dalla Torre, 1894, Cat. Hym. 9: 114 (dubia; cat.). -- Stadelmann, 1898, Deutsch Ost-Afrika 4, Hym.: 35 -- Dalla Torre, 1904, Genera Insectorum 19: 80 (dubia; cat.). -- du Buysson, 1909, Ann. Soc. Entomol. France 78 (2): 215, 219, 235, 263 (ethology). -- Roubaud, 1910, C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris 151: 553--556 (ethology). -- von Schulthess, 1913, Mitt. Zool. Mus. Berlin 6 (3): 338; 1913, Ark. Zool. 8 (17): 14 (syn.: B. massaicus Cameron). -- du Buysson, 1914, in Voy. Alluaud et Jeannel Afr. Or., Rés. Sci., Ins. Hym. 3, Vesp.: 161. -- Bequaert, 1918, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. 39: 235 (key), 236 (ethology), 330 (cat.). -- Schouteden, 1919, Rev. Zool. Afr. 6: 184 (distr.). -- von Schulthess; 1929, Rev. Zool. Bot. Afr. 17 (2): 187 (distr.). -- Salt and Bequaert, 1929, Psyche 36: 262 (record of stylopized specimen). -- Bequaert, 1938, Explor. Parcs Nation. Congo Belge Miss. G. F. de Witte (1933--1935) 11: 8, 9, 10 (distr.). -- Guiglia, 1940, Boll. Lab. Zool. Gen. Agrar. Fac. Agrar. Portici 31: 279 (distr.). -- Marino Piccioli, 1968, Monit. Zool. Ital. (n. ser.) 2, Suppl.: 203 (ethology). -- Richards, 1982, Bull. Br. Mus. (Nat. Hist.) Entomol. 44: 35, 38, 43 (key), 53, figs. 10, 11 (dubia; designation of lectotype; syn.: B. occidentalis Tullgren, B. massaicus Cameron; distr.). -- Kojima and Keeping, 1988, Kontyû, 56: 817 (dubia; larva). Belonogaster saevus var. de Saussure, 1890, in Grandidier, Hist. Madagascar 20, Hym. 1: 92, in footnote (female). Belenogaster [!] occidentalis Tullgren, 1904, Ark. Zool. 1: 455, pl. 25, fig. 14, female, male -- [Cameroon] “Itoki” (lectotype male Stockholm); also from Bonge, Ekundu; Tanzania: Dar-es-Salaam. -- Bequaert, 1918, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. 39: 336 (syn. of B. saevus de Saussure). -- Richards, 1982, Bull. Br. Mus. (Nat. Hist.) Entomol. 44: 54 (Belonogaster; designation of lectotype). Belonogaster massaicus Cameron, 1910, in Sjöstedt, Wiss. Ergebn. Schwed. Zool. Exp. Kilimandjaro 2 (8), Hym. 6: 171, female -- “Kilimandjaro: Kibonoto 1000--1200 m” [Tanzania] (lectotype Stockholm). -- von Schulthess, 1913, Ark. Zool. 8 (17): 14 (syn. of B. dubius). -- Richards, 1982, Bull. Br. Mus. (Nat. Hist.) Entomol. 44: 54 (designation of lectotype; marked as “Syn. n.”). DISTRIBUTION: Senegal; Gambia; Guinea; Liberia; Côte d’Ivoire; Ghana; Niger; Nigeria; Bioko; Congo; Zaire; Uganda; Rwanda; Kenya; Tanzania; Angola; Zambia; Malawi; Zimbabwe; Mozambique; South Africa (Transvaal, Kwazulu-Natal). erythrocephala Hensen and Blommers Belonogaster brevipetiolata; de Saussure, 1890, in Grandidier, Hist. Madagascar 20, Hym. 1: 98, pl. 4 fig. 1 [partim]. -- Richards, 1982, Bull. Br. Mus. (Nat. Hist.) Entomol. 44: 101, fig. 79, female [partim]. Belonogaster erythrocephala Hensen and Blommers, 1987, Tijdschr. Entomol. 130: 12 (key), 19, figs. 15, 16, male, female -- “Rép. Malgache, Nosy Be, Dzamandzar” (holotype male Amsterdam); also from two other localities in Madagascar. -- Kojima and van Achterberg, 1997, Zool. Meded., Leiden 71: 167 (holotype depository). DISTRIBUTION: Madagascar. eumenoides de Saussure Belonogaster eumenoides de Saussure, 1890, in Grandidier, Hist. Madagascar 20, Hym. 1: 89 (key), 94, pl. 17 fig. 12, female -- “Madagascar ... aux environs d’Andrangoloaka” (lectotype Genève); also from another locality. -- Dalla Torre, 1894, Cat. Hym. 9: 114 (cat.). -- Kohl, 1894 (1893), Ann. Naturhist. Hofmus. Wien 9: 335. -- de Saussure, 1900, Abh. Senckenb. Naturforsch. Ges. 26 (2): 207 (key), 209. -- Dalla Torre, 1904, Genera Insectorum 19: 80 (cat.). -- du Buysson, 1909, Ann Soc. Entomol. France 78 (2): 215, 234, 263, pl. 4 fig. 6 (male; ethology). -- Bequaert, 1918, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. 39: 330 (syn.: pomicolor de Saussure, ornatus de Saussure; cat.). -- Richards, 1982, Bull. Br. Mus. (Nat. Hist.) Entomol. 44: 47 (key), 110, figs. 91, 92 (designation of lectotype; ?syn.: malagassus de Saussure; distr.) [partim]. -- Hensen and Blommers, 1987, Tijdschr. Entomol. 130: 14 (key), 20, figs. 2, 17--19, 43 (female, male; nest; distr.). — Kojima, 2001a, Nat. Hist. Bull. Ibaraki Univ. (5): 13 (taxonomy), 19 (key), figs. 29-34.. facialis du Buysson Belonogaster facialis du Buysson, 1908, Bull. Soc. Entomol. France 1908: 65, female -- “Afrique orientale anglaise: Boura, Wa-Taïta” [Kenya] (lectotype Paris); also from Senegal; and Congo; 1909, Ann. Soc. Entomol. France 78 (2): 215, 238; 1914, in Voy. Alluaud et Jeannel Afr. Or., Rés. Sci., Ins. Hym. 3, Vesp.: 161. -- von Schulthess, 1913, Ark. Zool. 8 (17): 14 (syn.: sex-maculatus Cameron). -- Bequaert, 1918, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. 39: 330 (cat.). -- Richards, 1982, Bull. Br. Mus. (Nat. Hist.) Entomol. 44: 34, 44 (key), 80, figs. 51--53 (designation of lectotype; distr.). DISTRIBUTION: Senegal; Congo; Kenya; Uganda; Tanzania (including Zanzibar); Zambia; Malawi; Mozambique; South Africa (Kwazulu-Natal). fanemitra Hensen and Blommers Belonogaster fanemitra Hensen and Blommers, 1987, Tijdschr. Entomol. 130: 14 (key), 22, figs. 20, 38, 39, male, female -- “Madagascar, Sambirano, Manongarivo, 1150 m” (holotype female Paris); also from other locality in Madagascar. DISTRIBUTION: Madagascar. ferruginea Richards Belonogaster ferruginea Richards, 1982, Bull. Br. Mus. (Nat. Hist.) Entomol. 44: 36 (key), 52, female -- “Grande Comore: La Grille (Guiri), 850--900 m” (Paris). DISTRIBUTION: Comoros. filiformis (de Saussure) Raphigaster filiformis de Saussure, 1853, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2: 18, pl. II fig. 4, female -- “Djidda en Arabie” (lectotype Paris). -- Smith, 1857, Cat. Hym. Br. Mus. 5: 94 (syn. of Belonogaster macilentus (Fabricius)). -- Dalla Torre, 1894, Cat. Hym. 9: 114 (Rhaphigaster[!]). -- Richards, 1982, Bull. Br. Mus. (Nat. Hist.) Entomol. 44: 100 (designation of lectotype). Belonogaster filiformis; Kohl, 1894 (1893), Ann. Naturhist. Hofmus. Wien 9: 335. -- Dalla Torre, 1894, Cat. Hym. 9: 114. -- Gribodo, 1895, Mem. R. Accad. Sci. Bologna (5) 5: 335. -- Dalla Torre, 1904, Genera Insectorum 19: 80 (cat.). -- du Buysson, 1909, Ann. Soc. Entomol. France 78 (2): 216--217, 257. -- Bequaert, 1918, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. 39: 330 (cat.; “perhaps a variety of B. griseus (Fabricius)”). -- Richards, 1982, Bull. Br. Mus. (Nat. Hist.) Entomol. 44: 40, 45 (key), 100, fig. 78 (distr.); 1985 (1984), Fauna Saudi Arabia 6: 436, 437 (key), 438 (distr.). DISTRIBUTION: Saudi Arabia. filiventris (de Saussure) Raphigaster filiventris de Saussure, 1853, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2: 16, pl. 2 fig. 5, female -- “Le Sénégal?” (Paris). -- Dalla Torre, 1894, Cat. Hym. 9: 114 (Rhaphigaster[!]). Belonogaster filiventris; Smith, 1857, Cat. Hym. Br. Mus. 5: 94 (cat.). -- Dalla Torre, 1894, Cat. Hym. 9: 114 (cat.), 116 (?syn. of B. longistyla). -- Kohl, 1894 (1893), Ann. Naturhist. Hofmus. Wien 9: 335. -- Gribodo, 1894, in Emery et al., Mem. R. Accad. Sci. Bologna (5) 4: 123; 1895, Mem. R. Accad. Sci. Bologna (5) 5: 335. -- Bingham, 1903, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (7) 12: 47, 68. -- Dalla Torre, 1904, Genera Insectorum 19: 80 (cat.). -- du Buysson, 1909, Ann. Soc. Entomol. France 78 (2): 216, 218, 241, 264, pl. 4 fig. 1, pl. 6 fig. 3 (male; ethology); 1914, in Voy. Alluaud et Jeannel Afr. Or., Rés. Sci., Ins. Hym. 3, Vesp.: 162. -- Bequaert, 1918, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. 39: 331 (cat.; syn.: B. braunsii Kohl, B. kohli Schulz, B. gracilis Cameron). -- Salt, 1927, Psyche 34: 185 (distr.; record of stylopized specimen). -- von Schulthess, 1928, Senckenbergiana 10 (3/4): 96 (distr.). -- Salt and Bequaert, 1929, Psyche 36: 262 (record of stylopized specimen). -- Bequaert, 1938, Explor. Parcs Nation. Congo Belge Miss. G. F. de Witte (1933--1935) 11: 9 (distr.). -- Giordani Soika, 1961, S. Afr. Anim. Life 8: 450 (distr.). -- Marino Piccioli, 1968, Monit. Zool. Ital. (n. ser.) 2, Suppl.: 203--206 (ethology). -- Richards, 1982, Bull. Br. Mus. (Nat. Hist.) Entomol. 44: 36, 42 (key), 75, figs. 45--47 (syn.: B. gracilis Cameron, B. sexmaculatus Cameron, B. buyssoni Meade-Waldo; distr.). Belonogaster gracilis Cameron, 1910, in Sjöstedt, Wiss. Ergebn. Schwed. Zool. Exp. Kilimandjaro 2 (8), Hym. 6: 173, female -- “Kilimandjaro: Kibonoto, cultivated zone, 1300--1900 m” [Tanzania] (lectotype Stockholm). -- von Schulthess, 1913, Ark. Zool. 8 (17): 14 (syn. of B. filiventris (de Saussure)). -- Richards, 1982, Bull. Br. Mus. (Nat. Hist.) Entomol. 44: 76 (designation of lectotype; marked as “Syn. n.”). Belonogaster sexmaculatus Cameron, 1910, in Sjöstedt, Wiss. Ergebn. Schwed. Zool. Exp. Kilimandjaro 2 (8), Hym. 6: 174, male -- “Kilimandjaro: Kibonoto, cultivated zone” [Tanzania] (Stockholm). -- von Schulthess, 1913, Ark. Zool. 8 (17): 14 (syn. of B. facialis du Buysson). -- Richards, 1982, Bull. Br. Mus. (Nat. Hist.) Entomol. 44: 76 (syn. of B. filiventris (de Saussure)). Belonogaster buyssoni Meade-Waldo , 1911, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (8) 7: 99, female -- “Iganga Busoga, S. Nigeria” (London). -- Bequaert, 1918, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. 39: 329 (cat.; “Probably a synonym of B. pusillus Kohl”); 1928, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (10) 2: 173 (the type is from Uganda, not S. Nigeria, as stated by error in the original description). -- Richards, 1982, Bull. Br. Mus. (Nat. Hist.) Entomol. 44: 76 (syn. of B. filiventris (de Saussure)). DISTRIBUTION: Liberia; Nigeria; Cameroon; Zaire; Uganda; Kenya; Tanzania; Angola; Zambia; Malawi; Zimbabwe; Mozambique; South Africa (Kwazulu-Natal, Transvaal, Western Cape). flava Richards Belonogaster flava Richards, 1982, Bull. Br. Mus. (Nat. Hist.) Entomol. 44: 36 (key), 75, figs. 43, 44, female -- “Uganda: Budongo Forest, Unyoro, 3400 ft [1040 m]” (London); also from Cameroon. DISTRIBUTION: Uganda; Cameroon. freyi du Buysson Belonogaster freyi du Buysson, 1909, Ann. Soc. Entomol. France 78 (2): 217 (key), 255, female -- “Afrique australe” (holotype Genève). -- Bequaert, 1918, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. 39: 331 (cat.). -- Richards, 1982, Bull. Br. Mus. (Nat. Hist.) Entomol. 44: 39, 44 (key), 69, fig. 37 (syn.: indicus var. claripennis; distr.). — Kojima, 2001a, Nat. Hist. Bull. Ibaraki Univ. (5): 20. Belonogaster indicus var. claripennis du Buysson, 1909, Ann. Soc. Entomol. France 78 (2): 217, 219, 259, pl. 4 fig. 9, female, male -- “Afrique orientale allemande: Kigonsera; Ouganda” [Tanzania] (holotype female Paris). -- Bequaert, 1918, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. 39: 333 (cat.). -- Richards, 1982, Bull. Br. Mus. (Nat. Hist.) Entomol. 44: 69 (syn. of B. freyi du Buysson). DISTRIBUTION: Zaire; Kenya; Tanzania; Zambia; Malawi; Zimbabwe; Botswana; South Africa (Kwazulu-Natal, Free State, Transvaal). fuscipennis du Buysson Belonogaster griseus var. fuscipennis du Buysson, 1909, Ann. Soc. Entomol. France 78 (2): 251, 264, female, male -- “Congo français: Haute Sanga” (lectotype female Paris). -- Bequaert, 1918, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. 39: 332 (cat.). -- Schouteden, 1919, Rev. Zool. Afr. 6: 186 (distr.). -- von Schulthess, 1928, Senckenbergiana 10 (3/4): 96 (distr.). -- Richards, 1982, Bull. Br. Mus. (Nat. Hist.) Entomol. 44: 86 (designation of lectotype). Belonogaster fuscipennis; Richards, 1982, Bull. Br. Mus. (Nat. Hist.) Entomol. 44: 39 (key), 86 (distr.). DISTRIBUTION: Congo; Zaire; Sudan. grisea (Fabricius) Vespa grisea Fabricius, 1775, Syst. Entomol.: 372 -- “Sierra Leon Africae” (holotype female London); 1781, Spec. Insectorum 1: 468; 1787, Mant. Insectorum 1: 293. -- Gmelin, 1790, Syst. Nat., ed 13, 1 (5): 2753. -- Olivier, 1792, Encycl. Méthod. Insectes 6: 672. -- Fabricius, 1793, Entomol. Syst. 2: 279. Sphex grisea; Christ, 1791, Naturg. Insekten.: 313. Eumenes grisea; Fabricius, 1804, Syst. Piez.: 286. Raphigaster rufipennis; de Saussure, 1853, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2: 15, pl. 2 fig. 6, (female) [Misidentification of Sphex rufipennis DeGeer]. -- Dalla Torre, 1894, Cat. Hym. 9: 115 (Rhaphigaster [!]; syn of B. grisea). Belonogaster rufipennis; Smith, 1857, Cat. Hym. Br. Mus. 5: 93. -- Saunders, 1872, Trans. R. Entomol. Soc. London 1872: 36 (record of stylopized specimen). -- Radoszkowski, 1876, Horae Soc. Entomol. Ross. 12, 2: 141; 1881, J. Sci. Math. Phys. Nat. Acad. Lisbon 8 (31): 203. -- Fox, 1891, Entomol. News 2: 42. -- Schletterer, 1891, Ann. Soc. Entomol. Belg. 35: 28. -- Distant, 1892, A Naturalist in the Transvaal: 210. -- Gribodo, 1894, in Emery et al., Mem. R. Accad. Sci. Bologna (5) 4: 123 (rufipennis?). -- Dalla Torre, 1894, Cat. Hym. 9: 115 (syn. of B. grisea). -- Gribodo, 1895, Mem. R. Accad. Sci. Bologna (5) 5: 335. -- du Buysson, 1898, Ann. Soc. Entomol. France 66, 2--3: 362. [Misidentification of Sphex rufipennis DeGeer]. -- Dalla Torre, 1904, Genera Insectorum 19: 80 (syn. of B. grisea). -- Salt and Bequaert, 1929, Psyche 36: 263 (syn. of B. griseus (Fabr.); record of stylopized specimen). Belonogaster griseus; Smith, 1857, Cat. Hym. Br. Mus. 5: 94 (cat.). -- Saunders, 1872, Trans. R. Entomol. Soc. London 1872: 36 (record of stylopized specimen). -- Radoszkowski, 1881, J. Sci. Math. Phys. Nat. Acad. Lisboa 8 (31): 203. -- Kohl, 1894 (1893), Ann. Naturhist. Hofmus. Wien 9: 335. -- Gribodo, 1894, in Emery et al., Mem. R. Accad. Sci. Bologna (5) 4: 123. -- Dalla Torre, 1894, Cat. Hym. 9: 115 (grisea; cat.; syn.: Vespa macilenta Fabricius, B. rufipennis de Saussure). -- Magretti, 1898, Ann. Mus. Civ. Genova (2), 19: 37. -- Bingham, 1903, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (7) 12: 47. -- Dalla Torre, 1904, Genera Insectorum 19: 80 (grisea; cat.; as 1894). -- von Schulthess, 1907, Voeltzkow, Reise in Ostafrika 1903--1905, Wiss. Ergebn. 2 (2): 64. -- du Buysson, 1909, Ann. Soc. Entomol. France 78 (2): 217, 218, 247, 264, pl. 2 figs. 11--12, pl. 4 fig. 8, pl. 5 fig. 3 (male; ethology). -- Cameron, 1910, Ann. Transvaal Mus. 2, 3: 155. -- Roubaud, 1910, C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris 151: 553 (ethology). -- von Schulthess, 1912, Wiss. Ergebn. D. Z. Afrik. Exp., (1907--08), 4, Lf. 10: 291; 1912, Soc. Entomol. 27: 41 (compared to B. atratus n. sp.); 1913, Mitt. Zool. Mus. Berlin 6 (3): 339; 1914, Dtsch. Entomol. Z. 1914: 288. -- du Buysson, 1914, in Voy. Alluaud et Jeannel Afr. Or., Rés. Sci., Ins. Hym. 3, Vesp.: 162. -- Roubaud, 1916, Ann. Sci. Nat. Zool. (10), 1, 1: 110, 139 (ethology). -- Bequaert, 1918, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. 39: 236 (key), 237, 331 (cat.; distr.; syn.: B. macilenta (Fabricius), B. linearis (Olivier), B. rufipennis (de Saussure), B. pictus Kohl, B. erythrospilus Cameron, B. fulvipennis de Saussure). -- Schouteden, 1919, Rev. Zool. Afr. 6: 185 (distr.). -- von Schulthess, 1922, Dtsch. Entomol. Z.: 400 (distr.); 1928, Senckenbergiana 10 (3/4): 96 (distr.); 1929, Rev. Zool. Bot. Afr. 17 (2): 187 (distr.). -- Salt and Bequaert, 1929, Psyche 36: 262 (record of stylopized specimen). -- Bequaert, 1933, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. 12: 117 (distr.). -- Giordani Soika, 1935, Mem. Estud. Mus. Zool. Univ. Coimbra (1) 82: 13 (distr.). -- Bequaert, 1938, Explor. Parcs Nation. Congo Belge Miss. G. F. de Witte (1933--1935) 11: 8, 9, 10 (distr.). -- Guiglia, 1938, Ann. Mus. Civ. Stor. Nat. Genova 58: 182 (distr.); 1939, Mem. Soc. Entomol. Ital. 17: 192 (distr.); 1940, Boll. Lab. Zool. Gen. Agrar. Fac. Agrar. Portici 31: 279 (var.?). -- FitzGerald, 1940, Proc. R. Entomol. Soc. London Ser. A Gen. Entomol. 15: 35 (distr.). -- Berland and Grassé, 1951, in Grassé, Traité Zool. 10 (2): fig. 1008--1. -- Benoit, 1956, Ann. Mus. R. Congo Belge 8 (Sci. Zool.) 51: 552 (distr.). -- Marino Piccioli, 1968, Monit. Zool. Ital. (n. ser.) 2, Suppl.: 203 (ethology). -- Marino Piccioli and Pardi, 1970, Monit. Zool. Ital. (n. ser.) 3, Suppl.: 197 (ethology.). -- Pardi and Marino Piccioli, 1970, Monit. Zool. Ital. (n. ser.) 3, Suppl. (11): 235 (ethology). -- Pardi, 1977, Boll. Inst. Entomol. Univ. Bologna 33: 281 (ethology). -- Marino Piccioli and Pardi, 1978, Monit. Zool. Ital. (n. ser.) 10, Suppl.: 179 (ethology). -- Pardi and Marino Piccioli, 1981, Monit. Zool. Ital. (n. ser.) 14, Suppl. (9): 131 (ethology). -- Richards, 1982, Bull. Br. Mus. (Nat. Hist.) Entomol. 44: 39, 45 (key), 87, fig. 62 (grisea; syn.: B. pictus Kohl, B. griseus var. pallens du Buysson, ?B. braunsii Kohl, B. erythrospilus Cameron; distr.). -- Jeanne et al., 1983, Zoomorphologie 103: 155, figs. 7, 12, 18 (grisea; morphology). -- Spradbery, 1991, in Ross and Matthews, Soc. Biol. Wasps: 354, 355, 357 (grisea; colony population). -- Jeanne, 1991, in Ross and Matthews, Soc. Biol. Wasps: 393 (gresea; ethology ). -- Ross and Carpenter, 1991, in Ross and Matthews, Soc. Biol. Wasps: 463 (grisea biology). -- Downing, 1991, in Ross and Matthews, Soc. Biol. Wasps: 549 (grisea; morphology). -- Itô, 1993, Behav. Soc. Evol. Wasps: 20, 40, 104, 131, 132 (ethology). Belonogaster fulvipennis [!]; de Saussure, 1890, in Grandidier, Hist. Madagascar 20, Hym. 1: 87 footnote, 90 [misspelling of rufipennis]. -- Kohl, 1894 (1893), Ann. Naturhist. Hofmus. Wien 9: 335. -- Dalla Torre, 1894, Cat. Hym. 9: 115 (cat.); 1904, Genera Insectorum 19: 80 (cat.). Belonogaster pictus Kohl, 1894 (1893), Ann. Naturhist. Hofmus. Wien 9: 320, 323 (key), 324, 337, pl. 16 fig. 118, pl. 18 figs. 142, 146, 152, 156, female, male -- “Camerun”; (lectotype female Wien); also from other localities. -- Dalla Torre, 1894, Cat. Hym. 9: 116 (picta; cat); 1904, Genera Insectorum 19: 80 (picta; cat.). -- Tullgren, 1904, Ark. Zool. 1: 454 (Belenogaster [!]). -- Cameron, 1906, Trans. S. Afr. Philos. Soc. 16 (4): 327. -- Schulz, 1906, Spolia Hym.: 321. -- Maidl, 1913, Sitz. Ber. K. Akad. Wiss. Wien, Math. Naturw. Kl. 122 (4), Abt. 1: 560. -- Zavattari, 1909, Il Ruwenzori, Parte Scientif. 1, Zool.: 211. -- Richards, 1982, Bull. Br. Mus. (Nat. Hist.) Entomol. 44: 88 (designation of lectotype). ?Belonogaster braunsii Kohl, 1894 (1893), Ann. Naturhist. Hofmus. Wien 9: 323 (key), 331, 334, female -- “Südafrika: Port Natal” (type depository unknown). -- Dalla Torre, 1894, Cat. Hym. 9: 114 (cat.); 1904, Genera Insectorum 19: 80 (braunsi [!]; cat.). -- Bequaert, 1918, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. 39: 331 (syn. of filiventris (de Saussure)). -- Giordani Soika, 1961, S. Afr. Anim. Life 8: 450 (braunsi [!]; syn. of filiventris (de Saussure)). -- Richards, 1982, Bull. Br. Mus. (Nat. Hist.) Entomol. 44: 88 (?syn. of grisea). Belonogaster griseus var. pallens du Buysson, 1909, Ann. Soc. Entomol. France 78 (2): 216, 250, 265, female, male -- “Dakar” (lectotype female Paris). -- Bequaert, 1918, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. 39: 332 (cat.). -- Schouteden, 1919, Rev. Zool. Afr. 6: 186 (distr.). -- Richards, 1982, Bull. Br. Mus. (Nat. Hist.) Entomol. 44: 88 (designation of lectotype). Belonogaster erythrospilus Cameron, 1910, in Sjöstedt, Wiss. Ergebn. Schwed. Zool. Exp. Kilimandjaro 2 (8), Hym. 6: 172, female, male -- “Meru low lands, Ngare na nyuki” [Tanzania] (lectotype male Stockholm); also from Kilimandjaro and Usambara. -- von Schulthess, 1913, Ark. Zool. 8 (17): 14 (syn. of grisea). -- Bequaert, 1933, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. 12: 117 (perhaps color form of griseus). -- Richards, 1982, Bull. Br. Mus. (Nat. Hist.) Entomol. 44: 88 (designation of lectotype, listed as both female and male; ?syn. of B. grisea). DISTRIBUTION: Senegal; Guinea-Bissau; Guinea; Sierra Leone; Liberia; Ghana; Nigeria; Chad; Sudan; Cameroon; Bioko; Gabon; Central African Republic; Congo; Zaire; Uganda; Rwanda; Burundi; Kenya; Tanzania (including Zanzibar); Angola; Zambia; Malawi; Zimbabwe; Mozambique; Botswana; South Africa (Transvaal, Kwazulu-Natal, Western Cape); Swaziland. guerini de Saussure Raphigaster guerini de Saussure, 1853, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2: 17, pl. 2 fig. 3, female -- “Madagascar” (Genova). -- Dalla Torre, 1894, Cat. Hym. 9: 115 (Rhaphigaster [!]). Belonogaster guerini; Smith, 1857, Cat. Hym. Br. Mus. 5: 91 (cat.). -- de Saussure, 1890, in Grandidier, Hist. Madagascar 20, Hym. 1: 89 (key), 91 (male). -- Kohl, 1894 (1893), Ann. Naturhist. Hofmus. Wien 9: 335. -- Dalla Torre, 1894, Cat. Hym. 9: 115 (guerinii [!]; cat.). -- Gribodo, 1894, in Emery et al., Mem. R. Accad. Sci. Bologna (5) 4: 123. -- von Schulthess, 1899, Bull. Soc. Vaudoise Sci. Nat. (4), 35: 269 (distr.). -- de Saussure, 1900, Abh. Senckenb. Naturforsch. Ges. 26 (2): 207 (key), 208. -- Dalla Torre, 1904, Genera Insectorum 19: 80 (cat.). -- von Schulthess, 1907, Voeltzkow, Reise in Ostafrika 1903--1905, Wiss. Ergebn. 2 (2): 65. -- du Buysson, 1909, Ann. Soc. Entomol. France 78 (2): 214, 225, pl. 5 figs. 8--14 (ethology; distr. erroneous). -- Bequaert, 1918, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. 39: 332 (cat.; distr. erroneous). -- Salt and Bequaert, 1929, Psyche 36: 262 (record of stylopized specimen). -- Richards, 1982, Bull. Br. Mus. (Nat. Hist.) Entomol. 44: 46 (key), 102, fig. 81 (distr.). -- Hensen and Blommers, 1987, Tijdschr. Entomol. 130: 12 (key), 23, fig. 44 (distr.; nest). DISTRIBUTION: Madagascar. guichardi Richards Belonogaster guichardi Richards, 1982, Bull. Br. Mus. (Nat. Hist.) Entomol. 44: 40, 44 (key), 94, fig. 70, male, female -- “Oman: Dhofar, Ayun Pools, 700 m” (holotype male London); also from two other localities in Oman; 1985 (1984), Fauna Saudi Arabia 6: 436, 437 (key), 438 (Oman). DISTRIBUTION: Oman. hildebrandti de Saussure Belonogaster hildebrandti de Saussure, 1890, in Grandidier, Hist. Madagascar 20, Hym. 1: 89 (key), 95, pl. 17 fig. 11, female, male -- “Madagascar, région centrale” (lectotype female Berlin). -- Kohl, 1894 (1893), Ann. Naturhist. Hofmus. Wien 9: 335. -- Dalla Torre, 1894, Cat. Hym. 9: 115 (hildebrandtii [!]; cat.). -- de Saussure, 1900, Abh. Senckenb. Naturforsch. Ges. 26 (2): 207 (key). -- Dalla Torre, 1904, Genera Insectorum 19: 80 (cat.). -- du Buysson, 1909, Ann. Soc. Entomol. France 78 (2): 214, 232, pl. 4, fig. 5, pl. 5 figs. 5, 7 (ethology). -- Bequaert, 1918, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. 39: 333 (cat.). -- Richards, 1982, Bull. Br. Mus. (Nat. Hist.) Entomol. 44: 47 (key), 108, fig. 90 (designation of lectotype; distr.). -- Hensen and Blommers, 1987, Tijdschr. Entomol. 130: 14 (key), 23 (sexes associated by Richards doubtfully conspecific). DISTRIBUTION: Madagascar. hirsuta Richards Belonogaster hirsuta Richards, 1982, Bull. Br. Mus. (Nat. Hist.) Entomol. 44: 41 (key), 55, male -- “Tanzania: Mahali peninsula, Kungwe Camp” (London). DISTRIBUTION: Tanzania. indica de Saussure Raphigaster indicus de Saussure, 1853, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2: 17, female -- “Les Indes Orientales. Bombay” (Paris). -- Dalla Torre, 1894, Cat. Hy. 9: 115 (Rhaphigaster [!]). Belonogaster indicus; Smith, 1857, Cat. Hym. Br. Mus. 5: 94 (cat.); 1871, J. Proc. Linn. Soc. Zool. 11: 378 (cat.). -- de Saussure, 1890, in Grandidier, Hist. Madagascar 20, Hym. 1: 87. -- Kohl, 1894 (1893), Ann. Naturhist. Hofmus. Wien 9: 335. -- Gribodo, 1894, in Emery et al., Mem. R. Accad. Sci. Bologna (5) 4: 123. -- Dalla Torre, 1894, Cat. Hym. 9: 115 (indica; cat.). -- Gribodo, 1895, Mem. R. Accad. Sci. Bologna (5) 5: 335 -- Bingham, 1897, Fauna Br. India, Hym. 1: 382, fig. 114 (female, male; distr.). -- Dalla Torre, 1904, Genera Insectorum 19: 80 (indica; cat.). -- du Buysson, 1909, Ann. Soc. Entomol. France 78 (2): 214, 258 (female). -- Bequaert, 1918, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. 39: 333 (cat.). -- Berland and Grassé, 1951, in Grassé, Traité Zool. 10 (2): 1152. -- Richards, 1982, Bull. Br. Mus. (Nat. Hist.) Entomol. 44: 31, 35 (key), 58 (indica; redescription of the type). -- Das and Gupta, 1984 (1983), Orient. Insects 17: 432 (indica; cat.); 1989, Orient. Insects Monogr. 11: 186 (key), 187, map 30 (indica; distr.). DISTRIBUTION: India. jordani Richards Belonogaster jordani Richards, 1982, Bull. Br. Mus. (Nat. Hist.) Entomol. 44: 38 (key), 83, female -- “Angola: Quirimbo” (London). DISTRIBUTION: Angola. juncea colonialis Kohl Belonogaster colonialis Kohl, 1894 (1893), Ann. Naturhist. Hofmus. Wien 9: 320, 323 (key), 335, pl. 15 figs. 72, 84, pl. 17 figs. 132, 139, female, male -- “Ostafrika: Dar-es-Salaam” (lectotype male Wien). -- Dalla Torre, 1894, Cat. Hym. 9: 114; 1904, Genera Insectorum 19: 80 (cat.). -- Fox, 1896, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 48: 555. -- Stadelmann, 1898, Dtsch. Ost-Afrika 4, Hym.: 35. -- Bingham, 1909, Trans. Zool. Soc. London 19 (2): 181. -- Zavattari, 1909, Il Ruwenzori, Parte Scientif. 1, Zool.: 210. -- Bequaert, 1918, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. 39: 334 (syn. of B. juncea). -- Giordani Soika, 1961, S. Afr. Anim. Life 8: 451. -- Richards, 1982, Bull. Br. Mus. (Nat. Hist.) Entomol. 44: 48 (designation of lectotype). Belonogaster junceus var. colonialis; Bequaert, 1938, Explor. Parcs Nation. Congo Belge Miss. G. F. de Witte (1933--1935) 11: 9 (distr.). Belonogaster juncea colonialis; Richards, 1982, Bull. Br. Mus. (Nat. Hist.) Entomol. 44: 35, 44 (key), 48 (distr.). -- Keeping and Crewe, 1983, J. Entomol. Soc. South. Africa 46: 309 (ethology.). -- Kojima and Keeping, 1984, J. Entomol. Soc. South Africa 48: 234--237 (larva). DISTRIBUTION: Congo; Zaire; Uganda; Kenya; Tanzania (including Zanzibar); Angola; Zambia; Malawi; Zimbabwe; Mozambique; South Africa (Transvaal, Kwazulu-Natal). juncea juncea (Fabricius) Vespa juncea Fabricius, 1781, Spec. Insectorum 1: 468 -- “Africa aequinoctiali” (holotype female London); 1787, Mant. Insectorum 1: 293. -- Gmelin, 1790, Syst. Nat., ed. 13, 1 (5): 2754. -- Christ, 1791, Naturg. Inseckten 6: 673. -- Olivier, 1792, Encycl. Méthod. Insectes 6: 673. ?Vespa guineensis Fabricius, 1793, Entomol. Syst. 2: 277 -- “Guinea” (holotype female Kiel). -- Dalla Torre, 1894, Cat. Hym. 9: 115 (syn of B. juncea). Vespa cinerea Fabricius, 1793, Entomol. Syst. 2: 279 -- “Africa aequinoctiali” (?London, Kiel). -- Jurine, 1807, Nouv. Méth. Class. Hym.: 172 (cinereus; female, male). -- Dalla Torre, 1894, Cat. Hym. 9: 165 (syn. of B. juncea). Zethus guineensis; Fabricius, 1804, Syst. Piez.: 283. Zethus cinereus; Fabricius, 1804, Syst. Piez.: 283. Polistes cinerea; Latreille, 1809, Gen. Crusta. Insestes 4: 142. Raphigaster junceus; de Saussure, 1853, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2: 14, pl. 2 fig. 2 (female, male). -- Dalla Torre, 1894, Cat. Hym. 9: 115 (Rhaphigaster [!]). Raphigaster guineensis; Smith, 1856, Trans. R. Entomol. Soc. London (2) 3, Proc.: 129 (ethology). -- Dalla Torre, 1894, Cat. Hym. 9: 115 (Rhaphigaster [!]; syn of B. juncea (Fabr.)). Belonogaster junceus; Smith, 1857, Cat. Hym. Br. Mus. 5: 93 (cat.; syn.: Vespa juncea Fabricius, Vespa Guineensis Fabricius, Vespa cinerea Fabricius); 1859, Trans. R. Entomol. Soc. London (2) 5 (3): 130 (record of stylopized specimen). -- Gerstaecker, 1862, in Peters, Naturwiss. Reise Mossambique, Hym.: 468; 1871, Arch. Naturg. 38, 1: 351. -- Walker, 1871, List Hym. Egypt: 39. -- Gerstaecker, 1873, in v. d. Denken’s Reisen in Ost-Afrika 3, 2, Gliederth.: 324. -- Ritsema, 1874, Tijdschr. Entomol. 17: 177, 201, 210. -- Magretti, 1884, Ann. Mus. Civ. Genova 21: 599 (ethology). -- Gribodo, 1884, Ann. Mus. Civ. Genova 21: 289. -- Schletterer, 1891, Ann. Soc. Entomol. Belgique 35: 28. -- von Schulthess, 1893, Entomol. Nachr. 19: 18. -- Kohl, 1893 (1892), Jahrb. Hamburg. Wiss. Anst. 10 (2): 186; 1894, Ann. Naturhist. Hofmus. Wien 9: 336. -- Gribodo, 1894, in Emery et al., Mem. R. Accad. Sci. Bologna (5) 4: 123. -- Dalla Torre, 1894, Cat. Hym. 9: 115 (juncea; cat.; syn.: Vespa juncea Fabricius, V. Guineensis Fabricius, V. cinerea Fabricius). -- Gribodo, 1895, Mem. R. Accad. Sci. Bologna (5) 5: 334. -- Magretti, 1898, Ann. Mus. Civ. Genova (2), 19: 36. -- Stadelmann, 1898, Dtsch. Ost-Afrika 4, Hym.: 35. -- Bingham, 1903, Ann Mag. Nat. Hist. (7) 12: 48. -- Dalla Torre, 1904, Genera Insectorum 19: 80, pl. 5, fig. 6 (juncea; cat.; as in 1894). -- Tullgren, 1904, Ark. Zool. 1: 453 (Belenogaster [!]; ethology). -- du Buysson, 1908, in A. Chevalier, L’Afrique Centrale Française: 707; 1909, Ann. Soc. Entomol. France 78 (2): 213, 220, 263, pl. 2 figs. 1--7, pl. 3 figs. 1--7, pl. 4 figs. 3, 12--13, pl. 5 fig. 4, pl. 7 fig. 2 (female, male; ethology). -- Bingham, 1909, Trans. Zool. Soc. London 19, 2: 181. -- Roubaud, 1910, C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris 151: 553--556 (ethology). -- Cameron, 1910, Ann. Transvaal Mus. 2, 3: 156; 1910, in Sjöstedt, Wiss. Ergebn. Schwed. Zool. Exp. Kilimandjaro 2 (8), Hym. 6: 171. -- Schulz, 1911, Zool. Ann. Würzburg 4: 200. -- von Schulthess, 1912, Wiss. Ergebn. D. Z. Afrik. Exp., (1907--08), 4, Lf. 10: 291; 1912, Soc. Entomol. 27: 41; 1913, Mitt. Zool. Mus. Berlin 6 (3): 337; 1913, Ark. Zool. 8 (17): 14. -- Maidl, 1913, Sitz. Ber. K. Akad. Wiss. Wien, Math. Naturw. Kl. 122, Abt. 1 (4): 560. -- von Schulthess, 1914, Dtsch. Entomol. Z. 1914: 288. -- du Buysson, 1914, in Voy. Alluaud et Jeannel Afr. Or., Rés. Sci., Ins. Hym. 3, Vesp.: 160. -- Roubaud, 1916, Ann. Sci. Nat. Zool. (10) 1 (1): 110--139 (ethology). -- Bequaert, 1918, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. 39: 236 (key), 333 (syns: Vespa cinerea Fabricius, Raphigaster guineensis (Smith), B. colonialis Kohl; cat; distr.). -- Schouteden, 1919, Rev. Zool. Afr. 6: 184 (distr.; misidentified by von Schulthess as abyssinicus). -- von Schulthess, 1922, Denkschr. Akad. Wiss. Wien, Math. Naturh. Kl. 98 (6): 96 (distr.). -- Salt, 1927, Psyche 34: 185 (distr.; record of stylopized specimen). -- von Schulthess, 1928, Senckenbergiana 10 (3/4): 95 (distr.); 1929, Rev. Zool. Bot. Afr. 17 (2): 186 (distr.). -- Salt and Bequaert, 1929, Psyche 36: 262 (record of stylopized specimen). -- Guiglia, 1932 (1931), Mem. Soc. Entomol. Ital. 10: 118 (distr.). -- Bequaert, 1938, Explor. Parcs Nation. Congo Belge Miss. G. F. de Witte (1933--1935) 11: 8, 9, 10 (distr.). -- Guiglia, 1939, Mem. Soc. Entomol. Ital. 18: 88; 1940, Boll. Lab. Zool. Gen. Agrar. Fac. Agrar. Portici 31: 279 (distr.). -- Giordani Soika, 1940 (1939), Mem. Soc. Entomol. Ital. 17: 99 (distr.); 1952 (1951), Riv. Biol. Colon. 11: 88 (distr.); 1961, S. Afr. Anim. Life 8: 451 (Zambia; Zimbabwe; South Africa: Transvaal). -- Richards, 1969, Mem. Soc. Entomol. Ital. 48: 87--93 (ethology). -- Spradbery, 1991, in Ross and Matthews, Soc. Biol. Wasps: 354, 355 (juncea; colony population). -- Ross and Carpenter, 1991, in Ross and Matthews, Soc. Biol. Wasps: 463 (juncea; biology). -- Itô, 1993, Behav. Soc. Evol. Wasps: 20 (juncea), 132 (juncus [!]; ethology). Belonogaster juncea juncea; Richards, 1982, Bull. Br. Mus. (Nat. Hist.) Entomol. 44: 35, 44 (key), 47, figs. 1--5 (?syn.: Vespa guineensis Fabricius; distr.). -- Das and Gupta, 1984 (1983), Orient. Insects 17: 433 (cat.). -- Richards, 1985 (1984), Fauna Saudi Arabia 6: 426 (j. junceus), 436, 437, 438, fig. 10 (key; distr.; list). -- Das and Gupta, 1989, Orient. Insects Monogr. 11: 186 (key), 188, fig. 32, map 30. -- Dejean and Turillazzi, 1992, Trop. Zool. 5: 237--247 (trophobiosis with homopterans). -- Francescato et al., 1994, Ethol. Ecol. Evol. Spec. Issue 3: 53--56 (ethology). -- Tindo et al., 1994, in Lenoir et al., Insect. Soc.: 532 (ethology). -- Tindo et al., 1997, Insestes Sociaux 44: 365 (ethology). -- Tindo et al., 1997, J. Insect Behav. 10: 571 (ethilogy). -- Tindo et al., 1997, Sociobiology 29: 255 (ethology). DISTRIBUTION: Libya; Senegal; Gambia; Mali; Chad; Sudan; Guinea; Sierra Leone; Liberia; Côte d’Ivoire; Ghana, Togo; Benin Republic; Nigeria; Cameroon; Eritrea; Ethiopia; Gabon; Congo; Zaire; Uganda; Rwanda; Kenya; Tanzania; Angola; Zambia; Malawi; Mozambique; South Africa; Saudi Arabia; India. kelnerpillautae Richards Belonogaster kelnerpillautae Richards, 1982, Bull. Br. Mus. (Nat. Hist.) Entomol. 44: 36 (key), 77, female -- “Congo: Dimonika” (Paris); also from other locality in Congo. DISTRIBUTION: Congo. kohli Schulz Belonogaster kohli Schulz, 1906, Spolia Hym.: 322, female -- “Insel Fernando Po” [Malabo (Santa Isabel)] (London). -- Bequaert, 1918, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. 39: 331 (syn. of B. filiventris (de Saussure)). -- Richards, 1982, Bull. Br. Mus. (Nat. Hist.) Entomol. 44: 35 (key), 53, fig. 9 (Bioko, Congo, Uganda). DISTRIBUTION: Bioko; Congo; Uganda. lateritia Gerstaecker Belonogaster lateritius Gerstaecker, 1857, Monatsber. K. Preuss. Akad. Wiss. Berlin 1857: 463, female -- “Mossambique” (Berlin); 1862, in Peters, Naturwiss. Reise Mossambique, Hym.: 468, pl. 30 fig. 7. -- Kohl, 1893 (1892), Jahrb. Hamburg. Wiss. Anst. 10 (2): 186; 1894, Ann. Naturhist. Hofmus. Wien 9: 336. -- Gribodo, 1894, in Emery et al., Mem. R. Accad. Sci. Bologna (5) 4: 123. -- Dalla Torre, 1894, Cat. Hym. 9: 116 (lateritia; cat.). -- Gribodo, 1895, Mem. R. Accad. Sci. Bologna (5) 5: 335. -- Dalla Torre, 1904, Genera Insectorum 19: 80 (lateritia; cat.). -- du Buysson, 1908, Résultats Scientif. in Voy. Afrique d’Ed. Foá: 593; 1909, Ann. Soc. Entomol. France 78 (2): 216, 218, 256, 264 (male; ethology). -- Bequaert, 1918, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. 39: 235 (key), 238, 334 (cat.). -- Schouteden, 1919, Rev. Zool. Afr. 6: 186 (distr.). -- von Schulthess, 1922, Dtsch. Entomol. Z.: 400 (distr.); 1923, in Michaelsen, Beitr. Kennt. Land- und Süsswasserfauna Deutsch-Südwestafrikas 2 (2): 135 (distr.). -- Bequaert, 1938, Explor. Parcs Nation. Congo Belge Miss. G. F. de Witte (1933--1935) 11: 9 (distr.). -- Guiglia, 1940, Atti Mus. Civ. Stor. Nat. Trieste 14 (19): 288. -- Giordani Soika, 1961, S. Afr. Anim. Life 8: 450 (distr.). -- Richards, 1982, Bull. Br. Mus. (Nat. Hist.) Entomol. 44: 36, 37, 44 (key), 72, figs. 32, 38 (lateritia; syn.: B. elegans Gerstaecker, B. fleckii Kohl, B. agilis Kohl; distr.). -- Jeanne et al., 1983, Zoomorphologie 103: 155 (lateritia; morphology). Belonogaster elegans Gerstaecker, 1857, Monatsb. K. Akad. Wiss. Berlin: 463, female -- “Mossambique” (type depository unknown); 1862, in Peters, Naturwiss. Reise Mossambique, Hym.: 469, pl. 30 fig. 8. -- Kohl, 1893 (1892), Jahrb. Hamburg. Wiss. Anst. 10 (2): 187; 1894, Ann. Naturhist. Hofmus. Wien 9: 321, 323 (key), 335, pl. 15 fig. 76, pl. 17 figs. 128, 131 (male). -- Gribodo, 1894, in Emery et al., Mem. R. Accad. Sci. Bologna (5) 4: 123. -- Dalla Torre, 1894, Cat. Hym. 9: 114 (cat.). -- Gribodo, 1895, Mem. R. Accad. Sci. Bologna (5) 5: 334. -- Stadelmann, 1898, Dtsch. Ost-Afrika 4, Hym.: 35. -- von Schulthess, 1899, Bull. Soc. Vaud. Sci. Nat. (4), 35: 269 (distr.). -- Dalla Torre, 1904, Genera Insectorum 19: 80 (cat.). -- Zavattari, 1909, Il Ruwenzori, Parte Scientif. 1, Zool.: 211, 271. -- Richards, 1982, Bull. Br. Mus. (Nat. Hist.) Entomol. 44: 72 (syn. of B. lateritia Gerstaecker). Belonogaster agilis Kohl, 1893 (1892), Jahrb. Hamburg. Wiss. Anst. 10 (2): 187, figs. 1, 4, 9, 10, 15, female, male -- “Ost-Afrika: Mbusini (Usegua)” [Angola] (lectotype male Wien); 1894, Ann. Naturhist. Hofmus. Wien 9: 321, 323 (key), 327, 334, pl. 15 fig. 73, pl. 16 figs. 96, 115, pl. 17 figs. 134, 151, 155. -- Dalla Torre, 1894, Cat. Hym. 9: 114 (cat.); 1904, Genera Insectorum 19: 80 (cat.). -- Richards, 1982, Bull. Br. Mus. (Nat. Hist.) Entomol. 44: 72 (designation of lectotype; syn. of B. lateritia Gerstaecker). Belonogaster fleckii Kohl, 1894 (1893), Ann. Naturhist. Hofmus. Wien 9: 322 (key), 332, 335, female -- “Südwestafrika: Damaraland” (lectotype Wien). -- Dalla Torre, 1894, Cat. Hym. 9: 115 (cat); 1904, Genera Insectorum 19: 80 (flecki [!]; cat.). -- Bequaert, 1918, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. 39: 334 (syn. of B. lateritius var. agilis Kohl). -- Richards, 1982, Bull. Br. Mus. (Nat. Hist.) Entomol. 44: 72 (designation of lectotype; syn. of B. lateritia Gerstaecker). Belonogaster lateritius var. agilis; du Buysson, 1909, Ann. Soc. Entomol. France 78 (2): 257. -- Bequaert, 1918, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. 39: 334 (cat.; syn.: B. fleckii Kohl). Belonogaster lateritius var. elegans; du Buysson, 1909, Ann. Soc. Entomol. France 78 (2): 257, 264. -- Bequaert, 1918, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. 39: 334 (cat.). -- Salt and Bequaert, 1929, Psyche 36: 262 (record of stylopized specimen). -- Giordani Soika, 1935, Mem. Estud. Mus. Zool. Univ. Coimbra (1) 82: 14 (distr.). DISTRIBUTION: Somalia; Kenya; Tanzania; Malawi; Angola; Zambia; Zimbabwe; Mozambique; Namibia; Botswana; South Africa (Western Cape, Free State, Natal, Transvaal); Lesotho. leonhardii du Buysson Belonogaster leonhardii du Buysson, 1909, Ann. Soc. Entomol. France 78 (2): 217, 252, female -- “Ouganda anglais: Iraouer” (lectotype Paris). -- Bequaert, 1918, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. 39: 335 (cat.); 1938, Explor. Parcs Nation. Congo Belge Miss. G. F. de Witte (1933--1935) 11: 9 (distr.). -- Benoit, 1956, Ann. Mus. R. Congo Belge 8 (Sci. Zool.) 51: 553 (leonhardi [!]). -- Richards, 1982, Bull. Br. Mus. (Nat. Hist.) Entomol. 44: 36, 43 (key), 87 (designation of lectotype), figs. 60--61 (distr.). DISTRIBUTION: Uganda; Burundi; Zaire. leonina Richards Belonogaster leonina Richards, 1982, Bull. Br. Mus. (Nat. Hist.) Entomol. 44: 39, 43 (key), 90, figs. 63--65, male, female -- “Sierra Leone: Mattru” (holotype male London); also from Congo; Gabon; Uganda. DISTRIBUTION: Sierra Leone; Gabon; Congo; Uganda. levior Richards Belonogaster levior Richards, 1982, Bull. Br. Mus. (Nat. Hist.) Entomol. 44: 34, 41 (key), 58, female, male -- “Uganda: Budongo Forest, Unyoro, 3400 ft [1040 m]” (holotype female London); also from Congo; Liberia. DISTRIBUTION: Liberia; Congo; Uganda. libera Richards Belonogaster libera Richards, 1982, Bull. Br. Mus. (Nat. Hist.) Entomol. 44: 42 (key), 86, male -- “Liberia: Robertsport” (Leiden). -- Kojima and van Achterberg, 1997, Zool. Meded., Leiden 71: 162 (holotype depository). DISTRIBUTION: Liberia. longitarsus Richards Belonogaster longitarsus Richards, 1982, Bull. Br. Mus. (Nat. Hist.) Entomol. 44: 40, 45 (key), 97, figs. 74--76, male, female -- “Uganda: banks of Victoria Nile near Masindi Port, 3400 ft [1040m]” (holotype male London); also from three other localities in Uganda; and Zambia; Kenya; Mozambique; South Africa; Tanzania; Angola. DISTRIBUTION: Kenya; Uganda; Tanzania; Angola; Zambia; Mozambique; South Africa (Transvaal, Kwazulu-Natal, Western Cape). macilenta (Fabricius) Vespa macilenta Fabricius, 1781, Spec. Insect. 1: 468 -- “Africa aequinoctiali” (holotype male London); 1787, Mant. Insect. 1: 293. -- Gmelin, 1790, Syst. Nat. ed. 13, 1 (5): 2754. -- Olivier, 1792, Encycl. Méthod. Insect. 6: 673. -- Fabricius, 1793, Entomol. Syst. 2: 280. -- de Saussure, 1853, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2: 15 (syn. of Raphigaster rufipennis). -- Dalla Torre, 1894, Cat. Hym. 9: 115 (syn. of B. grisea); 1904, Genera Insectorum 19: 80 (syn. of B. grisea). -- Bequaert, 1918, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. 39: 331 (syn. of B. grisea (Fabricius)). Zethus macilentus; Fabricius, 1804, Syst. Piet.: 283. Belonogaster macilentus; Smith, 1857, Cat. Hym. Br. Mus. 5: 94 (syn.: Raphigastrer filiformis de Saussure, Zethus macilentus (Fabricius)). -- Gribodo, 1894, in Emery et al., Mem. R. Accad. Sci. Bologna (5) 4: 123. -- Richards, 1982, Bull. Br. Mus. (Nat. Hist.) Entomol. 44: 36, 37 (key), 81, figs. 55--57 (macilenta; syn.: B. pusillus Kohl; distr.). Belonogaster pusillus Kohl, 1894 (1893), Ann. Naturhist. Hofmus. Wien 9: 320, 323 (key), 325, 337, pl. 15 figs. 75, 77, pl. 16 fig. 116, pl. 17, figs. 137, 140, 143, 148, female, male -- “Westafrika: Sierra Leone” (?Brussels). -- Dalla Torre, 1894, Cat. Hym. 9: 116 (pusilla; cat.); 1904, Genera Insectorum 19: 80 (pusilla; cat.). -- Tullgren, 1904, Ark. Zool 1: 454 (Belenogaster [!]). -- du Buysson, 1909, Ann. Soc. Entomol. France 78 (2): 215, 218, 239, 264, pl. 4 fig. 2 (ethology); 1914, in Voy. Alluaud et Jeannel Afr. Or., Rés. Sci., Ins. Hym. 3, Vesp.: 161. -- Bequaert, 1918, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. 39: 235 (key), 236, 336 (cat.; distr.). -- Salt and Bequaert, 1929, Psyche 36: 263 (record of stylopized specimen). -- Bequaert, 1938, Explor. Parcs Nation. Congo Belge Miss. G. F. de Witte (1933--1935) 11: 9 (distr.). -- Richards, 1982, Bull. Br. Mus. (Nat. Hist.) Entomol. 44: 81 (syn. of macilenta). DISTRIBUTION: Sierra Leone; Guinea-Bissau; Liberia; Côte d’Ivoire; Ghana; Nigeria. maculata Richards Belonogaster maculata Richards, 1982, Bull. Br. Mus. (Nat. Hist.) Entomol. 44: 36 (key), 71, female -- “Uganda: eastern Mbale district, S. of Mt Elgon, 2700--3000 ft [820--915 m]” (Oxford); also from other locality in Uganda; and Kenya. DISTRIBUTION: Uganda; Kenya. madecassa de Saussure Raphigaster madecassus de Saussure, 1853, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2: 16, pl. 2 fig. 7, female -- “Madagascar” (Genova). Belonogaster madecassus; Smith, 1857, Cat. Hym. Br. Mus. 5: 94. -- de Saussure, 1890, in Grandidier, Hist. Madagascar 20, Hym. 1: 89 (key), 98. -- Kohl, 1894 (1893), Ann. Naturhist. Hofmus. Wien 9: 337. -- Gribodo, 1894, in Emery et al., Mem. R. Accad. Sci. Bologna (5) 4: 123. -- Dalla Torre, 1894, Cat. Hym. 9: 116 (madecassa; cat.). -- de Saussure, 1900, Abh. Senckenb. Naturforsch. Ges. 26 (2): 207 (key), 211. -- Dalla Torre, 1904, Genera Insectorum 19: 80 (madecassa; cat.). -- du Buysson, 1909, Ann. Soc. Entomol. France 78 (2): 261. -- Bequaert, 1918, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. 39: 335 (cat.). -- Richards, 1982, Bull. Br. Mus. (Nat. Hist.) Entomol. 44: 46 (key), 103, figs. 82, 83 (madecassa; distr.). -- Hensen and Blommers, 1987, Tijdschr. Entomol. 130: 12 (madecassum [!]; key), 23, figs. 1, 3, 21, 22, 45 (madecassa; syn.: keiseri Richards; nest; distr.). Belonogaster longistylus de Saussure, 1890, in Grandidier, Hist. Madagascar 20, Hym. 1: 89 (key), 97, pl. 17 fig. 13, female -- “Madagascar” (lectotype Genève). -- Kohl, 1894 (1893), Ann. Naturhist. Hofmus. Wien 9: 336. -- Dalla Torre, 1894, Cat. Hym. 9: 116 (longistyla; cat.). -- de Saussure, 1900, Abh. Senckenb. Naturforsch. Ges. 26 (2): 207 (key). -- Dalla Torre, 1904, Genera Insectorum 19: 80 (longistyla; cat.). -- von Schulthess, 1907, Voeltzkow, Reise in Ostafrika 1903--1905, Wiss. Ergebn. 2 (2): 64. -- du Buysson, 1909, Ann. Soc. Entomol. France 78 (2): 214, 231. -- Bequaert, 1918, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. 39: 335 (cat.). -- Richards, 1982, Bull. Br. Mus. (Nat. Hist.) Entomol. 44: 103, 108, 113 (longestylus [!]; syn. of B. madecassa de Saussure). -- Hensen and Blommers, 1987, Tijdschr. Entomol. 130: 23 (longestylus [!]; syn. of B. madecassa). — Kojima, 2001a, Nat. hist. Bull. Ibaraki Univ. (5): 19 (notes on lectotype). Belonogaster keiseri Richards, 1982, Bull. Br. Mus. (Nat. Hist.) Entomol. 44: 46 (key), 104, fig. 84, male -- “Madagascar: Diego‑Suarez, Joffreville” (Leiden). -- Hensen and Blommers, 1987, Tijdschr. Entomol. 130: 23 (syn. of B. madecassa de Saussure). -- Kojima and van Achterberg, 1997, Zool. Meded., Leiden 71: 162 (holotype depository). DISTRIBUTION: Madagascar; Comoros. malagassa de Saussure Belonogaster malagassus de Saussure, 1900, Abh. Senckenb. Naturforsch. Ges. 26 (2): 207 (key), 210, female -- “Madagascar” (lectotype Genève). -- Dalla Torre, 1904, Genera Insectorum 19: 80 (malagassa; cat.). -- du Buysson, 1909, Ann. Soc. Entomol. France 78 (2): 214, 230. -- Bequaert, 1918, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. 39: 335 (cat.). -- Richards, 1982, Bull. Br. Mus. (Nat. Hist.) Entomol. 44: 110 (?syn. of eumenoides de Saussure). -- Hensen and Blommers, 1987, Tijdschr. Entomol. 130: 16 (designation of lectotype; syn. of bicolor). — Kojima, 2001a, Nat. Hist. Bull. Ibaraki Univ. (5): 12 (treating as valid species), 13 (key), figs. 22, 24, 27. Belonogaster malagassus var. de Saussure, 1900, Abh. Senckenb. Naturforsch. Ges. 26 (2): 210. DISTRIBUTION: Madagascar. mandraka Hensen and Blommers Belonogaster mandraka Hensen and Blommers, 1987, Tijdschr. Entomol. 130: 14 (key), 23, fig. 23, female -- “Rép. Malgache, Manjakandriana, Mandraka, 1200 m” (unique Amsterdam). -- Kojima and van Achterberg, 1997, Zool. Meded., Leiden 71: 167 (holotype depository). DISTRIBUTION: Madagascar. maromandia Richards Belonogaster maromandia Richards, 1982, Bull. Br. Mus. (Nat. Hist.) Entomol. 44: 47 (key), 108, female -- “Madagascar: Province de Amalalava, Maromandia” (Paris). -- Hensen and Blommers, 1987, Tijdschr. Entomol. 130: 14 (key), 24, figs. 40, 41 (male; distr.). DISTRIBUTION: Madagascar. menelikii Gribodo Belonogaster menelikii Gribodo, 1879, Ann. Mus. Civ. Genova (1) 14: 342, female -- “Mahal-Uonz” (Genova); 1881, Ann. Mus. Civ. Genova 16: 288 (male); 1884, Ann. Mus. Civ. Genova 20: 384; 1884, Ann. Mus. Civ. Genova 21: 288. -- Kohl, 1894 (1893), Ann. Naturhist. Hofmus. Wien 9: 320, 323 (key), 337, pl. 15 figs. 81, 92, pl. 17 fig. 135. -- Gribodo, 1894, in Emery et al., Mem. R. Accad. Sci. Bologna (5) 4: 123. -- Dalla Torre, 1894, Cat. Hym. 9: 116 (cat.). -- Fox, 1896, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 48: 555. -- Dalla Torre, 1904, Genera Insectorum 19: 80 (meneliki [!]; cat.). -- Schulz, 1911, Zool. Ann. Würzburg 4: 200. -- Richards, 1982, Bull. Br. Mus. (Nat. Hist.) Entomol. 44: 35, 38, 43 (key), 52, 113, fig. 8 (meneliki [!]; distr.). Belonogaster griseus var. menelikii; du Buysson, 1909, Ann. Soc. Entomol. France 78 (2): 250, 265, pl. 7 fig. 1 (ethology) [partim]; 1914, in Voy. Alluaud et Jeannel Afr. Or. Rés. Sci., Ins. Hym. 3, Vesp.: 163. -- Bequaert, 1918, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. 39: 332 (cat.). -- Schouteden, 1919, Rev. Zool. Afr. 6: 186 (distr.). -- von Schulthess, 1928, Senckenbergiana 10 (3/4): 96 (distr.). -- Guiglia, 1932 (1931), Mem. Soc. Entomol. Ital. 10: 119 (meneliki [!]; distr.). -- Bequaert, 1933, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. 12: 116 (possibly distinct species; distr.; records by du Buysson, 1909, Schouteden, 1919, von Schulthess, 1928, dubious). -- Guiglia, 1939, Mem. Soc. Entomol. Ital. 17: 192 (meneliki [!]); 1939, Mem. Soc. Entomol. Ital. 18: 88 (meneliki [!]); 1940, Atti Mus. Civ. Stor. Nat. Trieste 14 (19): 288 (meneliki [!]). -- Giordani Soika, 1940, Atti Mus. Civ. Stor. Nat. Trieste 14 (18): 286 (meneliki [!]; distr.); 1952 (1951), Riv. Biol. Colon. 11: 88 (meneliki [!]; distr.). -- Iwata, 1966, Mushi 39: 57 (ethology); 1976, Evol. Instinct: 303, 307, 308 (ethology). DISTRIBUTION: Ethiopia. multipunctata Richards Belonogaster multipunctata Richards, 1982, Bull. Br. Mus. (Nat. Hist.) Entomol. 44: 36 (key), 55, female -- “Uganda: Entebbe, 3800--4000 ft [1160--1220 m], forest within 4 miles [6.5 km] of Kitabi Hill” (Oxford). DISTRIBUTION: Uganda. neavei Richards Belonogaster neavei Richards, 1982, Bull. Br. Mus. (Nat. Hist.) Entomol. 44: 39, 45 (key), 89, male, female -- “Kenya: Masongaleni, ca 38°2’E, 2°4’S, 3000 ft [915 m]” (holotype male London); also from 6 other localities in Kenya; and Zambia; Malawi; Tanzania; South Africa. DISTRIBUTION: Kenya; Tanzania; Zambia; Malawi; South Africa (Transvaal). nigricans Richards Belonogaster nigricans Richards, 1982, Bull. Br. Mus. (Nat. Hist.) Entomol. 44: 36 (key), 77, fig. 48, female -- “Congo: Dimonika” (holotype Paris); also from 3 other localities in Congo. DISTRIBUTION: Congo. nitida Richards Belonogaster nitida Richards, 1982, Bull. Br. Mus. (Nat. Hist.) Entomol. 44: 40 (key), 60, figs. 15, 16, male -- “Nigeria: Eastern province, Oguta, east of Onitsha” (unique London). DISTRIBUTION: Nigeria. ornata de Saussure Belonogaster ornatus de Saussure, 1900, Abh. Senckenb. Naturforsch. Ges. 26 (2): 207 (key), 209, female, male -- “Madagascar” (lectotype male Genève). -- Dalla Torre, 1904, Genera Insectorum 19: 80 (ornata; cat.). -- Bequaert, 1918, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. 39: 330 (syn. of B. eumenoides de Saussure). -- Richards, 1982, Bull. Br. Mus. (Nat. Hist.) Entomol. 44: 110 (?syn. of B. eumenoides de Saussure). -- Hensen and Blommers, 1987, Tijdschr. Entomol. 130: 14 (key), 25, figs. 24, 25 (ornata; designation of lectotype; syn.: pomicolor de Saussure; distr.). — Kojima, 2001a, Nat. hist. Bull. Ibaraki Univ. (5): 16 (ornata), figs. 48-53, 19 (key). pomicolor de Saussure Belonogaster pomicolor de Saussure, 1900, Abh. Senckenb. Naturforsch. Ges. 26 (2): 207, 209, female, male -- “Madagascar” (lectotype female Genève). -- Dalla Torre, 1904, Genera Insectorum 19: 80 (cat.). -- Bequaert, 1918, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. 39: 330 (syn. of B. eumenoides de Saussure). -- Richards, 1982, Bull. Br. Mus. (Nat. Hist.) Entomol. 44: 110 (?syn. of eumenoides de Saussure). -- Hensen and Blommers, 1987, Tijdschr. Entomol. 130: 25, 26 (designation of lectotype; syn. of B. ornata de Saussure). — Kojima, 2001a, Nat. hist. Bull. Ibaraki Univ. (5): 17 (taxonomy; different species from B. ornata; description of male), figs. 61-72, 19 (key). DISTRIBUTION: Madagascar. pennata Richards Belonogaster pennata Richards, 1982, Bull. Br. Mus. (Nat. Hist.) Entomol. 44: 36, 43 (key), 51, fig. 7, female, male -- “Zaire: Shaba prov. (Katanga), Kambove, 4000--5000 ft [1220--1500 m]” (holotype female London); also from 6 other localities in Zaire; and Gabon; Congo; Rwanda; Angola; Kenya; Uganda; Tanzania; Zambia; Malawi; Zimbabwe; South Africa. DISTRIBUTION: Gabon; Congo; Zaire; Uganda; Kenya; Rwanda; Tanzania; Angola; Zambia; Malawi; Zimbabwe; South Africa. petiolata (DeGeer) Vespa petiolata DeGeer, 1778, Mém. Hist. Insectes 7: 610, pl. 45, fig. 10 -- “Cap-de-Bonne-Esperance” (holotype female Stockholm). -- Göze, 1783, in DeGeer, Abh. Gesch. Insekten 7: 217, T. 45, F. 10. -- Retzius, 1783, Gen. Spec. Insect. 6: 64. ?Vespa linearis Olivier, 1792, Encycl. Méthod. Ins. 6: 673 -- “Cap de Bonne Espérance” (lost). -- Dalla Torre, 1894, Cat. Hym. 9: 116 (?syn. of B. petiolata). -- Bequaert, 1918, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. 39: 331 (syn. of B. grisea (Fabricius)). ?Polistes linearis; Latreille, 1809, Gen. Crust. Insectes 4: 142. Belonogaster brachycerus Kohl, 1894 (1893), Ann. Naturhist. Hofmus. Wien 9: 323, 324, 331, pl. 15 fig. 82, pl. 17 fig. 138, female -- “Südafrika: Cap b. sp.” (type depository unknown). -- Dalla Torre, 1894, Cat. Hym. 9: 114 (brachycera; cat.); 1904, Genera Insectorum 19: 80 (brachycera; cat.). -- du Buysson, 1909, Ann. Soc. Entomol. France 78 (2): 217, 218, 254, 264 (male; ethology). -- von Schulthess, 1914, Dtsch. Entomol. Z. 1914: 290 (compared to B. rothkirchi n. sp.). -- Bequaert, 1918, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. 39: 335 (syn. of B. petiolata (DeGeer)). ?Belonogaster linearis; Kohl, 1894 (1893), Ann. Naturhist. Hofmus. Wien 9: 336. -- Dalla Torre, 1894, Cat. Hym. 9: 116 (cat.); 1904, Genera Insectorum 19: 80 (cat.). Belonogaster petiolatus; Kohl, 1894 (1893), Ann. Naturhist. Hofmus. Wien 9: 337. -- Dalla Torre, 1894, Cat. Hym. 9: 116 (petiolata; cat.; error: “Polistes petiolata Lepeletier, Encycl. méthod. Insect. X. 1825 p. 173 n. 16” [absent in Lepeletier, 1825]); 1904, Genera Insectorum 19: 80 (petiolata; cat.). -- Tullgren, 1904, Ark. Zool. 1: 461 (Belenogaster [!]). -- Schulz, 1912, Berlin. Entomol. Z. 57: 62. -- Bequaert, 1918, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. 39: 335 (cat.; syn.: B. brachycerus Kohl). -- Richards, 1982, Bull. Br. Mus. (Nat. Hist.) Entomol. 44: 35, 37, 43 (key), 71, figs. 36, 37 (petiolata; syn.: B. brachycerus Kohl, ?V. linearis Olivier; distr.). -- Keeping and Crewe, 1983, J. Entomol. Soc. South. Africa 46: 309 (petiolata; ethology.). -- Kojima and Keeping, 1984, J. Entomol. Soc. South. Africa 48: 237 (petiolata; larva). -- Keeping et al., 1986, J. Chem. Ecol. 773 (petiolata; ethology). -- Keeping and Crewe, 1987, in Eder and Rembold, Chem. Biol. Soc. Insects: 383 (petiolata; ethology). -- Keeping, 1990, J. Insect Behav. 3 (1): 85 (petiolata; ethology); 1990, Ethology 85: 1 (petiolata; ethology); 1990, J. Entomol. Soc. South. Africa 54: 17 (petiolata; ethology). -- Spradbery, 1991, in Ross and Matthews, Soc. Biol. Wasps: 354, 355, 357, 373 (petiolata; colony population). -- Jeanne, 1991, in Ross and Matthews, Soc. Biol. Wasps: 393 (petiolata; ethology). -- Ross and Carpenter, 1991, in Ross and Matthews, Soc. Biol. Wasps: 464 (petiolata; biology). -- Keeping, 1992, Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 31: 211 (petiolata; ethology). -- Itô, 1993, Behav. Soc. Evol. Wasps: 20, 34, 104 (petiolata; ethology). -- Keeping, 1995, Insectes Soc. 42 (3): 317 (petiolata; ethology). DISTRIBUTION: Malawi; Zimbabwe; South Africa (Western Cape, Free State, Transvaal, Kwazulu-Natal); Lesotho. pileata Richards Belonogaster pileata Richards, 1982, Bull. Br. Mus. (Nat. Hist.) Entomol. 44: 37, 41 (key), 62, figs. 21, 22, female, male -- “Kenya: Tareta forest (near Tanzanian border)” (holotype female London); also from three other localities in Kenya; and Tanzania; Malawi. DISTRIBUTION: Kenya; Tanzania; Malawi. prasina de Saussure Belonogaster prasinus de Saussure, 1890, in Grandidier, Hist. Madagascar 20, Hym. 1: 89 (key), 92, pl. 19 fig. 5, female, male -- “Madagascar ... aux environs de Fort-Dauphin” (lectotype male Genève); also from 2 other localties. -- Kohl, 1894 (1893), Ann. Naturhist. Hofmus. Wien 9: 337. -- Dalla Torre, 1894, Cat. Hym. 9: 116 (prasina; cat.). -- de Saussure, 1900, Abh. Senckenb. Naturforsch. Ges. 26 (2): 207 (key). -- Dalla Torre, 1904, Genera Insectorum 19: 80 (prasina; cat.). -- von Schulthess, 1907, Voeltzkow, Reise in Ostafrika 1903--1905, Wiss. Ergebn. 2 (2): 65. -- du Buysson, 1909, Ann. Soc. Entomol. France 78 (2): 214, 228. -- Bequaert, 1918, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. 39: 335 (cat.). -- Richards, 1982, Bull. Br. Mus. (Nat. Hist.) Entomol. 44: 47 (key), 107, figs. 87, 89 (prasina; designation of lectotype; distr.). -- Hensen and Blommers, 1987, Tijdschr. Entomol. 130: 14 (key), 26 (prasina; distr.). — Kojima, 2001a, Nat. Hist. Bull. Ibaraki Univ. (5): 19 (prasina; notes on lectotype and paralectotypes). DISTRIBUTION: Madagascar. principalis Richards Belonogaster principalis Richards, 1982, Bull. Br. Mus. (Nat. Hist.) Entomol. 44: 38 (key), 82, female -- “Guinea-Bissau: Principé I., between Roca Esperanza and Roca Sundi” [sic] (unique London). DISTRIBUTION: Principé. punctata Richards Belonogaster punctata Richards, 1982, Bull. Br. Mus. (Nat. Hist.) Entomol. 44: 42 (key), 84, male -- “Cameroun: Kumba” (unique London). DISTRIBUTION: Cameroon. punctilla Richards Belonogaster punctilla Richards, 1982, Bull. Br. Mus. (Nat. Hist.) Entomol. 44: 38 (key), 83, female -- “Uganda: Mpanga forest, Toro, 4800ft [1460m]” (unique London). DISTRIBUTION: Uganda. pusilloides Richards Belonogaster pusilloides Richards, 1982, Bull. Br. Mus. (Nat. Hist.) Entomol. 44: 37, 43 (key), 80, fig. 54, female, male -- “Uganda: top of escarpment, east of Batiaba, L. Albert, 3200 ft [980m]” (holotype female London); also from two other localities in Uganda; and Kenya; Congo; South Africa. — Kojima, 2001a, Nat. Hist. Bull. Ibaraki Univ. (5): 20. DISTRIBUTION: Congo; Uganda; Kenya; South Africa (Kwazulu-Natal). rothkirchi von Schulthess Belonogaster rothkirchi von Schulthess, 1914, Soc. Entomol. 29: 4, male -- “Kamerunberg, Soppo” (lectotype Zürich); 1914, Dtsch. Entomol. Z.: 288 (fig.). -- Bequaert, 1918, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. 39: 336 (cat.). -- Richards, 1982, Bull. Br. Mus. (Nat. Hist.) Entomol. 44: 42, 45 (key), 85, fig. 59 (designation of lectotype). DISTRIBUTION: Cameroon. saeva de Saussure Belonogaster saevus de Saussure, 1890, in Grandidier, Hist. Madagascar 20, Hym. 1: 92, footnote, female -- “l’Afrique tropicale” (type depository unknown). -- Kohl, 1894 (1893), Ann. Naturhist. Hofmus. Wien 9: 337. -- Dalla Torre, 1894, Cat. Hym. 9: 116 (saeva; cat.); 1904, Genera Insectorum 19: 80 (saeva; cat.). -- du Buysson, 1909, Ann. Soc. Entomol. France 78 (2): 215, 219, 242, 264, pl. 4 figs. 10, 11 (male). -- von Schulthess, 1912, Wiss. Ergebn. D. Z. Afrik. Exp., (1907--08), 4, Lf. 10: 291; 1913, Mitt. Zool. Mus. Berlin 6 (3): 338. -- Bequaert, 1918, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. 39: 234 (key), 336 (cat.; distr.). -- Schouteden, 1919, Rev. Zool. Afr. 6: 184 (distr.). -- Bequaert, 1938, Explor. Parcs Nation. Congo Belge Miss. G. F. de Witte (1933--1935) 11: 9 (distr.). -- Giordani Soika, 1977, Steenstrupia 4: 127 (distr.). -- Richards, 1982, Bull. Br. Mus. (Nat. Hist.) Entomol. 44: 38, 48 (key), 61, figs. 19, 20 (saeva; distr.). — Kojima, 2001a, Nat. Hist. Bull. Ibaraki Univ. (5): 20 (saeva; taxonomic notes). DISTRIBUTION: Sierra Leone; Ghana; Cameroon; Congo; Zaire; Uganda; Kenya; Tanzania; Malawi; South Africa (Cape of Good Hope). saussurei Kirby Belonogaster saussurei Kirby, 1881, Proc. Zool. Soc. London: 649, female, male -- “Socotra” (lectotype male London). -- Kohl, 1894 (1893), Ann. Naturhist. Hofmus. Wien 9: 337. -- Dalla Torre, 1894, Cat. Hym. 9: 116 (saussureii [!]; cat.). -- Kirby, 1898, Proc. Zool. Soc. London: 386; 1903, in Forbes, Nat. Hist. of Sokotra, Zool. Hym.: 248, pl. 16 fig. 2 (Belenogaster [!]; syn.: B. tricolor Taschenberg; ethology). -- Dalla Torre, 1904, Genera Insectorum 19: 80 (cat.). -- Kohl, 1907, Denkschr. K. Akad. Wiss. Wien, Math. Naturh. Kl. 71 (1): 223, pl. 5 figs. 18, 20, 31. -- du Buysson, 1909, Ann. Soc. Entomol. France 78 (2): 262. -- Bequaert, 1918, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. 39: 336 (cat.; syn.: B. tricolorTaschenberg). -- Richards, 1982, Bull. Br. Mus. (Nat. Hist.) Entomol. 44: 40, 44 (key), 93, fig. 69 (designation of lectotype; syn.: B. tricolor Taschenberg; distr.); 1985 (1984), Fauna Saudi Arabia 6: 436, 437 (key; distr.), 438 (list). Belonogaster tricolor Taschenberg, 1883, Z. Ges. Naturw. Halle 56: 175, female -- “Insel Socotra (Socotora)” (type depository unknown). -- Kohl, 1894 (1893), Ann. Naturhist. Hofmus. Wien 9: 337. -- Dalla Torre, 1894, Cat. Hym. 9: 116 (cat.). -- Kirby, 1903, in Forbes, Nat. Hist. of Sokotra, Zool. Hym.: 248 (Belenogaster [!]; syn. of B. saussurei). -- Dalla Torre, 1904, Genera Insectorum 19: 80 (cat.). -- du Buysson, 1909, Ann. Soc. Entomol. France 78 (2): 261. -- Bequaert, 1918, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. 39: 336 (syn. of B. saussurei Kirby). DISTRIBUTION: Yemen (including Socotra). schulthessi Kojima Belonoaster schulthessi Kojima, 2001a, Nat. Hist. Bull. Ibaraki Univ. (5): 14, figs. 36-47, male, female – "Rogez, O. Madagascar" (holotype male Zürich), 19 (key). DISTRIBUTION: Madagascar. scutifera Hensen and Blommers Belonogaster scutifera Hensen and Blommers, 1987, Tijdschr. Entomol. 130: 12 (key), 26, figs. 26--28, male, female -- “Madagascar Est: Ambodivoangy” (holotype male Tervuren); also from other locality in Madagascar. DISTRIBUTION: Madagascar. somereni Richards Belonogaster somereni Richards, 1982, Bull. Br. Mus. (Nat. Hist.) Entomol. 44: 35, 44 (key), 50, fig. 6, male, female -- “Kenya: Teita Hills (ca 38°3’E, 2°4’S)” (holotype male London); also from Tanzania; Zimbabwe; Zambia; Malawi; Mozambique; South Africa; Niger. DISTRIBUTION: Niger; Kenya; Tanzania; Zambia; Malawi; Zimbabwe; Mozambique; South Africa (Free State, Kwazulu-Natal). tanosy Hensen and Blommers Belonogaster tanosy Hensen and Blommers, 1987, Tijdschr. Entomol. 130: 14 (key), 27, figs. 29--31, male, female -- “Madagascar, Fort Dauphin, 500 m” (holotype male London); also from four other localities in Madagascar. DISTRIBUTION: Madagascar. tarsata Kohl Belonogaster tarsatus Kohl, 1893 (1892), Jahrb. Hamburg. Wiss. Anst. 10 (2): 187, figs. 2, 5, 7, 8, 11, 16, female, male -- “Ost-Afrika: Mbusini (Usegua ...)” (lectotype male Wien); 1894, Ann. Naturhist. Hofmus. Wien 9: 321, 323 (key), 333, 337, pl. 15 figs. 85, 86, pl. 16 figs. 97, 119, pl. 17 figs. 150, 153, 154. -- Dalla Torre, 1894, Cat. Hym. 9: 116 (tarsata; cat.). -- Stadelmann, 1898, Deutsch Ost-Afrika 4, Hym.: 35. -- Dalla Torre, 1904, Genera Insectorum 19: 80 (tarsata; cat.). -- du Buysson, 1909, Ann. Soc. Entomol. France 78 (2): 215, 219, 237, 263, pl. 4 fig. 7. -- Bequaert, 1918, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. 39: 336 (cat.). -- Richards, 1982, Bull. Br. Mus. (Nat. Hist.) Entomol. 44: 37, 44 (key), 73, figs. 39--41 (tarsata; designation of lectotype; distr.). DISTRIBUTION: Tanzania (including Zanzibar). tessmanni von Schulthess Belenogaster [!] tessmanni von Schulthess, 1910, Soc. Entomol. 25: 45, female, male -- “Spanisch Guinea ... Uelleborg, ... Benitogebiet ... Alcu Benitogebiet ... Spanisch Guinea Hinterland, Nkolontangan” (Berlin); 1913, Mitt. Zool. Mus. Berlin 6 (3): 339. -- Bequaert, 1918, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. 39: 337 (Belonogaster; cat.); 1938, Explor. Parcs Nation. Congo Belge Miss. G. F. de Witte (1933--1935) 11: 9 (Belonogaster; ?Zaire). -- Richards, 1982, Bull. Br. Mus. (Nat. Hist.) Entomol. 44: 101 (Belonogaster; types not found; “I have not been able to identify this species with any certainty, though it is probably distinct”) [error: type locality Guinea-Bissau]. DISTRIBUTION: Equatorial Guinea; Cameroon; ?Zaire. tipuliformis Hensen and Blommers Belonogaster tipuliformis Hensen and Blommers, 1987, Tijdschr. Entomol. 130: 12 (key), 28, fig. 32, female -- “Madagascar; (Tamat.); Périnet; 950 m; 48°16E, 18°56S” (holotype Leiden); also from two other localities in Madagascar. -- Kojima and van Achterberg, 1997, Zool. Meded., Leiden 71: 162 (holotype depository). DISTRIBUTION: Madagascar. trandraka Hensen and Blommers Belonogaster trandraka Hensen and Blommers, 1987, Tijdschr. Entomol. 130: 12 (key), 30, figs. 33, 34, female -- “Madagascar Est: Ambodivoangy” (Tervuren). DISTRIBUTION: Madagascar. turbulenta Kohl Belonogaster turbulentus Kohl, 1894 (1893), Ann. Naturhist. Hofmus. Wien 9: 323 (key), 330, 337, pl. 15 fig. 87, pl. 16 fig. 101, pl. 17 fig. 147, female -- “Westafrika: Sierra Leone” (Wien). -- Dalla Torre, 1894, Cat. Hym. 9: 116 (turbulenta; cat.); 1904, Genera Insectorum 19: 80 (turbulenta; cat.). -- Tullgren, 1904, Ark. Zool. 1: 454 (Belenogaster [!]). -- du Buysson, 1909, Ann. Soc. Entomol. France 78 (2): 215, 216, 240, 264, pl. 2 fig. 13. -- von Schulthess, 1913, Mitt. Zool. Mus. Berlin 6 (3): 338; 1914, Dtsch. Entomol. Z. 1914: 290 (compared to B. rothkirchi n. sp.) -- Bequaert, 1918, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. 39: 235 (key), 236, 337 (cat.; distr.). -- Schouteden, 1919, Rev. Zool. Afr. 6: 185 (distr.). -- von Schulthess, 1928, Senckenbergiana 10 (3/4): 96 (distr.). -- Salt and Bequaert, 1929, Psyche 36: 263 (record of stylopized specimen). -- Bequaert, 1938, Explor. Parcs Nation. Congo Belge Miss. G. F. de Witte (1933--1935) 11: 8, 9, 10 (distr.). -- Richards, 1982, Bull. Br. Mus. (Nat. Hist.) Entomol. 44: 36 (key), 74, fig. 42 (turbulenta; distr.). DISTRIBUTION: Sierra Leone; Congo; Zaire. turgida Kohl Belonogaster turgidus Kohl, 1894 (1893), Ann. Naturhist. Hofmus. Wien 9: 322 (key), 333, 337, pl. 15 fig. 74, pl. 16 fig. 114, female -- “Fernando Po” (Wien). -- Dalla Torre, 1894, Cat. Hym. 9: 116 (turgida; cat.); 1904, Genera Insectorum 19: 80 (turgida; cat.). -- du Buysson, 1909, Ann. Soc. Entomol. France 78 (2): 260. -- Bequaert, 1918, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. 39: 337 (cat.). -- Richards, 1982, Bull. Br. Mus. (Nat. Hist.) Entomol. 44: 34 (key), 60, fig. 17 (turgida). DISTRIBUTION: Bioko. ugandae Richards Belonogaster ugandae Richards, 1982, Bull. Br. Mus. (Nat. Hist.) Entomol. 44: 42 (key), 54, fig. 12, male -- “Uganda: eastern Mbale district, S. of Mt Elgon, 3700--3900 ft [1130--1190m]” (London). DISTRIBUTION: Uganda. vadoni Hensen and Blommers Belonogaster vadoni Hensen and Blommers, 1987, Tijdschr. Entomol. 130: 14 (key), 30, female -- “N. E. Madagascar, Fampanambo” (Tervuren). DISTRIBUTION: Madagascar. vasseae du Buysson Belonogaster vasseae du Buysson, 1906, Bull. Soc. Entomol. France 1906: 189, female -- “bassin inférieur du Zambèze, de la vallée de la Muza, à une altitude de 1.000 à 1.200 mètres” (lectotype Paris); 1909, Ann. Soc. Entomol. France 78 (2): 213, 219, 263, pl. 2 fig. 8 (ethology). -- von Schulthess, 1912, Soc. Entomol. 27: 42; 1913, Mitt. Zool. Mus. Berlin 6 (3): 337. -- du Buysson, 1914, in Voy. Alluaud et Jeannel, Afr. Or., Rés. Sci., Ins. Hym. 3, Vesp.: 160 (male). -- Bequaert, 1918, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. 39: 234, 337 (cat.). -- Schouteden, 1919, Rev. Zool. Afr. 6: 184 (distr.). -- Bequaert, 1938, Explor. Parcs Nation. Congo Belge Miss. G. F. de Witte (1933--1935) 11: 9 (distr.). -- Benoit, 1956, Ann. Mus. R. Congo Belge 8 (Sci. Zool.) 51: 552 (distr.). -- Giordani Soika, 1977, Steenstrupia 4: 127 (distr.). -- Richards, 1982, Bull. Br. Mus. (Nat. Hist.) Entomol. 44: 35, 41 (key), 56, fig. 13 (designation of lectotype; distr.). DISTRIBUTION: Cameroon; Congo; Zaire; Uganda; Rwanda; Kenya; Tanzania; Angola; Zambia; Malawi; Zimbabwe; Mozambique.
  8. Genus Polybioides du Buysson Polybioides du Buysson, 1913, Bull. Soc. Entomol. France 1913: 299, genus (3 species). Type species: “Polybioides tabidus (F.)” [= Vespa tabida Fabricius, 1781], by subsequent designation of Ducke, 1914, Zool. Jahrb. Syst. 36: 330. Lit.: Bequaert, 1918, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. 39: 239--240 (key to African species). -- van der Vecht, 1966, Zool. Verh., Leiden 82: 5--21 (revision of Oriental species). Species list angustus van der Vecht Polybioides angustus van der Vecht, 1966, Zool. Verh., Leiden 82: 13 (key), 20, female -- “Palawan: ... S. slope of Mt. Balabag, Mantalingajan Range, 2800 ft.” (Chicago). DISTRIBUTION: Palawan. gracilis van der Vecht Polybia sumatrensis de Saussure; Bingham, 1897, Fauna Br. India, Hym. 1: 383, 385 [partim]. Polybioides gracilis van der Vecht, 1966, Zool. Verh., Leiden 82: 13 (key), 19, female -- “Tenasserim: ... Ataran Valley” (London); also from other localities in Tenasserim; and Vietnam. -- Das and Gupta, 1984 (1983), Orient. Insects 17: 432 (cat.); 1989, Orient. Insects Monogr. 11: 185, fig. 31, map 30 (female; distr.). DISTRIBUTION: Myanmar; Malay Peninsula; Vietnam. melainus (Meade-Waldo) Polybia melaina Meade-Waldo, 1911, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (8) 7: 110, female, male (in subgenus Parapolybia) -- “Between Salt Lake and Wawamba, near Mount Ruwenzori, Uganda” (lectotype female London). -- von Schulthess, 1912, Wiss. Ergebn. Dtsch. Z. Afrik. Exp., (1907--08), 4, Lf. 10: 292 (distr.). -- Bequaert, 1928, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (10) 2: 173 (designation of lectotype). Polybia tabida var. melaina; von Schulthess, 1913, Mitt. Zool. Mus. Berlin 6 (3): 341 (distr.). Parapolybia tabida var. melaina; von Schulthess, 1913, Mitt. Schweiz. Entomol. Ges. 12(4): 163 (female; distr.). Polybioides tabida var. melaina; du Buysson, 1914, in Voy. Alluaud et Jeannel, Afr. Or., Rés. Sc., Ins. Hym., 3, Vesp.: 164. Polybioides melaina; Bequaert, 1918, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. 39: 240, 337, fig. 239 (key; cat.; ethology; distr.). -- Schouteden, 1919, Rev. Zool. Afr. 6: 186 (melaenaina [!]; distr.). -- Bequaert, 1922, Rev. Zool. Afr. 10: 316 (ethology; distr.). -- von Schulthess, 1928, Senckenbergiana 10 (3/4): 96 (distr.). -- Bequaert, 1928, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (10) 2: 173; 1938, Explor. Parcs Nation. Congo Belge Miss. G. F. de Witte (1933--1935) 11: 9, 10 (distr.). -- Berland and Grassé, 1951, in Grassé, Traité Zool. 10 (2): 1163, fig. 1023E (nest). -- Bergmans and Brosnens, 1953, Cerc. Zool. Congol. 21 (1): 12--14 (ethology). -- Walrecht, 1963, Biol. Jaarb. Dodonaea 31: 244 (nest). -- van der Vecht, 1966, Zool. Verh., Leiden 82: 6, 7 (melainus; taxonomy; ethology). -- Iwata, 1976, Evol. Instinct: 301, 305 (melanius [!]; ethology). -- Wenzel, 1991, in Ross and Matthews, Soc. Biol. Wasps: 493, fig. 14.31, 512 (melainus; nest). DISTRIBUTION: Zaire; Uganda. psecas du Buysson Polybioides psecas du Buysson, 1913, Bull. Soc. Entomol. France 1913: 299, female -- “Espèces indo-malaises” (Paris). -- von Schulthess, 1927, Suppl. Entomol., Berlin 16: 84 (distr.). -- van der Vecht, 1966, Zool. Verh., Leiden 82: 12 (key), 17, figs. 2, 5, 7 (male; syn.: Polybia pendleburyi Dover; distr.). -- Kojima and Yamane, 1990, in Sakagami et al., Nat. Hist. Soc. Wasps Bees Eq. Sumatra: 37 (distr.). -- Kojima and van Achterberg, 1997, Nat. Hist. Bull. Ibaraki Univ. 1: 4 (distr.: Sabah). Polybia pendleburyi Dover, 1927, Proc. R. Entomol. Soc. London 1: 40, female -- “Bukit Kutu, Selangor, 3500 ft.” (London). -- Dover, 1931, J. Fed. Malay. St. Mus. 16: 259 (distr.). -- van der Vecht, 1966, Zool. Verh., Leiden 82: 17 (syn. of psecas). DISTRIBUTION: Thailand; Malay Peninsula; Borneo; Sumatra; Nias. raphigastra (de Saussure) Polybia raphigastra de Saussure, 1854, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2: 204, female (in division My) -- “L’Amérique? Etiqueté par erreur de Pulo-Pinang (Asie)” [the original label was presumably correct] (lectotype Torino). -- Dalla Torre, 1894, Cat. Hym. 9: 165 (cat.); Genera Insectorum 19: 78 (rhaphigastra [!]; “Amerika”; cat.). -- Ducke, 1910, Ann. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 541 (not Polybia). -- Schulz, 1911, Zool. Ann. Würzburg 4: 201 (syn.: lcaria sulciscutis Cameron). -- von Schulthess, 1914, Zool. Jahrb. Syst. 37: 261 (distr.). -- Dover, 1931 (1930), J. Fed. Malay. St. Mus. 16: 259 (rhaphigastra [!]; [incorrectly] said to be “widely distributed all over the Indo-Malayan region”). Polybia sumatrensis de Saussure, 1855, Rev. Mag. Zool. (2) 7: 374, “male” [female] -- “Sumatra” (holotype female London, no. 18.737). -- Smith, 1858, J. Proc. Linn. Soc. Zool. 2: 113 (distr.); 1863 (1864), J. Proc. Linn. Soc. Zool. 7: 139 (distr.); 1871, J. Proc. Linn. Soc. Zool. 11: 384 (cat.). -- Dalla Torre, 1894, Cat. Hym. 9: 166 (cat.). -- Bingham, 1897, Fauna Br. India, Hym. 1: 385 (female; distr.) [partim]. -- Dalla Torre, 1904, Genera Insectorum 19: 78 (cat.). -- Bingham, 1905, Fasc. Malay. 3: 49 (distr.). -- Meade-Waldo, 1911, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (8) 7: 108 (in subgenus Parapolybia; syn.: Icaria sulciscutis Cameron, 1901, Icaria rubriscutis Cameron MS). -- Dover, 1927, Proc. Entomol. Soc. London 1: 40; 1929, Bull. Raffles Mus. 2: 46 (distr.). Icaria leptogaster Cameron, 1901, Proc. Zool. Soc. London 1901 (2): 29, female -- “Patalung, Malay Peninsula” (Cambridge, U. K.). -- Dalla Torre, 1904, Genera Insectorum 19: 74 (cat.; error: “Malayische Inseln”). -- von Schulthess, 1913, Mitt. Schweiz. Ent Ges. 12: 164 (perhaps identical with Parapolybia sulciscutis = rhaphigastra). Icaria sulciscutis Cameron, 1901, Proc. Zool. Soc. London 1901 (2): 30, female -- “Bukit Tomah, Singapor” [Bukit Timah] (holotype female London, no. 18.729). -- Dalla Torre, 1904, Gen. Ins 19: 74 (cat.). -- Meade-Waldo, 1911, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (8) 7: 108 (syn. of sumatrensis). -- Schulz, 1911, Zool. Ann. Wurzburg 4: 201 (syn. of raphigastra). Polybia sulciscutis; Schulz, 1907, Berlin. Entomol. Z. 51: 328--331, fig. 4 (male; distr.). “Icaria rubriscutis Cameron MS” Meade-Waldo, 1911, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (8) 7: 108 (syn. of Polybia sumatrensis de Saussure). Unavailable under Article 11(e) of the Code. Parapolybia rhaphigastra [!]; von Schulthess, 1913, Mitt. Schweiz. Entomol. Ges. 12: 153 (key), 156, pl. 11 fig. 4, pl. 11B fig. 10 (syn.: Polybia sumatrensis de Saussure, Icaria sulciscutis Cameron, I. rubriscutis Cameron MS; distr.). Polybioides sumatrensis; du Buysson, 1913, Bull. Soc. Entomol. France 1913: 299 (key). Polybioides raphigastra; von Schulthess, 1927, Suppl. Entomol., Berlin 16: 84 (rhaphigastra [!]; distr.). -- Pagden, 1958, Malay. Nat. J. 12: 113 (ethology). -- van der Vecht, 1966, Zool. Verh., Leiden 82: 9, 12 (key), 13 (designation of lectotype inadvertently referring the specimen in the Spinola collection as "holotype"), figs. 1, 4, 6, pls. 1--2 (syn.: Polybia sumatrensis de Saussure, Icaria leptogaster Cameron, Icaria sulciscutis Cameron; male; ethology; distr.); 1968, Proc. K. Ned. Akad. Wet. Ser. C Biol. Med. Sci. 71: 417, fig. 3b (morphology). -- Iwata, 1976, Evol. Instinct: 302, 304 (ethology). -- Das and Gupta, 1984 (1983), Orient. Insects 17: 432 (cat.). -- Kojima and Yamane, 1990, inSakagami et al., Nat. Hist. Soc. Wasps Bees Eq. Sumatra: 37 (distr.). -- Spradbery, 1991, in Ross and Matthews, Soc. Biol. Wasps: 358 (colony population). -- Wenzel, 1991, in Ross and Matthews, Soc. Biol. Wasps: 498, 501, fig. 14.30, 512 (ethology). -- Turillazzi and Francescato, 1994, Rend. Fis. Accad. Lincei (9) 5 (4): 367 (ethology). -- Kojima and van Achterberg, 1997, Nat. Hist. Bull. Ibaraki Univ. 1: 4 (distr.: Sabah). — Kojima, 2001a, Nat. Hist. Bull. Ibaraki Univ. (5): 20 (notes on type status). DISTRIBUTION: Malay Peninsula; Borneo; Sumatra; Nias; Natuna I. tabidus (Fabricius) Vespa tabida Fabricius, 1781, Spec. Insect. 1: 468 -- “Africa aequinoctiali” (holotype female London); 1787, Mant. Ins., 1: 293. -- Gmelin, 1790, Syst. Nat. ed. 13, 1 (5): 2754. -- Olivier, 1792, Encycl. Méthod. Ins. 6: 673. -- Fabricius, 1793, Entomol. Syst.: 281. -- de Saussure, 1853, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2: 42 (species dubiae; ? Icaria). Polybia tabida; de Saussure, 1854, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2: 209, pl. 24 fig. 4 (female). -- Smith, 1857, Cat. Hym. Br. Mus. 5: 133 (cat.). -- Kohl, 1894, Ann. Naturhist. Hofmus. Wien, 9: 343. -- Dalla Torre, 1894, Cat. Hym. 9: 166 (cat.); 1904, Genera Insectorum 19: 78 (cat.). -- Tullgren, 1904, Ark. Zool. 1: 456 (distr.). -- Schulz, 1906, Spolia Hym.: 323; 1912, Berlin. Entomol. Z. 57: 85. -- von Schulthess, 1913, Mitt. Zool. Mus. Berlin 6(3): 341 (syn.: Polybia bucula du Buysson; distr.); 1914, Dtsch. Entomol. Z. 1914: 290. Polybia bucula du Buysson, 1902, Bull. Soc. Entomol. France 1902: 253, female -- “Assinie ...; Congo français: rivière de San Benito ...; entre Sam Quito et N’jole; N’Kogo, Ogooué ...; Cameroun” (London). -- von Schulthess, 1913, Mitt. Zool. Mus. Berlin 6(3): 341 (syn. of Polybia tabida de Saussure). -- Richards, 1969, Mem. Soc. Entomol. Ital. 48: 83--84 (?distinct species). Parapolybia tabida; von Schulthess, 1913, Mitt. Schweiz. Entomol. Ges. 12 (4): 152 (key), 162, pl. 11 fig. 6; pl. 11B fig. 11 (syn.: Polybia bucula du Buysson; distr.). Polybioides tabida; du Buysson, 1913, Bull. Soc. Entomol. France 1913: 299; 1914, in Voy. Alluaud et Jeannel, Afr. Or., Rés. Sc., Ins. Hym., 3, Vesp.: 163 (distr.). -- Bequaert, 1918, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. 39: 239 (key), 338, fig. 238 (ethology; cat.; distr.). -- Bouvier, 1919, Bull. Soc. Entomol. France 1918: 278 (ethology). -- Schouteden, 1919, Rev. Zool. Afr. 6: 186 (distr.). -- Bequaert, 1922, Rev. Zool. Afr. 10: 310, 315 (ethology; distr.). -- Bischoff, 1927, Biol. Hym.: 271 (nest). -- von Schulthess, 1928, Senckenbergiana 10 (3/4): 96 (distr.). -- Berland and Grassé, 1951, in Grassé, Traité Zool. 10 (2): 1163 (nest). -- van der Vecht, 1966, Zool. Verh., Leiden 82: 6, 7 (tabidus; taxonomy; ethology); 1968, Proc. K. Ned. Akad. Wet. Ser. C Biol. Med. Sci. 71: 417, fig. 3a (tabidus; morphology). -- Richards, 1969, Mem. Soc. Entomol. Ital. 48: 83--87 (tabidus; ethology). -- Darchen, 1976, C. R. Séances Acad. Sci. (D) 282: 457 (tabidus; ethology). -- Iwata, 1976, Evol. Instinct: 305 (tabidus; ethology). -- Giordani Soika, 1977, Steenstrupia 4: 128 (tabidus; distr.). -- Jeanne et al., 1983, Zoomorphologie 103: 155 (tabidus; morphology). -- Spradbery, 1991, in Ross and Matthews, Soc. Biol. Wasps: 358 (tabidus; colony population). -- Wenzel, 1991, in Ross and Matthews, Soc. Biol. Wasps: 493, fig. 14.31, 497, 498, 512 (tabidus; nest). -- Dejean and Turillazzi, 1992, Trop. Zool. 5: 237 (trophobiosis with homopterans). -- Francescato et al., 1993, Actes Coll. Insectes Soc. 8: 121 (swarming behavior). -- Itô, 1993, Behav. Soc. Evol. Wasps: 89 (ethology). -- Dejean et al., 1994, J. Afr. Zool. 108 (3): 251 (tabidus; ethology). -- Turillazzi et al., 1994, Insectes Soc. 41: 327 (tabidus; caste polymorphism). -- Francescato et al., 1994, Ethol. Ecol. Evol. 6: 422 (swarming behavior). -- Dejean and Fotso, 1995, Ethol. Ecol. Evol. 7: 11 (tabidus; nesting associations). DISTRIBUTION: Liberia; Côte d’Ivoire; Ghana; Nigeria; Cameroon; Equatorial Guinea; Gabon; Congo; Zaire; Uganda; Kenya. tabidus var. isabellinus (von Schulthess) Polybia tabida var. isabellina von Schulthess, 1913 (March), Mitt. Zool. Mus. Berlin 6(3): 341, female -- “Port, West-afrika” (Berlin, Zürich). Parapolybia tabida var. isabellina von Schulthess, 1913 (April), Mitt. Schweiz. Entomol. Ges. 12(4): 163 (as “nov. var.”; female; distr.). Polybioides tabida var. isabellina; Bequaert, 1918, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. 39: 338 (cat.); 1922, Rev. Zool. Afr. 10: 316 (distr.). -- von Schulthess, 1928, Senckenbergiana 10 (3/4): 96 (distr.). DISTRIBUTION: Ghana; Cameroon; Equatorial Guinea; Zaire.
  9. Genus Parapolybia de Saussure Parapolybia de Saussure, 1854, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2: 207, division of subgenus Polybia of genus Polybia Lepeletier (3 species). Type species: Polybia indica de Saussure, 1854, by subsequent designation of Bingham, 1897, Fauna Br. India, Hym. 1: 382. Lit.: von Schulthess, 1913, Mitt. Schweiz. Entomol. Ges. 12: 152 (raised to generic rank). -- van der Vecht, 1966, Zool. Verh., Leiden 82: 5, 21--40 (revision of East Asian and Indo-Australian species). -- Gadagkar, 1991, in Ross and Matthews, Soc. Biol. Wasps: 149--190 (ethology). Species list escalerae (Meade-Waldo) Polybia escalerae Meade-Waldo, 1911, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (8) 7: 109, female (in subgenus Parapolybia) -- "Dupulán Baktiari, S. W. Persia" (London). Parapolybia escalerae; von Schulthess, 1913, Mitt. Schweiz. Entomol. Ges. 12: 153 (key), 159. -- van der Vecht, 1966, Zool. Verh., Leiden 82: 21 (distr.). -- Gusenleitner, 1988, Linz. Biol. Beitr. 20: 714 (distr.). DISTRIBUTION: Turkey; Iran; Pakistan. indica bioculata van der Vecht Polybia indica (de Saussure); Bingham, 1897, Fauna Br. India, Hym. 1: 383, 384, fig. 115 (female). Parapolybia indica bioculata van der Vecht, 1966, Zool. Verh., Leiden 82: 26 (key), 29, fig. 11c, female -- "Birma: Tenasserim ... Haundraw Valley" (London). -- Lee, 1982, Hornets from Agric. Regions China: 98 (key), 102, pl. 1 fig. 1 (female); 1982, Zool. Res. 3: 85 (distr.). -- Das and Gupta, 1984 (1983), Orient. Insects17: 429 (cat.). Lee, 1985, Econ. Insect Fauna China, 30 Hym.: Vespoidea: 55 (key; female), pl. 1 fig. 1; 1987, in Forest Insects Yunnan: 1350 (key). -- Das and Gupta, 1989, Orient. Insects Monogr. 11: 179, map 27 (distr.). DISTRIBUTION: Myanmar; South China. indica fulvinerva (Cameron) Icaria fulvinerva Cameron, 1900, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (7) 6: 504, female -- “Khasia Hills” [India] (lectotype Oxford). -- Dalla Torre, 1904, Genera Insectorum 19: 73 (cat.). -- Aiyar, 1916, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 24: 714 (cat.). -- van der Vecht, 1966, Zool. Verh., Leiden 82: 30 (designation of lectotype). Parapolybia indica var. (or subsp.) fulvinerva; van der Vecht, 1966, Zool. Verh., Leiden 82: 26 (key), 30. Parapolybia indica fulvinerva; Das and Gupta, 1984 (1983), Orient. Insects17: 429 (cat.); 1989, Orient. Insects Monogr. 11: 179, map 27 (distr.). DISTRIBUTION: India (Assam). indica indica (de Saussure) Polybia indica de Saussure, 1854, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2: 207, pl. 26 fig. 3, female (in division Parapolybia) -- “La Chine” (Paris). -- Smith, 1857, Cat. Hym. Br. Mus. 5: 133 (cat.). -- Dalla Torre, 1894, Cat. Hym. 9: 164 (cat.). -- Bingham, 1897, Fauna Br. India, Hym. 1: 383 (key), 384 (distr.) [partim]. -- Dalla Torre, 1904, Genera Insectorum 19: 77 (cat.). -- Dover, 1926, China J. Sci. Arts. 4: 234 (distr.). -- Dover, 1929, Bull. Raffles Mus. 2: 46 (distr.). -- van der Vecht, 1966, Zool. Verh., Leiden 82: 27 (material reported by Bingham partly subspecies bioculata, and perhaps partly P. varia (Fabricius)). Stelopolybia indica; du Buysson, 1913, Bull. Soc. Entomol. France 1913: 298. Parapolybia indica; von Schulthess, 1913, Mitt. Schweiz. Entomol. Ges. 12: 153 (key), 154, pl. 11 fig. 1, pl. 11B fig. 7 (distr.). -- Liu, 1936--37, Peking Nat. Hist. Bull. 11 (3): 205, 340 (cat.; distr.). -- Sonan, 1944, Trans. Nat. Hist. Soc. Taiwan 34: 342 (key; distr.). -- Berland and Grassé, 1951, in Grassé, Traité Zool. 10 (2): 1151. -- Iwata, 1969, Kontyû 37: 439 (nest). -- Matsuura, 1975, Shokubutsu-boeki, 29: 294, 295 (nest); 1976, Nankiseibutsu 18: 5. -- Sekijima et al., 1980, Bull. Fac. Agric. Mie Univ. 61: 11 (ethology). -- Jeanne et al., 1983, Zoomorphologie 103: 155, fig. 17 (morphology). -- Kojima, 1983, Kontyû 41: 17--19 (ethology). -- Sugiura et al., 1983, Bull. Fac. Agric. Mie Univ. 66: 11 (ethology); 1983, Bull. Fac. Agric. Mie Univ. 66: 27 (ethology). -- Yamane and Maeta, 1985, Kontyû 53: 576. -- Spradbery, 1991, in Ross and Matthews, Soc. Biol. Wasps: 356 (colony population). -- Jeanne, 1991, in Ross and Matthews, Soc. Biol. Wasps: 394 (ethology). -- Ross and Carpenter, 1991, in Ross and Matthews, Soc. Biol. Wasps: 458 (biology). -- Starr, 1992, Bull. Natl. Hist. Mus. Nat. Sci., Taichung 3: 132 (presence in Taiwan requires confirmation). -- Kojima, 1992, Insectes Soc. 39: 275 (ethology); 1992, Ethol. Ecol. Evol. 4: 183 (ethology). -- Itô, 1993, Behav. Soc. Evol. Wasps: 7, 20, 133 (ethology). -- Yamane et al., 1995, Proc. Japan. Soc. Syst. Zool. 54: 75 (syn.: P. takasogona), 77 (key). -- Yamane and Wang, 1996, Guide Book to Insects in Taiwan (16): 103 (key), 117, 118. Parapolybia takasagona Sonan, 1944, Trans. Nat. Hist. Soc. Taiwan 34: 342 (key), 344, female, male -- “Taipei, Tamaru, Rato” [in Chinese characters] [Taiwan] (holotype female Wufeng). -- Kuo and Yeh, 1987, J. Natl. Chiayi Inst. Agric. 16: 82 (fig.). -- Starr, 1992, Bull. Natl. Hist. Mus. Nat. Sci., Taichung 3: 112, figs. 28b, 30 (syn.: nodosa van der Vecht; distr.; ethology). -- Yamane et al., 1995, Proc. Japan. Soc. Syst. Zool. 54: 75 (redescription of the type; syn. of Parapolybia indica). Parapolybia indica indica; van der Vecht, 1966, Zool. Verh., Leiden 82: 26(key), 27, fig. 11a-b (distr.). -- Iwata, 1969, Kontyû 37: 437--443 (nest). -- Giordani Soika, 1976, Ann. Hist. -Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 68: 287 (distr.). -- Iwata, 1976, Evol. Instinct: 301, 303, 305--306 (ethology). -- Lee, 1981, Wuyi Sci. J. 1: 198 (distr.); 1982, Nat. Enemies Ins. 4: 55 (distr.); 1982, Hornets from Agric. Regions China: 98 (key; female, male), pl. 1 fig. 10; 1982, Zool. Res. 3: 85. -- Das and Gupta, 1984 (1983), Orient. Insects17: 429 (cat.). -- Lee, 1985, Econ. Insect Fauna China, 30 Hym.: Vespoidea: 55 (key), 56, pl. 1 fig. 10 (female, male); 1987, in Forest Insects Yunnan; 1349 (key). -- Das and Gupta, 1989, Orient. Insects Monogr. 11: 177 (key), 178, map 27 (distr.). -- Lee and Ma, 1992, in Icono. Forest Insects Hunan China: 1325 (distr.). DISTRIBUTION: India; Myanmar; Borneo; China; Taiwan; Korea; Japan. indica tinctipennis (Cameron) Icaria tinctipennis Cameron, 1900, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (7) 6: 503, female -- “Khasia Hills” [India] (Oxford). -- Dalla Torre, 1904, Genera Insectorum 19: 74 (cat.). -- Aiyar, 1916, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 24: 714 (cat.). Parapolybia indica tinctipennis; van der Vecht, 1966, Zool. Verh., Leiden 82: 26 (key), 29. -- Das and Gupta, 1984 (1983), Orient. Insects17: 429 (cat.); 1989, Orient. Insects Monogr. 11: 179, fig. 30a, map 27 (distr.). DISTRIBUTION: India (Assam). nodosa van der Vecht Parapolybia nodosa van der Vecht, 1966, Zool. Verh., Leiden 82: 25 (key), 39, female -- “Formosa: ... Pilam” (Leiden); also from 4 other localities in Taiwan; Myanmar (Tenasserim); China (Fukien); India (Umbaso); Thailand. -- Tano, 1976, Hym. Comm. (3): 8, 10 (key; distr.). -- Yamane and Yamane, 1979, Insecta Matsumurana n. ser. 15: 4 (key), 15, 32 (male; fig.; distr.). -- Das and Gupta, 1984 (1983), Orient. Insects 17: 432 (cat.). -- Yamane, 1984, Zool. Jahrb. Syst. 111: 119 (ethology). -- Das and Gupta, 1989, Orient. Insects Monogr. 11: 177 (key), 183, map 29 (female, male; distr.). -- Wenzel, 1991, in Ross and Matthews, Soc. Biol. Wasps: 488 (nest). -- Starr, 1992, Bull. Natl. Hist. Mus. Nat. Sci., Taichung 3: 113 (syn. of takasagona). -- Yamane et al., 1995, Proc. Japan. Soc. Syst. Zool. 54: 75 (taxonomy), 77 (key). -- Yamane and Wang, 1996, Guide Book to Insects in Taiwan (16). -- Tano, 1996, Fuikui Chuho (19): 6 (ref.; distr.: Taiwan); 103 (key), 119-121. -- Kojima and van Achterberg, 1997, Zool. Meded., Leiden 71: 161 (holotype depository) DISTRIBUTION: India; Nepal; Myanmar; Thailand; China; Taiwan. persica (Meade-Waldo) Polybia persica Meade-Waldo, 1911, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (8) 7: 108, female (in subgenus Parapolybia) -- “Kuh Sefid, S. W. Persia” (London). Parapolybia persica; von Schulthess, 1913, Mitt. Schweiz. Entomol. Ges. 12: 153 (key), 160. -- van der Vecht, 1966, Zool. Verh., Leiden 82: 21. DISTRIBUTION: Iran. varia furva van der Vecht Parapolybia varia subsp. (or var.?) furva van der Vecht, 1966, Zool. Verh., Leiden 82: 39, female, male -- “New Guinea: West New Guinea, Vogelkop ... Kebar Val., West of Manokwari, 550 m” (holotype female Honolulu). DISTRIBUTION: N. W. New Guinea. varia varia (Fabricius) Vespa varia Fabricius, 1787, Mant. Insectorum 1: 293 -- “China” (Kobenhavn). -- Gmelin, 1790, Syst. Nat., Ed. 13, 1 (5): 2754. -- Olivier, 1792, Encycl. Méth. Insectes 6: 674. -- Fabricius, 1793, Entomol. Syst. 2: 282. Polistes varia; Fabricius, 1804, Syst. Piez.: 279. -- de Saussure, 1852, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 1: 265 (unidentified species, “Eumenes ?”). -- Dalla Torre, 1894, Cat. Hym. 9: 135 (varius; unidentified); 1904, Genera Insectorum 19: 72 (varius; unidentified). Polybia orientalis de Saussure, 1854, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2: 208, pl. 26 fig. 2, female (in subgenus Parapolybia) -- “La Chine” (London, no. 18.738). -- Smith, 1857, Cat. Hym. Br. Mus. 5: 133 (cat.). -- Dalla Torre, 1894, Cat. Hym. 9: 165 (cat.) -- Bingham, 1897, Fauna Br. India, Hym. 1: 383, fig. 116 (key; distr.). -- Dalla Torre, 1904, Genera Insectorum 19: 78 (cat.). -- Meade-Waldo, 1911, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (8) 7: 108 (in subgenus Parapolybia; Icaria fuscipennis as var.). -- Schulz, 1912, Berlin Entomol. Z. 57: 86, 101 (syn. of Polybia varia (Fabricius)). -- Meade-Waldo and Morley, 1914, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (8) 14: 406 (in subgenus Parapolybia; syn.: Icaria wroughtoni Cameron, I. fuscipennis Cameron, I. annulipes Cameron). -- Aiyar, 1916, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 24: 714 (cat.). -- Dover and Rao, 1922, J. Proc. Asiat. Soc. Bengal (n. ser.) 18: 243 (distr.). -- Matsumura and Uchida, 1926, Insecta Matsumurana 1: 35 (Polibia [!]; distr.). -- Dover, 1926, China J. Sci. Arts 4: 234; 1929, Bull. Raffles Mus. 2: 46 (syn.: Icaria singapurensis Cameron; distr.). -- Matsumura, 1930, Thous. Insects Japan. Rev. 2: 10, pl. 2 fig. 8; 1931, 6000 Illust. Insects Japan-Emp.: 15. -- Dover, 1931, J. Fed. Malay St. Mus. 16: 258 (distr.). Polybia artifex Smith, 1860 (1861), J. Proc. Linn. Soc. Zool. 5: 90, female -- “Makassar” [Sulawesi] (Oxford); 1863 (1864), J. Proc. Linn. Soc. Zool. 7: 139 (distr.); 1871, J. Proc. Linn. Soc. Zool. 11: 384 (cat.). -- Dalla Torre, 1894, Cat. Hym. 9: 162 (cat.); 1904, Genera Insectorum 19: 76 (cat.). -- von Schulthess, 1913. Mitt. Schweiz. Entomol. Ges. 12: 164 (var. of Parapolybia orientalis, close to “carinata Smith”). Icaria quadrimaculata Cameron, 1900, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (7) 6: 496, male -- “Bengal, probably Barrackpore” (Oxford). -- Rothney, 1903, Trans. R. Entomol. Soc. London 1903: 107. -- Dalla Torre, 1904, Genera Insectorum 19: 74 (cat.). -- Aiyar, 1916, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 24: 714 (cat.). -- van der Vecht, 1966, Zool. Verh., Leiden 82: 30 (syn. of P. varia (Fab.)). Icaria carinata Cameron, 1900, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (7) 6: 499, male -- “Khasia Hills” [India] (Oxford). Junior primary homonym of Icaria carinata de Saussure, 1890. -- Aiyar, 1916, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 24: 714 (cat.). Icaria wroughtoni Cameron, 1900, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (7) 6: 500 -- “Poona” (holotype female London, no. 18.730). -- Dalla Torre, 1904, Genera Insectorum 19: 75 (cat.). -- Meade-Waldo and Morley, 1914, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (8) 14: 406 (syn. of Polybia orientalis de Saussure). -- Aiyar, 1916, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 24: 714 (cat.). Icaria fuscipennis Cameron, 1900, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (7) 6: 501, female -- “Khasia Hills” [India] (Oxford). -- Dalla Torre, 1904, Genera Insectorum 19: 73 (cat.). -- Meade-Waldo, 1911, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (8) 7: 108 (var. of Polybiaorientalis de Saussure). -- Meade-Waldo and Morley, 1914, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (8) 14: 406 (syn. of Polybia orientalis de Saussure). -- Aiyar, 1916, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 24: 714 (cat.). Icaria cameroni Dalla Torre, 1904, Genera Insectorum 19: 73, replacement name for Icaria carinata Cameron, 1900, non de Saussure, 1890. Icaria singapurensis Cameron, 1904, J. Straits Br. R. Asiat. Soc. 41: 120, female -- “Singapore” (Singapore). -- Dover, 1929, Bull. Raffles Mus. 2: 46 (syn. of Polybia orientalis de Saussure). -- Liu, 1936--37, Peking Nat. Hist. Bull. 2: 347. Icaria carinifera Schulz, 1906, Berlin. Entomol. Z. 51: 328, replacement name for Icaria carinata Cameron, 1900, non de Saussure, 1890. Polybia varia; Schulz, 1912, Berlin. Entomol. Z. 57: 86, 101 (syn.: Polybia orientalis de Saussure). Icaria annulipes Cameron, 1913, Ind. For. Rec. 4: 115, female, male -- “Dehra Dun” [India: Uttar Pradesh] (London, no. 18.732a & b). -- Meade-Waldo and Morley, 1914, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (8) 14: 406 (syn. of Polybia orientalis de Saussure). -- Aiyar, 1916, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 24: 714 (cat.). Stelopolybia disticha du Buysson, 1913, Bull. Soc. Entomol. France 1913: 298, female -- “Chine: Kiang-si ...; Chang-Hai” (Paris). -- van der Vecht, 1966, Zool. Verh., Leiden 82: 31 (syn. of Parapolybia varia (Fabricius)). Stelopolybia orientalis; du Buysson, 1913, Bull. Soc. Entomol. France 1913: 298, 299. Parapolybia orientalis; von Schulthess, 1913, Mitt. Schweiz. Entomol. Ges. 12: 153 (key), 155, pl. 11 fig. 3, 11B fig. 8 (male; distr.); 1927, Suppl. Entomol., Berlin 16: 83 (distr.). -- Ma, 1936, Entomol. Phytopath. 4: 66. -- Yasumatsu, 1937, Fukuoka Hakubutsugaku-Zasshi 2(2): 70 (distr.). Parapolybia orientalis var. “carinata Smith i. litt.”; von Schulthess, 1913, Mitt. Schweiz. Entomol. Ges. 12: 155, 156, pl. 11B fig. 9. -- van der Vecht, 1966, Zool. Verh., Leiden 82: 31 (“evidently von Schulthess misread the label on a specimen of Icaria carinata Cameron”). Parapolybia disticha; von Schulthess, 1927, Suppl. Entomol., Berlin 16: 83 (distr.). -- Liu, 1936--37, Peking Nat. Hist. Bull. 11: 205, 337 (cat.). -- Sonan, 1944, Trans. Nat. Hist. Soc. Taiwan 34: 342 (key; distr.). -- Kim, 1970, Illust. Encycl. Fauna Flora Korea 11, Insecta 3: 803 (distr.). Parapolybia varia; Liu, 1936--37, Peking Nat. Hist. Bull. 11 (3): 205, 348 (cat.; distr.). -- Sonan, 1944, Trans. Nat. Hist. Soc. Taiwan 34: 342 (key), 343 (distr.). -- Yano, 1952, in Icono. Ins. Japan. 2nd ed.: 1458. -- Ishikawa, 1965, in Icono. Insects Japan. Color Nat. Ed. 3: 292. -- van der Vecht, 1966, Zool. Verh., Leiden 82: 25 (key), 30, figs. 8--12, pl. 3 (syn.: Polybia orientalis de Saussure, P. artifex Smith, Icaria quadrimaculata Cameron, I. carinata Cameron, I. wroughtoni Cameron, I. fuscipennis Cameron, I. singapurensis Cameron, I. annulipes Cameron, Stelopolybia disticha du Buysson; distr.: “occurrence in the Moluccas requires confirmation”); 1968, Proc. K. Ned. Akad. Wet. Ser. C Biol. Med. Sci. 71: 418, fig. 3i (morphology). -- Iwata, 1969, Kontyû 37: 441 (nest). -- Kim, 1970, Illust. Encycl. Fauna Flora Korea 11, Ins. 3: 544, 802, pl. 50 fig. 618 (syn.: Polybia orientalis de Saussure, Polistes varius “Dalla Torre” [!], Icaria singapurensis Cameron). -- Matsuura, 1975, Shokubutsu-boeki 29: 294; 1976, Nankiseibutsu 18: 5. -- Iwata, 1976, Evol. Instinct: 303, 305--306 (ethology). -- Tano, 1976, Hym. Comm. (3): 8, 10 (key; distr.; nest). -- Yamane, 1976, Insectarium 13: 206 (ethology). -- van der Vecht, 1979, Entomol. Ber. (Amsterdam) 33: 30 (distr.). -- Yamane and Terayama, 1983, Mem. Kagoshima Univ. Res. Ctr. S. Pacific 3: 169--173 (trigonalyid parasite). -- Jeanne et al., 1983, Zoomorphologie 103: 155, fig. 8 (morphology). -- Matsuura, 1983, Insectarium 20: 17 (prey record). -- Yamane, 1984, Zool. Jahrb. Syst. 111: 119 (nest); 1985, J. Ethol. 3: 27 (ethology). -- Das and Gupta, 1984 (1983), Orient. Insects 17: 430 (cat.). -- Lee, 1987, in Forest Insects Yunnan; 1349 (key). -- Das and Gupta, 1989, Orient. Insects Monogr. 11: 177 (key), 180, map 28 (female, male; fig.; distr.). -- Spradbery, 1991, in Ross and Matthews, Soc. Biol. Wasps: 356, 358, 381 (colony population). -- Jeanne, 1991, in Ross and Matthews, Soc. Biol. Wasps: 394 (ethology). -- Ross and Carpenter, 1991, in Ross and Matthews, Soc. Biol. Wasps: 460 (biology). -- Downing, 1991, in Ross and Matthews, Soc. Biol. Wasps: 549 (morphology). -- Starr, 1992, Bull. Natl. Hist. Mus. Nat. Sci., Taichung 3: 111--112, figs. 26--27, 28a, 29 (distr.; ethology). -- Lee and Ma, 1992, in Icono. Forest Insects Hunan China: 1325 (distr.). -- Itô, 1993, Behav. Soc. Evol. Wasps: 7, 20, 22, 41 (ethology). -- Yamane et al., 1995, Proc. Japan. Soc. Syst. Zool. 54: 77 (key).-- Tano, 1996, Fukui Chuho (19): 6 (ref.; distr.: Taiwan). -- Yamane and Wang, 1996, Guide Book to Insects in Taiwan (16): 103 (key), 112-116. -- Kojima and van Achterberg, 1997, Nat. Hist. Bull. Ibaraki Univ. 1: 4 (distr.: Sumbawa). Parapolybia varia varia; Giordani Soika, 1976, Ann. Hist. -Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 68: 287 (distr.). -- Lee, 1981, Wuyi Sci. J. 1: 198 (distr.); 1982, Hornets from Agric. Regions China: 98 (key), 100, pl. 2 fig. 1 (female, male); 1982, Zool. Res. 3: 85 (distr.); 1985, Econ. Insect Fauna China, 30 Hym.: Vespoidea: 55 (key), 57, pl. 2 fig. 1 (female, male). DISTRIBUTION: India; Nepal; Myanmar; Thailand; Malay Peninsula; Borneo; Sulawesi; Sumbawa; Sumba; Philippine Is.; Riouw-Archipelago (= Kepulauan Riau); China; Korea; Japan.
  10. Genus Ropalidia Ropalidia Guérin-Méneville, 1831, in Duperrey, Voyage de la Coquille, Zoologie, Atlas, Insectes: pl. 9 fig. 8, genus. Type species: Ropalidia maculiventris Guérin-Méneville, 1831, by monotypy. Rhopalidia Guérin-Méneville, 1838, in Duperrey, Voyage de la Coquille, Zoologie 2, 2e partie, 1ère division: 266. Incorrect spelling of Ropalidia Guérin-Méneville. Non Rhopalidia Lepeletier, 1836. Suppressed by Opinion 1051 (ICZN, 1976) Rhopalia Guérin-Méneville, 1838, in Duperrey, Voyage de la Coquille, Zoologie 2: 317 (in explanation of plates). Incorrect spelling of Ropalidia Guérin-Méneville. Anthreneida White, 1841, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (1) 7: 321, as genus. Synonymized under Ropalidia Guérin-Méneville by Kojima (1997: Nat. Hist. Bull. Ibaraki Univ. 1: 102). Type species: Anthreneida coronata White, 1841 [= Vespa sumatrae Weber, 1801], by monotypy. Icaria de Saussure, 1853, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2: 22, pls. 4 and 5, genus (20 species). Type species: “I. maculiventris (Guer.)” [= Ropalidia maculiventris Guérin-Méneville, 1831], by subsequent designation of Bingham, 1897, Fauna Br. India, Hym. 1: 385. Anthreneidea de Saussure, 1854, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2: 235. Incorrect spelling of Anthreneida White. Icharia Gribodo, 1892 (1891), Boll. Soc. Entomol. Ital. 23: 243. Incorrect spelling of Icaria de Saussure. Icariastrum Dalla Torre, 1904, Genera Insectorum 19: 72, name for group I of genus Icaria de Saussure in de Saussure, 1862, Stettin. Entomol. Ztg. 23: 132 (5 species). Synonymized under Anthreneida White by van der Vecht (1962: Zool. Verh. Leiden 57: 5). Type species: Icaria opulenta Smith, 1857, by subsequent designation of Meade-Waldo, 1913, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (8) 11: 46. Icarielia Dalla Torre, 1904, Genera Insectorum 19: 72, name for group II of genus Icaria de Saussure in de Saussure, 1862, Stettin. Entomol. Ztg. 23: 132 (9 species). Synonymized under Ropalidia Guérin-Méneville by Kojima (1997: Nat. Hist. Bull. Ibaraki Univ. 1: 103). Type species: Icaria flavopicta Smith, 1857, by subsequent designation of Meade-Waldo, 1913, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (8) 11: 46. Icariella Dalla Torre, 1904, Genera Insectorum 19, Index: 96. Incorrect spelling of Icarielia Dalla Torre. Icariola Dalla Torre, 1904, Genera Insectorum 19: 72, name for group III of genus Icaria de Saussure in de Saussure, 1862, Stettin. Entomol. Ztg. 23: 133 (11 species). Synonymized under Anthreneida by Das and Gupta (1989: Ori. Ins. Monogr. 11: 108). Type species: Icaria gregaria de Saussure, 1853, by subsequent designation of Meade-Waldo, 1913, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (8) 11: 46. Zuba Cheesman, 1952, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (12) 5: 2, 3 (key), 23, subgenus of Ropalidia (14 species). Unavailable: no type species designated. Zuba Richards, 1978, Aust. J. Zool. Suppl. Ser. 61: 57; validation by type selection of Zuba Cheesman. Type species: Icaria gregaria de Saussure, 1853, by original designation. Paraicaria Gribodo, 1892 (1891), Boll. Soc. Entomol. Ital. 23: 248, as genus. Synonymized under Ropalidia Guérin-Méneville by Kojima (1997: Nat. Hist. Bull. Ibaraki Univ. 1: 103). Type species: Paraicaria bicolor Gribodo, 1892 [= Ropalidia bicolorata van der Vecht, 1962, replacement name], by monotypy. Polistratus Cameron, 1906, in Wichmann, Nova Guinea 5, Zool. 1: 59, as genus. Synonymized under Ropalidia Guérin-Méneville by Kojima (1997: Nat. Hist. Bull. Ibaraki Univ. 1: 103). Type species: Polistratus cariniscutis Cameron, 1906 [= Icaria brunnea Smith, 1858], by monotypy. Major references: van der Vecht, 1941, Treubia 18: 103--190 (revision of Indo-Australian species); 1962, Zool. Verh., Leiden 57: 1--72, 8 pls. (revision of Indo-Australian species). -- Richards, 1978, Aust. J. Zool. Suppl. Ser. 61: 49--131 (subgeneric division, revision of Australian species). -- Gadagkar, 1991, in Ross and Matthews, Soc. Biol. Wasps: 149--190 (ethology of independent-founding species). Species list aethiopica aethiopica (du Buysson) Icaria aethiopica du Buysson, 1907, Rev. Entomol. 25: 110, female, male – “Ethiopie méridionale: Dirouhoria” (Paris). — Kojima, 2001a, Nat. Hist. Bull. Ibaraki Univ. (5): 2 (designation of lectotype). ?Icaria africana Cameron, 1910, Wiss. Ergebn. Schwed. Zool. Exp. Kilimandjaro 2 (8), Vesp.: 170, female – “Kilimandjaro: Kibonoto, 1000–1200 m” (?Stockholm). — Meade-Waldo, 1913, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (8) 11: 53 (syn. of R. distigma (Gerstaecker)). — von Schulthess, 1913, Ark. Zool. 8 (17): 13 (syn. of R. cincta (Lepeletier)). Ropalidia aethiopica; Bequaert, 1918, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. 39: 338 (cat.; distr.; syn.: ?Icaria africana Cameron). — Giordani Soika, 1952 (1951), Riv. Biol. Colon. 11: 88 (distr.); 1957, Br. Mus. (Nat. Hist.) Exp. S. W. Arabia 1937–38, 1 (31): 484 (distr.); 1961, S. Afr. Anim. Life 8: 449 (distr.). — Richards, 1985 (1984), Fauna Saudi Arabia 6: 434, fig. 9 (in subgenus Icariola; distr.). Ropalidia africana; Bequaert, 1918, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. 39: 338 (? syn. of R. aethiopica (du Buysson)). — Kojima, 2001a, Nat. Hist. Bull. Ibaraki Univ. (5): 3. DISTRIBUTION: Saudi Arabia; Yemen; Sudan; Ethiopia; Somalia; Tanzania; South Africa (Northern Cape). aethiopica bimaculata Giordani Soika Ropalidia aethiopica bimaculata Giordani Soika, 1981, Boll. Soc. Entomol. Ital. 113: 172, 175, male, female -- “Tanzania: Dar es Salaam” (holotype female Münche); also from Ethiopia. — Kojima, 2001a, Nat. Hist. Bull. Ibaraki Univ. (5): 3. DISTRIBUTION: Ethiopia; Tanzania. albobalteata Cameron Polistes albobalteatus Cameron, 1906, in Wichmann, Nova Guinea 5, Zool. 1: 61, female – “Manokwari” (unique “Manokwari, [14-28] II [03]” Amsterdam) [also with a label on which are “Polistes albobalteatus Cam. Type, New Guinea” (in Cameron’s handwriting) and “Holotype sec. J. v. d. Vecht ’33” (in van der Vecht’s handwriting)]. — van der Vecht, 1934, Tijdschr. Entomol. 77, Verslag: 8 (syn. of R. festina (Smith)). — Kojima and van Achterberg, 1997, Zool. Meded., Leiden 71: 166 (holotype depository) Polybia papuana Cameron, 1913, Bijdr. Dierkd. 19: 77, female – “Waigeu” (lectotype Amsterdam). — van der Vecht, 1934, Tijdschr. Entomol. 77, Verslag: 8 (syn. of R. festina (Smith)); 1966, Zool. Verh., Leiden 82: 6. — Kojima and Carpenter, 1997, Am. Mus. Novit. 3199: 6 (designation of lectotype). — Kojima and van Achterberg, 1997, Zool. Meded., Leiden 71: 166 (lectotype depository). — Kojima, 2001b, Nat. Hist. Bull. Ibaraki Univ. (5): 36, 53 (syn. of R. albobalteata). Ropalidia papuana; van der Vecht, 1966, Zool. Verh., Leiden 82: 6. Ropalidia albobalteata: Kojima and van Achterberg, 1997, Zool. Meded., Leiden 71: 166 (taxonomy; different from festina). — Kojima, 2001b, Nat. Hist. Bull. Ibaraki Univ. (5): 36, 53 (taxonomy; syn.: Polybia papuana Cameron). DISTRIBUTION: New Guinea. anarchica (de Saussure) Icaria anarchica de Saussure, 1853, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2: 34, pl. 5 fig. 4, female -- “Madagascar” (Paris). -- Smith, 1857, Cat. Hym. Br. Mus. 5: 96 (cat.). -- de Saussure, 1890, in Grandidier, Hist. Madagascar 20, Hym. 1: 113 (key), 121 (female). -- Dalla Torre, 1894, Cat. Hym. 9: 117 (cat.). -- Bingham, 1898, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 12 (1): 110. -- de Saussure, 1900, Abh. Senckenb. Naturforsch. Ges. 26 (2): 214. -- Dalla Torre, 1904, Genera Insectorum 19: 73 (cat.). Ropalidia anarchica; Bequaert, 1918, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. 39: 339 (cat.; distr. [erroneously recorded from Southern Arabia]). -- FitzGerald, 1950, Proc. R. Entomol. Soc. London Ser. A Gen. Entomol. 25: 81 (nest). -- Richards, 1978, Aust. J. Zool. Suppl. Ser. 61: 53, 58 (in subgenus Icariola; nest; list). -- Kojima, 1988, J. Kansas Entomol. Soc. 61: 297, figs. 22--25 (larva). -- Giordani Soika, 1991, Lav. Soc. Ven. Sci. Nat. 16: 82 (distr.), 86, 87 (key). DISTRIBUTION: Madagascar. andamanensis Das and Gupta Ropalidia andamanensis Das and Gupta, 1984 (1983), Orient. Insects 17: 415. Nomen nudum. Ropalidia andamanensis Das and Gupta, 1989, Orient. Insects Monogr. 11: 112 (key), 139, figs. 24c, 26K, 26k, 28b, 28n, map 22, female (in sumatrae group of subgenus Anthreneida) -- “INDIA: Andamans: Port Blair” (Calcutta). DISTRIBUTION: India (Andamans). antennata (de Saussure) Icaria antennata de Saussure, 1890, in Grandidier, Hist. Madagascar 20, Hym. 1: 136, footnote, female, male – “côte de Mozambique” (lectotype Zürich). — Dalla Torre, 1894, Cat. Hym. 9: 117 (cat.). — von Schulthess, 1899, Bull. Soc. Vaud. Sci. Nat. (4) 35: 270 (distr.). -- Dalla Torre, 1904, Genera Insectorum 19: 73 (cat.). — Kojima, 2001a, Nat. Hist. Bull. Ibaraki Univ. (5): 3 (designation of lectotype), figs. 1-3. Ropalidia antennata; Bequaert, 1918, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. 39: 339 (cat.; distr.). DISTRIBUTION: Mozambique. anupama Lambert and Narendran Ropalidia anupama Lambert and Narendram, in Lambert Kishore, Narendran and Irish Kumar 2005, J. Curr. Sci. 7: 270-273, figs. 6-10, female -- “India; Keraka, malappuram district, Calicut University Campus (11°7’N 75°52’E)” (holotype Department of Zoology, University of Calicut); also from India,: Keraka, Kozhikode district (subgenus Icarielia). DISTRIBUTION: India (Kerala). aristocratica (de Saussure) Icaria aristocratica de Saussure, 1853, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2: 37, female – “Les Indes Orientales. Pulo-Pinang” (Torino). — Smith, 1857, Cat. Hym. Br. Mus. 5: 97 (cat.); 1871, J. Proc. Linn. Soc. Zool. 11: 378 (cat.). — Dalla Torre, 1894, Cat. Hym. 9: 117 (cat.). — Bingham, 1897, Fauna Br. India, Hym. 1: 387 (key), 391 (female; distr. [“Pulo-Penang” should be “Pinang”]) [records from India and Myanmar based on misdeterminations]. — Dalla Torre, 1904, Genera Insectorum 19: 73 (cat.) [erroneously recorded from India]. Ropalidia aristocratica; Dover, 1929, Bull. Raffles Mus. 2: 47 (distr.). — Macalintal and Starr, 1996, Mem. Ent. Soc. Washington 17: tables 1, 2 (in subgenus Icariola; morphology). — Kojima, 1996, Zool. Meded., Leiden 70: 325, 326, 328. Ropalidia aristocratica aristocratica; van der Vecht, 1962, Zool. Verh., Leiden 57: 44 (in subgenus Icarielia; distr.). — Richards, 1978, Aust. J. Zool. Suppl. Ser. 61: 55, 58 (in subgenus Icariola; nest; list). — Das and Gupta, 1984 (1983), Orient. Insects 17: 426 (in subgenus Icarielia; cat.); 1989, Orient. Insects Monogr. 11: 113 (key), 149 (in subgenus Icarielia). DISTRIBUTION: Thailand; Malay Peninsula; Sumatra artifex artifex (de Saussure) Icaria variegata Smith; de Saussure, 1853, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2: 25 (description of female from Java). Icaria artifex de Saussure, 1854, Ét. Fam. Vesp., 2: 236, female -- “Java” (Genève, Torino) [de Saussure first described this species under the name variegata Smith, but after having come to the conclusion the species was not identical with variegata of Smith, he gave it the name artifex]. -- Smith, 1857, Cat. Hym. Br. Mus. 5: 98 (cat.); 1871, J. Proc. Linn. Soc. Zool. 11: 379 (cat.). -- Dalla Torre, 1894, Cat. Hym. 9: 117 (cat.; syn: ?Polistes bioculata Fabricius, Icaria variegata de Saussure) [According to van der Vecht, 1941, the record “New Cambria” is erroneous, as is also the synonymy: “?Pol. bioculata F.”]. -- Cameron, 1900, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (7) 6: 495 (?male). -- Rothney, 1903, Trans. R. Entomol. Soc. London 1903: 107. -- Dalla Torre, 1904, Genera Insectorum 19: 73 (cat.) [erroneously recorded from India]. Ropalidia artifex; Dover, 1931 (1930), J. Fed. Mal. St. Mus. 16: 257. — Kojima and van Achterberg, 1997, Nat. Hist. Bull. Ibaraki Univ. 1: 2 (distr.: Sabah). — Kojima, 2001a, Nat. Hist. Bull. Ibaraki Univ. (5): 4 (type depository unknown; description of fully chitinized pupa taken out from the nest illustrated in de Saussure (1853-58, pl. IV fig. 3a)), fig. 4. Ropalidia artifex artifex; van der Vecht, 1941, Treubia 18: 110 (key), 134, male (in stigma group; distr.; “R. artifex was not recognized since 1853 and the species recorded under this name by various authors are either R. stigma or R. mathematica”); 1962, Zool. Verh., Leiden 57: 21 (in subgenus Anthreneida; distr.). -- Richards, 1978, Aust. J. Zool. Suppl. Ser. 61: 53 (in subgenus Icariola; nest). -- Das and Gupta, 1984 (1983), Orient. Insects 17: 416 (in subgenus Anthreneida; cat.); 1989, Orient. Insects Monogr. 11: 111 (key), 124, map 17 (in stigma group of subgenus Anthreneida). DISTRIBUTION: Myanmar; Malay Peninsula; Borneo; Java. artifex fuscata van der Vecht Ropalidia artifex var. fuscata van der Vecht, 1941, Treubia 18: 136, female, male -- “N. Sumatra, Toba Lake” (holotype female Leiden); also from Malay Peninsula, Borneo.; 1962, Zool. Verh., Leiden 57: 22 (distr.; biology). -- Kojima and van Achterberg, 1997, Zool. Meded., Leiden 71: 160 (holotype depository). Ropalidia artifex fuscata; Iwata, 1976, Evol. Instinct: 295 (in subgenus Anthreneida; ethology). -- Richards, 1978, Aust. J. Zool. Suppl. Ser. 61: 53 (nest). -- Itô, 1993, Behav. Soc. Evol. Wasps: 20 (ethology). Ropalidia artifex; Kojima and Yamane, 1990, in Sakagami et al., Nat. Hist. Soc. Wasps Bees Eq. Sumatra: 34 (key). DISTRIBUTION: Malay Peninsula; Sumatra; Borneo. atra (de Saussure) Icaria atra de Saussure, 1890, in Grandidier, Hist. Madagascar 20, Hym. 1: 113 (key), 119, female -- “Madagascar ... dans le Sud-Est” (unique Genève). -- Dalla Torre, 1894, Cat. Hym. 9: 117 (cat.). -- de Saussure, 1900, Abh. Senckenb. Naturforsch. Ges. 26 (2): 215. -- Dalla Torre, 1904, Genera Insectorum 19: 73 (cat.). Ropalidia atra; Bequaert, 1918, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. 39: 339 (cat.; distr.). -- Giordani Soika, 1991, Lav. Soc. Ven. Sci. Nat. 16: 85, 87 (key). DISTRIBUTION: Madagascar. australis (de Saussure) Icaria australis de Saussure, 1853, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2: 24, pl. 34 fig. 5, female – “Dorey. Nouvelle-Guinée” (Paris). -- Smith, 1857, Cat. Hym. Br. Mus. 5: 95 (cat.). — Dalla Torre, 1894, Cat. Hym. 9: 117 (cat.); 1904, Genera Insectorum 19: 73 (cat.). — Cameron, 1906, in Wichmann, Nova Guinea 5, Zool. 1: 62 (distr.). — Meade-Waldo, 1912, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (8) 9: 448 (distr.). — Kojima, 2001b, Nat. Hist. Bull. Ibaraki Univ. 5: 35, 44 (syn.: Icaria bispinosa, Ropalidia fasciata erratica). Icaria bispinosa Meade-Waldo, 1912, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (8) 9: 448 (key), 449, female (in subgenus Icariastrum) – “Mimika River” [New Guinea] (London). — Kojima, 2001b, Nat. Hist. Bull. Ibaraki Univ. 5: 35 (dsignation of lactotype), 35, 44 (syn. of R. australis (de Saussure)). Icaria irritata Smith; Cameron, 1913, Bijdr. Dierkd. 19: 76 [misidentification] (distr.). — Kojima, 2001b, Nat. Hist. Bull. Ibaraki Univ. (5): 36, 44 (Cameron's specimen is in the Nationaal Natuurhistorisch Museum, Leiden, and was misidentifed). Ropalidia australis; Bequaert, 1932, Rés. Scient. Voyage Indes Or. Néerl. Léopold de Belgique 4 (5): 50. Ropalidia bispinosa; Bequaert, 1932, Rés. Scient. Voyage Indes Or. Néerl. Léopold de Belgique 4 (5): 50. — Richards, 1978, Aust. J. Zool. Suppl. Ser. 61: 56 (in subgenus Ropalidia; list). Ropalidia fasciata bispinosa; Cheesman, 1952, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (12) 5: 2, 9. Ropalidia fasciata erratica Cheesman, 1952, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (12) 5: 2, 9, female -- “Cyclops Mt.” [New Guinea] (London). — Kojima, 2001b, Nat. Hist. Bull. Ibaraki Univ. 5: 35, 44 (syn. of R. australis (de Saussure)). Ropalidia erratica; Richards, 1978, Aust. J. Zool. Suppl. Ser. 61: 56 (in subgenus Ropalidia; list). DISTRIBUTION: New Guinea. bambusae Richards Ropalidia bambusae Richards, 1978, Aust. J. Zool. Suppl. Ser. 61: 54 (nest), 57 (list), 65 (larva in key), 122 (key), 123, female, male, nest (in subgenus Polistratus) – “New Guinea: Morobe District, Wau” (holotype female London). — Kojima and Spradbery, 1987, Kontyû 55: 603, figs. 9–17 (larva). — Spradbery and Kojima, 1989, Jpn. J. Entomol. 57: 648 (colony population; nest). — Spradbery, 1991, in Ross and Matthews, Soc. Biol. Wasps: 350 (colony population). — Macalintal and Starr, 1996, Mem. Ent. Soc. Washington 17: tables 1, 2 (in subgenus Polistratus; morphology). — Kojima, 2001b, Nat. Hist. Bull. Ibaraki Univ. 5: 48 (in R. nigra-group). DISTRIBUTION: Eastern New Guinea. bangalorica Lambert and Narendran Ropalidia bangalorica Lambert and Narendran, in Lambert, Narendran and Kumar, 2005, Zoos’ Print J. 20 (7): 1920, female (in subgenus Anthreneida!) - “Bangalore” (OZUC, Department of Zoology, University of Calicut). DISTRIBUTION: India (Bangalore). bensoni Richards Ropalidia bensoni Richards, 1978, Aust. J. Zool. Suppl. Ser. 61: 55 (nest), 59 (list), 65 (larva in key), 129 (key), 130, female, larva, nest (in subgenus Icarielia) – “New Guinea: Morobe district, Wau” (London). -- Kojima and Spradbery, 1987, Kontyû 55: 604, figs. 18--27 (larva). -- Spradbery and Kojima, 1989, Jpn. J. Entomol. 57: 640 (biology; nest). — Spradbery, 1991, in Ross and Matthews, Soc. Biol. Wasps: 350 (colony population). — Wenzel, 1991, in Ross and Matthews, Soc. Biol. Wasps: 487 (nest). — Macalintal and Starr, 1996, Mem. Ent. Soc. Washington 17: tables 1, 2 (in subgenus Icarielia; morphology). — Kojima, 1996a, Zool. Meded., Leiden 70: 328; 1996b, Zool. Meded., Leiden 70: 350; Kojima, 2001b, Nat. Hist. Bull. Ibaraki Uiv. 5: 52 (in R. lefebvrei-group). DISTRIBUTION: Eastern New Guinea. bicincta (de Saussure) Icaria bicincta de Saussure, 1890, in Grandidier, Hist. Madagascar 20, Hym. 1: 114 (key), 136, pl. 4 figs. 3, 3b, pl. 18 fig. 20, pl. 22 fig. 2 (bieineta[!], nest), female, male, ethology – “Madagascar ... Nosibé” (Genève). -- Dalla Torre, 1894, Cat. Hym. 9: 117 (cat.). -- de Saussure, 1900, Abh. Senckenb. Naturforsch. Ges. 26 (2): 218, 232 (female, male). -- Dalla Torre, 1904, Genera Insectorum 19: 73 (cat.). Ropalidia bicincta; Bequaert, 1918, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. 39: 339 (cat.; distr.). -- FitzGerald, 1950, Proc. R. Entomol. Soc. London Ser. A Gen. Entomol. 25: 82 (nest). -- Richards, 1978, Aust. J. Zool. Suppl. Ser. 61: 53 (in subgenus Icariola; nest). -- Giordani Soika, 1991, Lav. Soc. Ven. Sci. Nat. 16: 86, 87 (key), fig. 16. DISTRIBUTION: Madagascar. bicolor (Smith) Icaria bicolor Smith, 1865, J. Proc. Linn. Soc. Zool. 8: 90, female – “New Guinea” (Oxford). — Dalla Torre, 1894, Cat. Hym. 9: 117 (cat.); 1904, Genera Insectorum 19: 73 (cat.). Ropalidia bicolor; Bequaert, 1932, Rés. Scient. Voyage Indes Or. Néerl. Léopold de Belgique 4 (5): 50. — Cheesman, 1952, Ann. Mag. Nat Hist. (12) 5: 2, 7 (redescription of the type). — Richards, 1978, Aust. J. Zool. Suppl. Ser. 61: 56 (in subgenus Ropalidia; list). — Kojima, 2001b, Nat. Hist. Bull. Ibaraki Univ. 5: 44 (in R. maculiventris-group; holotype label data). DISTRIBUTION: New Guinea. bicolorata bicolorata van der Vecht Paraicaria bicolor Gribodo, 1892 (1891), Boll. Soc. Entomol. Ital. 23: 249, female – “Chan-Yoma (Alta Birmania)” (Genova); preoccupied by Ropalidia bicolor (Smith) (= Icaria bicolor Smith, 1865). -- Dalla Torre, 1894, Cat. Hym. 9: 121 (cat.). -- Bingham, 1897, Fauna Br. India, Hym. 1: 376, 392 (fig.; distr.; ethology: “... makes a very large Polybia-like nest.”). -- Dalla Torre, 1904, Genera Insectorum 19: 75 (cat.). Ropalidia bicolorata bicolorata van der Vecht, 1962, Zool. Verh., Leiden 57: 38 (key), 39 (in subgenus Paraicaria; taxonomy; distr.). Replacement name for bicolor (Gribodo), junior secondary homonym of Ropalidia bicolor (Smith, 1865). -- Lee, 1982, Hornets from Agric. Regions China: 83 (key), 96, pl. 3 fig. 10 (in subgenus Paraicaria); 1982, Zool. Res. 3: 86 (in subgenus Paraicaria; distr.) [error: author Gribodo, 1892]. -- Das and Gupta, 1984 (1983), Orient. Insects 17: 428 (in subgenus Paraicaria; cat.). -- Lee, 1985, Econ. Insect Fauna China 30 Hym.: Vespoidea: 46 (key), 54, pl. 3 fig. 10 (in subgenus Paraicaria; female; distr.) [error: author Gribodo, 1892]; 1987, in Forest Insects Yunnan: 1349 (in subgenus Paraicaria; key) [error: author Gribodo]. -- Das and Gupta, 1989, Orient. Insects Monogr. 11: 110, 153 (key), 154, map 26 (in subgenus Paraicaria; distr.) [error: “bicolorata shiva” in map 26 should read “bicolorata bicolorata”]. Ropalidia bicolorata; Richards, 1978, Aust. J. Zool. Suppl. Ser. 61: 55, 59 (in subgenus Paraicaria; comment on the note on the nest by Bingham, 1897; list). -- Macalintal and Starr, 1996, Mem. Ent. Soc. Washington 17: tables 1, 2 (in subgenus Paraicaria; morphology). -- Kojima and van Achterberg, 1997, Nat. Hist. Bull. Ibaraki Univ. 1: 3 (distr.: Sabah). DISTRIBUTION: Myanmar; Thailand; China (Yunnan). bicolorata parvula van der Vecht Ropalidia bicolorata parvula van der Vecht, 1962, Zool. Verh., Leiden 57: 38 (key), 39, female – “North Borneo, Bettotan near Sandakan” (London). -- Lee, 1982, Hornets from Agric. Regions China: 83 (key), 95, pl. 3 fig. 1 (in subgenus Paraicaria); 1982, Zool. Res. 3: 86 (in subgenus Paralidia [!]; distr.); 1985, Econ. Insect. Fauna China 30 Hym.: Vespoidea: 46 (key), 54, pl. 3 fig. 1 (in subgenus Paraicaria; female; distr.); 1987, in Forest Insects Yunnan: 1349 (in subgenus Paraicaria; key). -- Das and Gupta, 1989, Orient. Insects Monogr. 11: 153 (key), 155 (in subgenus Paraicaria). DISTRIBUTION: Borneo. bicolorata shiva Das and Gupta Ropalidia bicolorata shiva Das and Gupta, 1984 (1983), Orient. Insects 17: 428. Nomen nudum. Ropalidia bicolorata shiva Das and Gupta, 1989, Orient. Insects Monogr. 11: 153 (key), 154, map 26 [error: “bicolorata bicolorata” in map 26 should read “bicolorata shiva”], female (in subgenus Paraicaria) -- “INDIA: Tripura: Dharamnagar” (Calcutta); also from Assam, Manipur. DISTRIBUTION: India (Assam, Manipur, Tripura). bidens van der Vecht Ropalidia bidens van der Vecht, 1996, in van der Vecht and Kojima, Zool. Meded., Leiden 70: 99, female, male – “N. W. New Guinea, Klamono Oilfds [1°08’S, 131°30’E].” (holotype female Leiden). — Kojima and van Achterberg, 1997, Zool. Meded., Leiden 71: 160 (holotype depository). — Kojima, 2001b, Nat. Hist. Bull. Ibaraki Univ. 5: 48 (in R. bidens-group). DISTRIBUTION: Northwestern New Guinea. binghami binghami van der Vecht Icaria sumatrae (Weber); Bingham, 1897. Fauna Br. India, Hym. 1: 387 (key), 389 (misidentification; not Vespa sumatrae Weber). Ropalidia binghami van der Vecht, 1941, Treubia 18: 109 (key), 113, male – “Luang Prabang, Hat Thoun” [Laos] (London); also from Myanmar, Tenasserim (Mergui). — Richards, 1978, Aust. J. Zool. Suppl. Ser. 61: 58 (in subgenus Icariola; list). -- Kojima, 1996, Zool. Meded., Leiden 70: 350. Ropalidia binghami binghami; van der Vecht, 1962, Zool. Verh., Leiden 57: 8 (in subgenus Anthreneida; distr.). -- Das and Gupta, 1984 (1983), Orient. Insects 17: 416 (in subgenus Anthreneida; cat.); 1989, Orient. Insects Monogr. 11: 110 (key), 114, map 14 (in marginata group of subgenus Anthreneida; ref.). ?Ropalidia sumatrae sumatrae; Lee, 1982, Hornets from Agric. Regions China: 83 (key), 88, pl. 3 fig. 5 (in subgenus Anthreneida); 1985, Econ. Insect. Fauna China, 30 Hym.: Vespoidea: 46 (key), 50, pl. 3 fig. 5 (in subgenus Anthreneida; female, male; distr.). DISTRIBUTION: Myanmar; Thailand; ?China binghami wegneri van der Vecht Ropalidia binghami wegneri van der Vecht, 1962, Zool. Verh., Leiden 57: 8, female -- “East Borneo, Samarinda, 50 m, Muara Kaman” (Leiden). DISTRIBUTION: Borneo. bipartita van der Vecht Ropalidia flavopicta bipartita van der Vecht, 1962, Zool. Verh., Leiden 57: 58 (key), 61, female (in subgenus Icarielia) -- “Luzon: Mountain Province, ... Mt. Polis, ... 5500 ft.” (Gainesville). -- Baltazar, 1966, Pac. Insects Monogr. 8: 293 (in subgenus Icarielia; cat.). Ropalidia bipartita; Kojima, 1982, Kontyû 50: 109 (key), 111 (in subgenus Icarielia; female); 1996, Zool. Meded., Leiden 70: 326, 341, figs. 89, 90, 92--97 (taxonomy; distr.). DISTRIBUTION: Luzon I. brazzai (du Buysson) Icaria brazzai du Buysson, 1906, Rev. Entomol. Caen 25: 110, female -- “Congo, Lékéti” (Paris). Ropalidia brazzai; Bequaert, 1918, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. 39: 339 (cat.; probable syn. of R. guttatipennis (de Saussure); distr.). -- Giordani Soika, 1977, Steenstrupia 4: 125, 128, fig. 1 (distinct species, compared to R. excavata n. sp.; distr.; designation of lectotype, inadvertantly referring to the specimen with Museum Paris' type label as "holotype"). — Kojima, 2001a, Nat. Hist. Bull. Ibaraki Univ. (5): 4. DISTRIBUTION: Cameroon; Congo. brevita Das and Gupta Ropalidia spatulata van der Vecht1962, Zool. Verh., Leiden 57: 9 [partim]. Ropalidia brevita Das and Gupta, 1984 (1983), Orient. Insects 17: 416. Nomen nudum. Ropalidia brevita Das and Gupta, 1989, Orient. Insects Monogr. 11: 110 (key), 121, map 16, male, female (in marginata group of subgenus Anthreneida) -- “INDIA: Dehli: University Ridge” (holotype male Calcutta); also from Uttar Pradesh, Himachal Pradesh, Delhi, Uttar Pradesh, Sikkim, West Bengal, Assam, Orissa, Karnataka, Kerala. DISTRIBUTION: India. brunnea (Smith) Icaria brunnea Smith, 1859, J. Proc. Linn. Soc. Zool. 3: 167, female – “Aru” (London); 1871, J. Proc. Linn. Soc. Zool. 11: 380 (cat.). — Dalla Torre, 1894, Cat. Hym. 9: 118 (brunea [!]; cat.); 1904, Genera Insectorum 19: 73 (brunea [!]; cat.). Polistratus cariniscutis Cameron, 1906, in Wichmann, Nova Guinea 5, Zool. 1: 59, female – “Manokwari” (unique “Manokwari, [2] May 03” Amsterdam) [also with a label on which are “Polistratus cariniscutis Cam. Type, New Guinea” (in Cameron’s handwriting) and “Holotype by designation J. van der Vecht 1933” (in van der Vecht’s handwriting)]. — van der Vecht, 1934, Tijdschr. Entomol. 77, Verslag: 8 (syn. of R. brunnea (Smith)). — Kojima and van Achterberg, 1997, Zool. Meded., Leiden 71: 166 (holotype depository). Ropalidia brunnea; Bequaert, 1932, Rés. scient. Voy. Leopold 4(5): 51. — van der Vecht, 1934, Tijdschr. Entomol. 77, Verslag: 8. — Cheesman, 1952, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (12) 5: 2, 14 (redescription of type) [error: year of publication 1864]. — Richards, 1978, Aust. J. Zool. Suppl. Ser. 61: 57 (in subgenus Polistratus; list; syn.: cariniscutis (Cameron), alleni Cheesman) [alleni as syn., apparently by error], 121 (key). — Kojima, 2001b, Nat. Hist. Bull. Ibaraki Univ. (5): 36, 48 (taxonomy; syn.: Polistratus cariniscutis Cameron, Ropalidia wudai Cheesman, R. wudai trullissima Cheesman). Ropalidia cariniscutis; Bequaert, 1932, Rés. Scient. Voyage Indes Or. Néerl. Léopold de Belgique 4 (5): 51. — Richards, 1978, Aust. J. Zool. Suppl. Ser. 61: 121 (syn. of R. brunnea (Smith)). Ropalidia brunnea var. cariniscutis; van der Vecht, 1934, Tijdschr. Entomol. 77, Verslag: 8. Ropalidia wudai Cheesman, 1952, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (12) 5: 2, 14, female – “Papua, Kokoda, 1200 ft” (London); also from Owen Stanley Range. — Richards, 1978, Aust. J. Zool. Suppl. Ser. 61: 57 (in subgenus Polistratus; list). — Kojima, 2001b, Nat. Hist. Bull. Ibaraki Univ. (5): 36, 48 (syn. of R. brunnea). Ropalidia wudai trullissima Cheesman, 1952, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (12) 5: 2, 15, female – “Dutch New Guinea, Cyclops Mts., 930 ft.” (London). — Richards, 1978, Aust. J. Zool. Suppl. Ser. 61: 57 (in subgenus Polistratus; list). — Kojima, 2001b, Nat. Hist. Bull. Ibaraki Univ. (5): 36, 48 (syn. of R. brunnea). DISTRIBUTION: New Guinea (Aru, Misool, northeastern and northwestern New Guinea). capensis (de Saussure) Icaria capensis de Saussure, 1862, Stettin. Entomol. Ztg. 23: 139, female -- “le Cap de Bonne Espérance” (lectotype Leiden). -- Gribodo, 1894, in Emery et al., Mem. R. Accad. Sci. Bologna (5) 4: 125 (compared to I. ambigua n. sp.). -- Dalla Torre, 1894, Cat. Hym. 9: 118 (cat.); 1904, Genera Insectorum 19: 73 (cat.). -- Cameron, 1905, Trans. S. Afr. Philos. Soc. 25 (4): 230 (male); 1910, Ann. Transvaal Mus. 2 (3): 155. -- Kojima and van Achterberg, 1997, Zool. Meded., Leiden 71: 157, 159 (designation of lectotype). Icaria ambigua Gribodo, 1894, in Emery et al., Mem. R. Accad. Sci. Bologna (5) 4: 124, female – “Mozambico ... fiume Magnarra” (unique ?Genova). -- Dalla Torre, 1904, Genera Insectorum 19: 73 (cat). — du Buysson, 1914, in Voy. Alluad et Jeannel, Afr. Or., Rés. Sci., Ins. Hym., 3, Vesp.: 155 (ethology). — Schouteden, 1919, Rev. Zool. Afr. 6: 187 (Rhopalidia [!]; distr.). Ropalidia ambigua; Bequaert, 1918, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. 39: 338 (cat.; distr.), 339 (probable syn. of R. capensis (de Saussure)). Ropalidia capensis; Bequaert, 1918, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. 39: 249 (key), 250, 339, figs. 241--242 (cat.; probable syn.: Icaria ambigua Gribodo; distr.). — Schouteden, 1919, Rev. Zool. Afr. 6: 187 (Rhopalidia [!]; distr.). — Giordani Soika, 1935, Mem. Estud. Mus. Zool. Univ. Coimbra (1) 82: 15 (distr.); 1944, Atti Inst. Veneto Sci., Lett. Arti, Cl. Sci. Mat. Nat. 103 (2): 176 (compared to R. novissima n. sp.). — Richards, 1978, Aust. J. Zool. Suppl. Ser. 61: 53, 58 (in subgenus Icariola; nest, list; syn.: ambigua (Gribodo)). — Giordani Soika, 1981, Boll. Soc. Entomol. Ital. 113: 172 (compared to R. crassipunctata n. sp.). — Macalintal and Starr, 1996, Mem. Ent. Soc. Washington 17: tables 1, 2 (in subgenus Icariola; morphology). — Kojima, 2001a, Nat. Hist. Bull. Ibaraki Univ. (5): 4 (Kojima's (1999) "antennata" is presumably capensis). DISTRIBUTION: Gabon; Zaire; Tanzania; Mozambique; South Africa (Cape Province, Transvaal). carinata (de Saussure) Icaria carinata de Saussure, 1890, in Grandidier, Hist. Madagascar 20, Hym. 1: 113 (key), 122, female, male – “Madagascar” (Genève). — Dalla Torre, 1894, Cat. Hym. 9: 118 (cat.). — de Saussure, 1900, Abh. Senckenb. Naturforsch. Ges. 26 (2): 215, 222 (female, male). — Dalla Torre, 1904, Genera Insectorum 19: 73 (cat.). — von Schulthess, 1907, Voeltzkow, Reise in Ostafrika 1903--1905, Wiss. Ergebn. 2 (2): 64. Ropalidia carinata; Bequaert, 1918, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. 39: 339 (cat.; distr.). -- FitzGerald, 1950, Proc. R. Entomol. Soc. London Ser. A Gen. Entomol. 25: 82 (nest). -- Richards, 1978, Aust. J. Zool. Suppl. Ser. 61: 53, 58 (in subgenus Icariola; nest; list). -- Kojima, 1988, J. Kansas Entomol. Soc. 61: 298, figs. 39--43 (larva). -- Wenzel, 1991, in Ross and Matthews, Soc. Biol. Wasps: 487 (nest). -- Giordani Soika, 1991, Lav. Soc. Ven. Sci. Nat. 16: 85 (key). DISTRIBUTION: Madagascar. catharinae (Cameron) Icaria catharinae Cameron, 1913, Bijdr. Dierkd. 19: 77, female – “Waigeu” (Amsterdam). -- Meade-Waldo and Morley, 1914, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (8) 14: 406 (“All the species published with the specific name “catharinae” in Cameron’s paper ... (..., 1913) bear labels with the specific name “beauforti” on the type-specimens”). -- van der Vecht, 1934, Tijdschr. Entomol. 77, Verslag: 8. — Kojima and van Achterberg, 1997, Zool. Meded., Leiden 71: 165 (holotype depository). Ropalidia catharinae; Bequaert, 1932, Rés. Scient. Voyage Indes Or. Néerl. Léopold de Belgique 4 (5): 50. — Kojima, 2001b, Nat. Hist. Bull. Ibaraki Univ. (5): 36, 52 (taxonomy; a paratype of Ropalidia fluviatilis petulans belonging to this species). DISTRIBUTION: New Guinea. celebensis van der Vecht Ropalidia celebensis van der Vecht, 1941, Treubia 18: 111 (key), 170, female -- “S. Celebes: ... Bantoe Batoe District, Latimodjong Mts.” (Cambridge). -- Richards, 1978, Aust. J. Zool. Suppl. Ser. 61: 58 (in subgenus Icariola; list). DISTRIBUTION: Sulawesi. cincta (Lepeletier) ?Polistes punctum Fabricius, 1804, Syst. Piez.: 273 -- “nova Cambria” (Kobenhavn). Epipona cincta Lepeletier, 1836, Hist. Nat. Ins. Hym. 1: 541, female -- “Sénégal, Afrique equinoxiale” (coll. Serville; current depository unknown). Icaria cincta; de Saussure, 1853, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2: 39, pl. 5 fig. 9 (female, male). -- Smith, 1857, Cat. Hym. Br. Mus. 5: 97 (cat.). -- de Saussure, 1863, Mém. Soc. Phys. Hist. Nat. Genève 17: 234 (male). -- Gerstaecker, 1871, Arch. Naturgesch. 37 (2): 351; 1873, in v. d. Decken’s Reisen in Ost-Afrika 3 (2), Gliederth.: 324. -- Walker, 1871, List Hym. Egypt: 40. -- Schletterer, 1891, Ann. Soc. Entomol. Belg. 35: 28. -- Gribodo, 1894, in Emery et al., Mem. R. Accad. Sci. Bologna (5) 4: 125 (compared to I. ambigua n. sp.). -- Dalla Torre, 1894, Cat. Hym. 9: 118 (cat.). -- Gribodo, 1895, Mem. R. Accad. Sci. Bologna (5) 5: 333. -- Stadelmann, 1898, Dtsch. Ost-Afrika 4, Hym.: 33. -- Magretti, 1898, Ann. Mus. Civ. Stor. Nat. Genova (2) 19 (= 39): 35. -- Bingham, 1898, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 12 (1): 110. -- von Schulthess, 1899, Bull. Soc. Vaudoise Sci. Nat. (4) 35: 269 (distr.). -- Bingham, 1903, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (7), 12: 48. -- Dalla Torre, 1904, Genera Insectorum 19: 73 (cat.). -- Morice, 1904, Res. Swed. Zool. Exp. Jägerskiöld (1), Hym. Acul.: 6. -- Zavattari, 1907, Boll. Mus. Zool. Anat. Comp. Torino 22 (548): 2. -- Bingham, 1909, Trans. Zool. Soc. London 19, 2: 182. -- Cameron, 1910, Ann. Transvaal Mus. 2 (3): 155. -- von Schulthess, 1912, Wiss. Ergebn. D. Z. Afr. Exp. (1907--08) 4, Lf. 10: 291; 1914, Dtsch. Entomol. Z.: 290. -- du Buysson, 1914, in Voy. Alluad. et Jeannel, Afr. Or., Rés. Sci., Ins. Hym., 3, Vesp.: 156. -- Roubaud, 1916, Ann. Sci. Nat. Zool. (10) 1 (1): 140, fig. 32 (ethology). -- von Schulthess, 1923, in Michaelsen, Beitr. Kennt. Land- und Süsswasserfauna Deutsch-Südwestafrikas 2 (2): 135 (distr.); 1928, Senckenbergiana 10 (3/4): 96 (distr.). -- Guiglia, 1928 (1925--26), Ann. Mus. Civ. Stor. Nat. Genova 52: 493 (distr.). Icaria xanthura; Magretti, 1884, Ann. Mus. Civ. Stor. Nat. Genova (2) 1 (= 21): 606 [misidentification; not Icaria xanthura de Saussure, 1853]. -- Gribodo, 1895, Mem. R. Accad. Sci. Bologna (5) 5: 333 (Icaria xanthura sensu Magretti treated as homonym of Icaria xanthura de Saussure). Icaria tricinctella Gribodo, 1895, Mem. R. Accad. Sci. Bologna (5) 5: 333, female, male – “Mozambico: ... Lourenso-Marquez (?Genova). — Magretti, 1898, Ann. Mus. Civ. Stor. Nat. Genova (2) 19 (= 39): 595. — Dalla Torre, 1904, Genera Insectorum 19: 74 (cat.). — Bequaert, 1918, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. 39: 340 (syn. of R. cincta (Lepeletier)). Ropalidia cincta; Bequaert, 1918, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. 39: 250 (key), 251, 340, figs. 247, 248 (cat.; syn.: Icaria xanthura Magretti, I. tricinctella Gribodo; distr.). — Schouteden, 1919, Rev. Zool. Afr. 6: 187 (Rhopalidia [!]; distr.). — Salt, 1927, Psyche 34: 185 (record of stylopized specimen). — Salt and Bequaert, 1929, Psyche 36: 263 (record of stylopized specimen). — Scott, 1933, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. 12: 120 (distr.). — Giordani Soika, 1935, Mem. Estud. Mus. Zool. Univ. Coimbra (1) 82: 15 (distr.); 1940 (1939), Mem. Soc. Entomol. Ital. 17: 100 (distr.). — FitzGerald, 1940, Proc. R. Entomol. Soc. London Ser. A Gen. Entomol. 15: 35 (distr.; nest). — Giordani Soika, 1952 (1951), Riv. Biol. Colon. 11: 88 (distr.). — van der Vecht, 1959, Arch. Neerl. Zool. 13, Suppl.: 245 (?syn. of R. punctum (Fabricius)). — Girodani Soika, 1961, S. Afr. Anim. Life 8: 449 (distr.). — Richards, 1969, Mem. Soc. Entomol. Ital. 48: 81 (nest). — Darchen, 1976, Ann. Soc. Entomol. France (n. ser.) 12: 579 (ethology). — Iwata, 1976, Evol. Instinct: 295 (in subgenus Anthreneida; ethology). — Richards, 1978, Aust. J. Zool. Suppl. Ser. 61: 53, 58 (in subgenus Icariola; nest; list). — Spradbery, 1991, in Ross and Matthews, Soc. Biol. Wasps: 350 (colony population). — Jeanne, 1991, in Ross and Matthews, Soc. Biol. Wasps: 404, 405 (ethology). — Itô, 1993, Behav. Soc. Evol. Wasps: 20, 40, 51, 131, 133 (ethology). — Macalintal and Starr, 1996, Mem. Ent. Soc. Washington 17: tables 1, 2 (in subgenus Icariola; morphology). — Kojima, 2001a, Nat. Hist. Bull. Ibaraki Univ. 5: 3. DISTRIBUTION: Senegal; Gambia; Sudan; Eritrea; Ethiopia; Somalia; Congo; Zaire; Uganda (on Mt. Ruwenzori as high as 2000 m); Kenya; Tanzania, Mozambique; Zimbabwe; Namibia; South Africa (Transvaal). clavata (de Saussure) Icaria clavata de Saussure, 1853, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2: 40, female -- “Le Cap de Bonne-Espérance” (Paris). -- Smith, 1857, Cat. Hym. Br. Mus. 5: 97 (cat.). -- Dalla Torre, 1894, Cat. Hym. 9: 118 (cat.); 1904, Genera lnsectrum 19: 73 (cat.). — Kojima, 2001a, Nat. Hist. Bull. Ibaraki Univ. (5): 5 ("original locality . . . presumably based on incorrect labeling"). ?Icaria clavata; Gribodo, 1894, in Emery et al., Mem. R. Accad. Sci. Bologna (5) 4: 125, 126 (compared to I. ambigua n. sp.). -- Bingham, 1903, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (7), 12: 48, 68. Icaria duchaussoyi Gribodo, 1896, Misc. Entomol. 4: 13, female -- “Nova Caledonia” (?Genova). -- Dalla Torre, 1904, Genera Insectorum 19: 73 (cat.). — Kojima, 2001a, Nat. Hist. Bull. Ibaraki Univ. (5): 5 (syn. of Ropalidia clavata (de Saussure)). Icaria marginata var. duchaussoyi; von Schulthess, 1915, in Sarasin and Roux, Nova Caledonia, Zool. 2, 1 (3): 48 (description of male). ?Ropalidia clavata; Bequaert, 1918, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. 39: 340 (cat.; distr.). Ropalidia marginata duchaussoyi; van der Vecht, 1941, Treubia 18: 104, 124 (1 female of the series from New Caledonia examined by von Schulthess). Ropalidia duchaussoyi; Richards, 1978, Aust. J. Zool. Suppl. Ser. 61: 58 (list). Ropalidia clavata; Kojima, 2001a, Nat. Hist. Bull. Ibaraki Univ. (5): 5 (syn.: Icaria duchaussoyi Gribodo; doubting identification by Gribodo (1894), Bingham (1903), and Bequaert (1918). DISTRIBUTION: New Caledonia. DISTRIBUTION: New Caledonia. clypeata Kojima Ropalidia clypeata Kojima, 1996, in van der Vecht and Kojima, Zool. Meded., Leiden 70: 103, male, female – “New Guinea, Sivipi near Sasambata, Popondetta subdist.” (holotype male Leiden). — Kojima and van Achterberg, 1997, Zool. Meded., Leiden 71: 160 (holotype depository). — Kojima, 2001b, Nat. Hist. Bull. Ibaraki Univ. 5: 48 (in R. bidens-group). DISTRIBUTION: New Guinea. colorata colorata van der Vecht Ropalidia colorata colorata van der Vecht, 1941, Treubia 18: 111 (key), 151, male, female -- “Peshawar” [Pakistan] (London); also from India: Himachal Pradesh, Kangra Valley; Pakistan: Northwest Frontier Province, Mauree Hills. -- Richards, 1978, Aust. J. Zool. Suppl. Ser. 61: 58 (in subgenus Icariola; list). -- Yamane and Yamane, 1979, Insecta Matsumurana, n. ser. 15: 32 (in subgenus Anthreneida). -- Das and Gupta, 1984 (1983), Orient. Insects 17: 416 (cat.); 1989, Orient. Insects Monogr. 11: 112, 141 (key), 142, map 23 (in sumatrae group of subgenus Anthreneida; female; fig.; distr.). DISTRIBUTION: Pakistan; India. colorata sordida van der Vecht Ropalidia colorata var. sordida van der Vecht, 1941, Treubia 18: 154, female -- “Kooloo, India” (Cambridge). Ropalidia colorata sordida; Das and Gupta, 1984 (1983), Orient. Insects 17: 417 (in subgenus Anthreneida; cat.); 1989, Orient. Insects Monogr. 11: 112, 141 (key), 142, map 23 (in sumatrae group of subgenus Anthreneida). DISTRIBUTION: India. conservator (Smith) Icaria conservator Smith, 1860 (1861), J. Proc. Linn. Soc. Zool. 5: 130, female -- “Dory” [New Guinea] (London); 1863 (1864), J. Proc. Linn. Soc. Zool. 7: 138 (distr.); 1865, J. Proc. Linn. Soc. Zool. 8: 90 (Salwatty); 1871, J. Proc. Linn. Soc. Zool. 11: 380 (cat.). -- Dalla Torre, 1894, Cat. Hym. 9: 118 (cat.); 1904, Genera Insectorum 19: 73 (cat.). -- Meade-Waldo, 1912, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (8) 9: 447 (distr.). -- Meade-Waldo and Morley, 1914, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (8) 14: 405 (syn.: Icaria waigeuensis Cameron). Polybia limatula Smith, 1863 (1864), J. Proc. Linn. Soc. Zool. 7: 43, female -- “Mysol” (lectotype Oxford); 1863 (1864), J. Proc. Linn. Soc. Zool. 7: 139 (distr.); 1871, J. Proc. Linn. Soc. Zool. 11: 384 (cat.) -- Meade-Waldo, 1911, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (8) 7: 100 (syn. of Icaria conservator Smith)); 1912, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (8) 9: 448. -- van der Vecht, 1966, Zool. Verh., Leiden 82: 6 (syn. of Ropalidia conservator (Smith)). -- Kojima and Carpenter, 1997, Am. Mus. Novit. 3199: 5 (designation of lectotype). Icaria irritata Smith; Cameron, 1906a, in Wichmann, Nova Guinea 5, Zool. 1: 63 (distr.). — Kojima, 2001b, Nat. Hist. Bull. Ibaraki Univ. (5): 36, 45 (Cameron's specimen is in Zöological Museum, Amsterdam, and was misidentified). Icaria parvimaculata Cameron, 1911, Nova Guinea 9, Zool 2: 189, female -- “Bivak Island” (lectotype Amsterdam). Junior primary homonym of I. parvimaculata Cameron, 1907. -- van der Vecht, 1934, Tijdschr. Entomol. 77, Verslag: 8 (syn. of Ropalidia conservator (Smith)). -- Kojima and Carpenter, 1997, Am. Mus. Novit. 3199: 5 (designation of lectotype). -- Kojima and van Achterberg, 1997, Zool. Meded., Leiden 71: 165 (lectotype depository). Icaria insularis Cameron, 1911, Nova Guinea 9, Zool. 2: 188, female -- “Bivak Island” (unique Amsterdam, also with a label “Icaria insularis Cam. Holotype designated by. J. v.d.Vecht 1933” (in van der Vecht’s handwriting)). -- van der Vecht, 1934, Tijdschr. Entomol. 77, Verslag: 8 (syn. of R. conservator (Smith)). -- Kojima and van Achterberg, 1997, Zool. Meded., Leiden 71: 165 (holotype depository). Parapolybia limatula; von Schulthess, 1913, Mitt. Schweiz. Entomol. Ges. 12: 164 (syn. of Icaria conservator). Icaria waigeuensis Cameron, 1913, Bijdr. Dierkd. 19: 76, female – “Waigeu” (unique “Waigeu, 31.XII [09], Mevr. de Beaufort leg.” Amsterdam) [also with a label in Cameron’s handwriting “Icaria waigionensis Cam. Type” (this may be the name that Cameron wanted to give)]. — Meade-Waldo and Morley, 1914, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (8) 14: 405 (syn. of Icaria. conservator Smith) — van der Vecht, 1934, Tijdschr. Entomol. 77, Verslag: 8 (syn. of R. conservator (Smith)). — Kojima and van Achterberg, 1997, Zool. Meded., Leiden 71: 166 (holotype depository). Ropalidia conservator; Bequaert, 1932, Rés. Scient. Voyage Indes Or. Néerl. Léopold de Belgique 4 (5): 50. -- van der Vecht, 1934, Tijdschr. Entomol. 77, Verslag: 8 (syn.). -- Cheesman, 1952, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (12) 5: 2, 15 (redescription; distr.; note on nest “nests low in rotten stumps and between rocks”). -- Richards, 1978, Aust. J. Zool. Suppl. Ser. 61: 54, 59, 130 (in subgenus Icarielia; nest; list; syn.: limatula (Smith), waigeuensis (Cameron), goodfellowiCheesman, decorata (Smith), xanthopoda (Cameron) [error; listing decorata and xanthopoda as syn. by mis-typesetting]). -- Macalintal and Starr, 1996, Mem. Ent. Soc. Washington 17: tables 1, 2 (in subgenus Icarielia; morphology). -- Kojima, 1996, Zool. Meded., Leiden 70: 328. — Kojima, 2001b, Nat. Hist. Bull. Ibaraki Univ. (5): 35, 45 (taxonomy; syn.: Polybia limatula Smith, Icaria parvimaculata Cameron, Icaria insularis Cameron, Ropalidia conservator goodfellowi Cheesman, Icaria waigeuensis Cameron). Ropalidia insularis; Bequaert, 1932, Rés. Scient. Voyage Indes Or. Néerl. Léopold de Belgique 4 (5): 50. Ropalidia parvimaculata; Bequaert, 1932, Rés. Scient. Voyage Indes Or. Néerl. Léopold de Belgique 4 (5): 50. Polistes tasmaniensis de Saussure; von Schulthess, 1932, Rés. Scient. Voyage Indes Or. Néerl. Léopold de Belgique 4 (5): 39 [misidentification]. — Kojima, 2001b, Nat. Hist. Bull. Ibaraki Univ. (5): 36, 46 (von Schulthess' misidentified specimen is in Brussels). Ropalidia conservator goodfellowi Cheesman, 1952, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (12) 5: 2, 16, female – “S. Dutch New Guinea, Mimika R.” (London). Ropalidia conservator waigeuensis; Cheesman, 1952, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (12) 5: 2, 16 (distr.). Ropalidia conservator form goodfellowi; Richards, 1978, Aust. J. Zool. Suppl. Ser. 61: 130. Ropalidia waigeuensis; Richards, 1978, Aust. J. Zool. Suppl. Ser. 61: 59 (syn. of R. conservator (Smith)). Ropalidia conservator form waigeuensis; Richards, 1978, Aust. J. Zool. Suppl. Ser. 61: 130. DISTRIBUTION: New Guinea. conspicua (Smith) Odynerus conspicuus Smith, 1863 (1864), J. Proc. Linn. Soc. 7: 40, female – “Mysol” (Oxford; according to van der Vecht’s unpublished note, a specimen in London also has a type label, but the true type is in Oxford); 1863 (1864), J. Proc. Linn. Soc. Zool. 7: 137 (distr.); 1865, J. Proc. Linn. Soc. Zool. 8: 88 (distr.); 1871, J. Proc. Linn. Soc. Zool. 11: 377 (cat.). Odynerus mysolicus Dalla Torre, 1889, Wien. Entomol. Ztg. 8: 124. Replacement name for Odynerus conspicuus Smith, 1863, non de Saussure [unnecessary replacement, incorrectly considering de Saussure, 1870, as de Saussure, 1857]; 1894, Cat. Hym. 9: 81 (cat.); 1904, Genera Insectorum 19: 50 (cat.). Ropalidia conspicua; Cheesman, 1952, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (12) 5: 2, 13 (redescription of the type; distr.). — Kojima, 2001b, Nat. Hist. Bull. Ibaraki Univ. (5): 36, 49 (taxonomy; syn.: Odynerus mysolicus Dalla Torre, Ropalidia conspicua alleni Cheesman). Ropalidia conspicua alleni Cheesman, 1952, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (12) 5: 2, 13, female – “Mysol” (London). — Kojima and Carpenter, 1997, Am. Mus. Novitat. 3199: 16 (syn. of R. conspicua, without indicating their treatment as a new synonymy). Ropalidia alleni; Richards, 1978, Aust. J. Zool. Suppl. Ser. 61: 57 (syn. of R. brunnea (Smith)) [alleni is quite different from brunnea, and Richards’ treatment is apparently based on erroneously taking “conspicua alleni” as “cariniscutis alleni”]. Ropalidia mysolica; Richards, 1978, Aust. J. Zool. Suppl. Ser. 61: 57 (in subgenus Polistratus; list; syn.: Odynerus conspicuus Smith). DISTRIBUTION: Western New Guinea. constitutionalis (de Saussure) Icaria constitutionalis de Saussure, 1853, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2: 30, pl. 4 fig. 4, female -- “Madagascar” (Paris). -- Smith, 1857, Cat. Hym. Br. Mus. 5: 95 (cat.). -- de Saussure, 1890, in Grandidier, Hist. Madagascar 20, Hym. 1: 114 (key), 128 (female). -- Dalla Torre, 1894, Cat. Hym. 9: 118 (cat.). -- Gribodo, 1895, Mem. R. Accad. Sci. Bologna (5) 5: 334. -- de Saussure, 1900, Abh. Senckenb. Naturforsch. Ges. 26 (2): 216, 222 (female, male). -- Dalla Torre, 1904, Genera Insectorum 19: 73, pl. 5 figs. 3a, 3b (cat.). Ropalidia constitutionalis; Bequaert, 1918, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. 39: 340 (cat.; distr.). -- Richards, 1978, Aust. J. Zool. Suppl. Ser. 61: 58 (in subgenus Icariola; list). -- Giordani Soika, 1991, Lav. Soc. Ven. Sci. Nat. 16: 86 (key). DISTRIBUTION: Madagascar. copiaria (de Saussure) Icaria copiaria de Saussure, 1862, Stettin. Entomol. Ztg. 23: 135, male -- “Java” (Leiden). -- Dalla Torre, 1894, Cat. Hym. 9: 118 (cat.); 1904, Genera Insectorum 19: 73 (cat.). -- Kojima and van Achterberg, 1997, Zool. Meded., Leiden 71: 159 (holotype depository). Ropalidia aristocratica copiaria; van der Vecht, 1962, Zool. Verh., Leiden 57: 30, 43, 44, 47 (key; in subgenus Icarielia; fig.; nest; distr.). -- Richards, 1978, Aust. J. Zool. Suppl. Ser. 61: 55 (in subgenus Icariola; nest). Ropaidia copiaria; Richards, 1978, Aust. J. Zool. Suppl. Ser. 61: 58 (in subgenus Icariola; list). -- Kojima, 1996, Zool. Meded., Leiden 70: 325, 326, 328, figs. 6, 19. Ropalidia aristocratica; Kojima and Yamane, 1990, in Sakagami et al., Nat. Hist. Soc. Wasps Bees Eq. Sumatra: 35 (key). DISTRIBUTION: Java. crassa van der Vecht Ropalidia crassa van der Vecht, 1941, Treubia 18: 112 (key), 162, female -- “Celebes: ... Palopo, Todjamboe (1000 m)” (unique Leiden) [?lost]. DISTRIBUTION: Sulawesi. crassipunctata Giordani Soika Ropalidia crassipunctata Giordani Soika, 1981, Boll. Soc. Entomol. Ital. 113: 172, 175, female -- “Camerun: Ekodoco” (Monaco). DISTRIBUTION: Cameroon. cristata Kojima Ropalidia cristata Spradbery, 1985, Paradise 52: 17. Nomen nudum. Ropalidia cristata Kojima, 1989, Jpn. J. Entomol. 57: 143, female, male, larva – “PAPUA NEW GUINEA ... Ower’s Corner, Sogeri, Central Province” (holotype female Canberra); . — Spradbery and Kojima, 1989, Jpn. J. Entomol. 57: 633 (colony population; nest; ethology). — Spradbery, 1991, in Ross and Matthews, Soc. Biol. Wasps: 350 (colony population). — Kojima, 2001b, Nat. Hist. Bull. Ibaraki Univ. 5: 58 (in R. rufoplagiata-group; taxonomy; key), figs. 57–60. DISTRIBUTION: New Guinea. curvilineata (Cameron) Icaria curvilineata Cameron, 1908, Dtsch. Entomol. Z. 1908: 564, female -- “Inop. Borneo” (London). Ropalidia curvilineata; van der Vecht, 1941, Treubia 18: 112 (key), 177 (female; distr.). -- Richards, 1978, Aust. J. Zool. Suppl. Ser. 61: 57 (in subgenus Anthreneida; list). -- Kojima and Yamane, 1990, in Sakagami et al., Nat. Hist. Soc. Wasps Bees Eq. Sumatra: 35 (key). -- Kojima and van Achterberg, 1997, Nat. Hist. Bull. Ibaraki Univ. 1: 3 (distr.: Sabah), 9, 10 figs. 7-13 (male). DISTRIBUTION: Malay Peninsula; Borneo; Sumatra. cyathiformis (Fabricius) Eumenes cyathiformis Fabricius, 1804, Syst. Piez.: 289 -- “Java” (holotype female Kobenhavn). -- Dalla Torre, 1894, Cat. Hym. 9: 22 (cat.; unidentified sp.); 1904, Genera Insectorum 19: 25 (cat.; unidentified sp.). Icaria ceylonica Cameron, 1898, Mem. Manch. Lit. Philos. Soc. 42 (11): 48, female -- “Periyakullam, Ceylon” (Oxford). -- Dalla Torre, 1904, Genera Insectorum 19: 73 (cat.). -- Aiyar, 1916, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 24: 713 (cat.). -- van der Vecht, 1941, Treubia 18: 104 (syn. of R. cyathiformis (Fabricius)). Icaria cagayanensis Ashmead, 1905, Can. Entomol. 37: 3 [cayayanensis !], female -- “Manila” [the Philippines] (Washington, No. 8126); 1905, Proc. U.S. Natl. Mus. 28: 962 (Icaria cagayanensis, emendation). -- Brown, 1906, Philipp. J. Sci. 1: 688 (listed from the Philippines). -- Williams, 1928, Philipp. J. Sci. 35: 78, 79 (ethology). -- van der Vecht, 1941, Treubia 18: 104 (syn. of R. cyathiformis (Fabricius)). Icaria bilineata Cameron, 1905, Tijdschr. Entomol. 48: 72, female -- “Tjandi near Semarang” (lectotype London). -- van der Vecht, 1941, Treubia 18: 104 (syn. of R. cyathiformis (Fabricius)), 162. -- Kojima and Carpenter, 1997, Am. Mus. Novit. 3199: 4 (designation of lectotype). Icaria cyathiformis; Schulz, 1912, Berlin. Entomol. Z. 57: 88 (syns.: Eumenes fasciata Fabricius, Icaria variegata (Smith)). Ropalidia cyathiformis; van der Vecht, 1941, Treubia 18: 104 (syn: Icaria bilineata Cameron, I. cagayanensis Ashmead, I. cylonica Cameron), 112 (key), 158 (ethology; taxonomy, distr.); 1962, Zool. Verh., Leiden 57: 31 (in subgenus Anthreneida; ethology; distr.). -- Baltazar, 1966, Pac. Insects Monogr. 8: 291 (in subgenus Anthreneida; cat.). -- Iwata, 1976, Evol. Instinct: 295 (in subgenus Anthreneida; ethology). -- Richards, 1978, Aust. J. Zool. Suppl. Ser. 61: 54, 55, 58 (in subgenus Icariola; nest; list). -- Yamane and Yamane, 1979, Insecta Matsumurana, n. ser. 15: 4 (key), 14, 32 (in subgenus Anthreneida; distr.). -- Gadagkar and Joshi, 1982, J. Zool. (London) 198: 27 (ethology); 1982, in Breed et al., Biol. Soc. Insects: 187 (ethology). -- Das and Gupta, 1984 (1983), Orient. Insects 17: 416 (cat.; distr.). -- Kojima, 1984, Kontyû, 52: 50, fig. 1 (larva); 1984, Kontyû, 52: 525 (key), 528, 530, 531 (in subgenus Icariola; Luzon; male genitalia). -- Gadagkar and Joshi, 1984, Z. Tierpsychol. 64: 15 (ethology); 1985, Curr. Sci. 54: 57 (ethology). -- Kojima and Tano, 1985, Kontyû 53: 524 (distr.; note on females with two submarginal cells in fore wings). -- Gadagkar, 1987, in Eder and Rembold, Chemistry Biol. Soc. Insects: 377 (ethology). -- Das and Gupta, 1989, Orient. Insects Monogr. 11: 112 (key), 143, map 10 (in sumatrae group of subgenus Anthreneida; female, male; fig.; distr.). -- Gadagkar, 1990, in Veeresh et al., Soc. Insects Environ.: 9 (ethology); 1990, in Veeresh et al., Soc. Insects Indian Perspec.: 129 (ethology). -- Spradbery, 1991, in Ross and Matthews, Soc. Biol. Wasps: 350, 354, 383 (colony population). -- Ross and Carpenter, 1991, in Ross and Matthews, Soc. Biol. Wasps: 463 (biology). -- Itô, 1993, Behav. Soc. Evol. Wasps: 51, 52, 74, 132 (ethology). -- Gadagkar, 1994, in Agrawal, Perspec. Entomol. Res.: 263 (ethology); 1995, in Ramamurthi and Bali, Readings Behav.: 135 (ethology). -- Macalintal and Starr, 1996, Mem. Ent. Soc. Washington 17: table 1 (in subgenus Icariola; morphology). -- Kojima et al., 2005, Treubia 33: 172 (distr.). Ropalidia bilineata; Richards, 1978, Aust. J. Zool. Suppl. Ser. 61: 58 (in subgenus Icariola; list) [based on the examination of types of bilineata (London, Amsterdam), we follow van der Vecht’s (1941) view]. DISTRIBUTION: Nepal; India; Sri Lanka; Myanmar; Malay Peninsula; Java; Lombok; Flores; Sumba; Sulawesi; Philippine Is. darwini Richards Ropalidia darwini Richards, 1978, Aust. J. Zool. Suppl. Ser. 61: 61, 64 (key), 72, female, male (in subgenus Icariola) – “Northern Territory, 12°25’S., 131°03’E., Milner’s Swamp” [Australia] (holotype female Sydney); also from two other localities in Northern Territory. — Cardale, 1985, Zoolog. Cat. Australia 2, Hym: 214 (in subgenus Icariola; cat.). — Kojima, 1999a, Entomol. Sci. 2: 369 (distr.). -- Saito and Kojima, 2005, Entomol. Sci. 8: 182 (taxonomy). DISTRIBUTION: Australia (North coastal Northern Territory). decorata (Smith) Polybia decorata Smith, 1858, J. Proc. Linn. Soc. Zool. 2: 114, female -- “Borneo, (Sarawak)” (lectotype Oxford); 1863 (1864), J. Proc. Linn. Soc. Zool. 7: 139 (distr.); 1871, J. Proc. Linn. Soc. Zool. 11: 384 (cat.). -- Dalla Torre, 1894, Cat. Hym. 9: 163 (cat.). -- Bingham, 1897, Fauna Br. India, Hym 1: 384 [erroneously regarded as synonym of Polybia stigma Smith]. -- Dalla Torre, 1904, Genera Insectorum 19:77 (cat.). -- van der Vecht, 1962, Zool. Verh., Leiden 57: 43 (designation of lectotype); 1966, Zool. Verh., Leiden 82: 6. Icaria xanthopoda Cameron, 1902, J. Straits Branch Asiat. Soc. 37: 103, female -- “Borneo” (London). -- Dalla Torre, 1904, Genera Insectorum 19: 75 (cat.). -- von Schulthess, 1913, Mitt. Schweiz. Entomol. Ges. 12: 164 (syn. of I. decorata(Smith) according to Meade-Waldo, in litt.). -- Richards, 1978, Aust. J. Zool. Suppl. Ser. 61: 59 (syn. of R. conservator (Smith) [by typesetting error]). Polybia stigma Smith; Bingham, 1897, Fauna Br. India, Hym. 1: 384, (female, male, distr.); 1908, Rec. Ind. Mus. 2:359 (distr.) [misidentification]. Parapolybia decorata; von Schulthess, 1913, Mitt. Schweiz. Entomol. Ges. 12: 164 (species of Icaria; syn.: Icaria xanthopoda Cam., according to Meade-Waldo, in litt.). Icaria decorata; du Buysson, 1913, Bull. Soc. Entomol. France 1913: 296. Ropalidia stigma; Dover, 1931 (1930), J. Fed. Mal. St. Mus. 16: 257 [misidentification; incorrectly gives Fabricius as the author of the name Polybia stigma]. Ropalidia decorata; van der Vecht, 1962, Zool. Verh., Leiden 57: 41 (key), 42 (in subgenus Icarielia; distr.). -- Richards, 1978, Aust. J. Zool. Suppl. Ser. 61: 59 (syn. of R. conservator (Smith) [error; “... R. decorata (Smith), xanthopoda(Cameron)];” is mis-typesetting for “... R. decorata (Smith) [= xanthopoda (Cameron)];” ], 128 (key to subgenus Icarielia species). -- Kojima and Yamane, 1990, in Sakagami et al., Nat. Hist. Soc. Wasps Bees Eq. Sumatra: 35 (key). -- Gusenleitner, 1994, Linz. Biol. Beitr. 26: 328 (compared to R. thailandia n. sp.). -- Kojima, 1996, Zool. Meded., Leiden 70: 325, 328, figs. 5, 18; 1997, Zool. Meded., Leiden 71: 58-61, figs. 3, 5, 8, 12 (compared with thailandiaGusenleitner). -- Kojima and van Achterberg, 1997, Nat. Hist. Bull. Ibaraki Univ. 1: 3 (distr.: Sabah), 8, 9 figs. 1-6 (male, female). DISTRIBUTION: Malay Peninsula; Borneo; Sumatra. deminutiva Cheesman Ropalidia deminutiva Cheesman, 1952, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (12) 5: 3, 23, female – “S. of Humboldt Bay, inland 16 miles, Mt. Nomo” (London); “Nest inside the stem of a bamboo grass”. — Richards, 1978, Aust. J. Zool. Suppl. Ser. 61: 54 (diminutiva [!]; nest), 58 (in subgenus Icarielia; list), 129 (key; “All the species including the type are labelled Bougainville, Mt. Nomo ... Mt. Bougainville which is apparently in West Irian.”). — Kojima, 1996, Zool. Meded., Leiden 70: 328, figs. 12, 25; 2001b, Nat. Hist. Bull. Ibaraki Univ. (5): 36, 51 (taxonomy; syn.: Ropalidia integra Cheesman). Ropalidia integra Cheesman, 1952, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (12) 5: 3, 22, female, “male” – “Papua, Kokoda, 1200 ft” (holotype female London). — Richards, 1978, Aust. J. Zool. Suppl. Ser. 61: 58 (in subgenus Icarielia; list), 128 (key), 129 (“Described from ... female type, male paratype. The specimen in the London NH labelled type is a female ... but is, I think, a specimen of R. deminutiva Cheesman. The paratype, though labelled male, is ... a female without a gaster ... It is a very different species and agrees with the description. I have transferred the type label to this specimen.”). — Kojima, 1996, Zool. Meded., Leiden 70: 328, figs. 13, 26; 2001b, Nat. Hist. Bull. Ibaraki Univ. (5): 36, 51 ("type label was not transferred"; syn. of R. deminutiva; "paratype … is not … conspecific with the holotype"). DISTRIBUTION: New Guinea. democratica (de Saussure) Icaria democratica de Saussure, 1853, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2: 33, female -- “Madagascar.” (coll. Guérin-Méneville; current depository unknown). -- Smith, 1857, Cat. Hym. Br. Mus. 5: 96 (cat.). -- de Saussure, 1890, in Grandidier, Hist. Madagascar 20, Hym. 1: 115 (key), 142 (female, male). -- André, 1889, Le Naturaliste: 189 (ethology). -- Dalla Torre, 1894, Cat. Hym. 9: 118 (cat.); 1904, Genera Insectorum 19: 73 (cat.). Ropalidia democratica; Bequaert, 1918, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. 39: 340 (cat.; distr.). DISTRIBUTION: Madagascar. dichroma van der Vecht Ropalidia variegata dichroma van der Vecht, 1941, Treubia 18: 157, female, male -- “Timor” (holotype female Leiden); 1962, Zool. Verh., Leiden 57: 31 (in subgenus Anthreneida; distr.). -- Kojima and van Achterberg, 1997, Zool. Meded., Leiden 71: 161 (holotype depository). Ropalidia dichroma; Kojima et al., 2005, Treubia 33: 173 (taxonomy). DISTRIBUTION: Timor. dispila (Cameron) Icaria fasciata Smith, 1859, J. Proc. Linn. Soc. Zool. 3: 167, female – “Aru” (Oxford) [junior secondary homonym of Ropalidia fasciata (Fabricius)]; 1863 (1864), J. Proc. Linn. Soc. Zool. 7: 138 (distr.) [error: Sulawesi]; 1871, J. Proc. Linn. Soc. Zool. 11: 379 (cat.). — Dalla Torre, 1894, Cat. Hym. 9: 118 (cat.); 1904, Genera Insectorum 19: 73 (cat.). Icaria dispila Cameron, 1913, Bijdr. Dierkd. 19: 77, female – “Waigeu” (unique “Waigeu, [5] i 10 [Mevr. de Beaufort leg.]” Amsterdam) [lacking 2nd-6th metasomal segments (noted in original description), and with a label on which are “Icaria dispila Cam. Type” (in Cameron’s handwriting) and “Holotype sec J. v. d. Vecht ’33” (in van der Vecht’s handwriting)]. — Kojima and van Achterberg, 1997, Zool. Meded., Leiden 71: 165 (holotype depository). Ropalidia dispila; Bequaert, 1932, Rés. Scient. Voyage Indes Or. Néerl. Léopold de Belgique 4 (5): 50. — Kojima, 2001b, Nat. Hist. Bull. Ibaraki Univ. (5): 36, 45 (taxonomy; syn: Ropalidia fasciola Richards). Ropalidia fasciata; Bequaert, 1932, Rés. Scient. Voyage Indes Or. Néerl. Léopold de Belgique 4 (5): 50. — Cheesman, 1952, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (12) 5: 2, 8 (redescription of the type). Ropalidia fasciola Richards, 1978, Aust. J. Zool. Suppl. Ser. 61: 56. (in subgenus Ropalidia). Replacement name for Icaria fasciata Smith, 1858, non Eumenes [= Ropalidia] fasciata Fabricius, 1804. — Kojima, 2001b, Nat. Hist. Bull. Ibaraki Univ. (5): 36, 45 (syn. of R. dispila). DISTRIBUTION: New Guinea (Waigeo, Aru). distigma (Gerstaecker) Icaria distigma Gerstaecker, 1857, Monatsber. K. Preuss. Akad. Wiss. Berlin: 464, female – “Mossanbique” (?Berlin); 1862, in Peters, Reise Mossambique, Zool. 5: 471. — Kohl, 1894, Ann. Naturhist. Hofmus. Wien, 9: 343. — Dalla Torre, 1894, Cat. Hym. 9: 118 (cat.). -- Stadelmann, 1898, Deutsch Ost-Afrika IV, Hym.: 33. — von Schulthess, 1899, Bull. Soc. Vaudoise Sci. Nat. (4) 35: 270 (distr.). — Dalla Torre, 1904, Genera Insectorum 19: 73 (cat.). — du Buysson, 1914, in Voy. Alluaud et Jeannel, Afr. Or., Rés. Sci., Ins. Hym., 3: 157. ?Icaria cariniscutis Cameron, 1910, Wiss. Ergebn. Schwed. Zool., Exp. Kilimandjaro 2 (8), Vesp.: 170, 171, female – “Usambara: Mombo” [Tanzania] (London). — Meade-Waldo, 1913, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (8) 11: 53 (syn. of R. distigma(Gerstaecker)). — von Schulthess, 1913, Ark Zool. 8 (17): 13 (female is R. cincta (Lepeletier), but the male belongs to another species). Junior secondary homonym of Ropalidia cariniscutis (Cameron, 1906). Ropalidia cariniscutis; Bequaert, 1918, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. 39: 339 (female was not described by Cameron). — Kojima, 2001a, Nat. Hist. Bull. Ibaraki Univ. 5: 3. Ropalidia distigma; Bequaert, 1918, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. 39: 341 (cat.; distr.). — Giordani Soika, 1935, Mem. Estud. Mus. Zool. Univ. Coimbra (1) 82: 15 (distr.). — Richards, 1978, Aust. J. Zool. Suppl. Ser. 61: 58 (in subgenus Icariola; list). -- Macalintal and Starr, 1996, Mem. Ent. Soc. Washington 17: tables 1, 2 (in subgenus Icariola; morphology). — Kojima, 2001a, Nat. Hist. Bull. Ibaraki Univ. 5: 3. DISTRIBUTION: Kenya; Tanzania; Zimbabwe; Mozambique; South Africa (Transvaal, Kwazulu-Natal). dubia (de Saussure) Icaria dubia de Saussure, 1853, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2: 33, female -- “Madagascar” (Paris). -- Smith, 1857, Cat. Hym. Br. Mus. 5: 96 (cat.). -- de Saussure, 1890, in Grandidier, Hist. Madagascar 20, Hym. 1: 115 (key), 141, pl. 18 fig. 19 (female) [partim]. -- Dalla Torre, 1894, Cat. Hym. 9: 118 (cat.). -- de Saussure, 1900, Abh. Senckenb. Naturforsch. Ges. 26 (2): 216, 217, 229 (female) [partim]. -- Dalla Torre, 1904, Genera Insectorum 19: 73 (cat.). -- Kojima, 1998, Entomol. Sci. 1: 233 (redescription of the type). Icaria pomicolor de Saussure, 1853, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2: 32, pl. 5 fig 3, female -- “Madagascar” (Paris). -- Smith, 1857, Cat. Hym. Br. Mus. 5: 95 (cat.). -- de Saussure, 1890, in Grandidier, Hist. Madagascar 20, Hym. 1: 113 (key), 117. -- Dalla Torre, 1894, Cat. Hym. 9: 120 (cat.). -- de Saussure, 1900, Abh. Senckenb. Naturforsch. Ges. 26 (2): 214. -- Dalla Torre, 1904, Genera Insectorum 19: 74 (cat.). -- Kojima, 1998, Entomol. Sci. 1: 233, 235 (holotype examined; syn. of dubia). Ropalidia dubia; Bequaert, 1918, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. 39: 341 (cat.; distr.). -- Kojima, 1998, Entomol. Sci. 1: 233 (syn.: Icaria pomicolor de Saussure, Ropalidia flavoviridis Kojima). Ropalidia pomicolor; Bequaert, 1918, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. 39: 343 (cat.; distr.). -- FitzGerald, 1950, Proc. R. Entomol. Soc. London Ser. A Gen. Entomol. 25: 85 (distr.). -- Richards, 1978, Aust. J. Zool. Suppl. Ser. 61: 58 (in subgenus Icariola; list). -- Giordani Soika, 1991, Lav. Soc. Ven. Sci. Nat. 16: 86, 88 (key). Ropalidia flavoviridis Kojima, 1988, J. Kansas Entomol. Soc. 61: 292, female, male, larva -- “Tulear Prov., Berenty, 25°00’S, 46°18’E” [Madagascar] (holotype female Lawrence). -- Wenzel, 1991, in Ross and Matthews, Soc. Biol. Wasps: 487 (nest). -- Giordani Soika, 1991, Lav. Soc. Ven. Sci. Nat. 16: 83--84 (color varieties; distr.), 86, 88 (key), fig. 12. -- Kojima, 1998, Entomol. Sci. 1: 233 (syn. of dubia (de Saussure, 1853)). DISTRIBUTION: Madagascar. ducalis (de Saussure) Icaria ducalis de Saussure, 1900, Abh. Senckenb. Naturforsch. Ges. 26 (2): 216 (key), 226, female -- “Madagascar” (Genève). -- Dalla Torre, 1904, Genera Insectorum 19: 73 (cat.). Ropalidia ducalis; Bequaert, 1918, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. 39: 341 (cat.; distr.). -- Giordani Soika, 1991, Lav. Soc. Ven. Sci. Nat. 16: 85 (key). DISTRIBUTION: Madagascar. eboraca Richards Ropalidia eboraca Richards, 1978, Aust. J. Zool. Suppl. Ser. 61: 56 (list), 63, 65 (key), 66, female (in subgenus Ropalidia) – “Queensland Q3, Cape York, Lockerbie” [Australia] (Canberra); also from 4 other localities in Queensland. — Cardale, 1985, Zoolog. Cat. Australia 2, Hym.: Vesp. Sphec.: 213 (in subgenus Ropalidia; cat.). — Kojima, 1999a, Entomol. Sci. 2: 375. DISTRIBUTION: Australia (North Queensland). elegantula Richards Ropalidia elegantula Richards, 1978, Aust. J. Zool. Suppl. Ser. 61: 53 (nest), 61, 64 (key), 70, figs. 16, 23, 37, female, male, nest (in subgenus Icariola) – “Queensland Q3, Cape York Peninsula, Bamaga” [Australia] (holotype female Canberra); also from 7 other localities in Queensland. — Cardale, 1985, Zoolog. Cat. Australia 2, Hym: 214 (in subgenus Icariola; cat.). — Naumann, 1993, in Naumann et al., Cape York Penin. Sci. Exp. Wet Season 1992 Rep. 2: 179 (distr.). — Kojima, 1999a, Entomol. Sci. 2: 369 (distr.). — Saito and Kojima, 2005, Entomol. Sci. 8: 180 (taxonomy). DISTRIBUTION: Australia (North Queensland). erythrospila (Cameron) Icaria erythrospila Cameron, 1908, Dtsch. Entomol. Z. 1908: 563, female -- “Borneo ... Kuching” (London). Ropalidia erythrospila; Dover, 1931 (1930), J. Fed. Mal. St. Mus. 16: 257. -- Richards, 1978, Aust. J. Zool. Suppl. Ser. 61: 54, 57 (in subgenus Anthreneida; list). -- Kojima and Yamane, 1984, Rep. Fac. Sci., Kagoshima Univ. (Earth Sci., Biol.) 17: 104, figs. 1--7 (larva). -- Kojima, 1996, Zool. Meded., Leiden 70: 349, 355, 357 (key), figs. 3, 10, 11, 16, 20, 29--33 (taxonomy; distr.). Ropalidia malayana var. erythrospila; van der Vecht, 1941, Treubia 18: 104, 176 (taxonomy; fig.; distr.); 1962, Zool. Verh., Leiden 57: 34, pl. 2 (in subgenus Anthreneida; distr.; nest; ethology). Ropalidia malayana erythrospila; Richards, 1978, Aust. J. Zool. Suppl. Ser. 61: 54 (in subgenus Icariola; nest). DISTRIBUTION: Malay Peninsula; Borneo; Sumatra. excavata Giordani Soika Ropalidia excavata Giordani Soika, 1977, Steenstrupia 4: 125, 128, fig. 2, female -- “CAMEROON: ... Nyong” (Kobenhavn); also from other locality in Cameroon. DISTRIBUTION: Cameroon. extrema van der Vecht Ropalidia flavopicta extrema van der Vecht, 1962, Zool. Verh., Leiden 57: 58 (key), 60, female (in subgenus Icarielia) -- “Luzon: ... Atimonan” (Leiden); also from Negros I.; a male is recorded but not described. -- Baltazar, 1966, Pac. Insects Monogr. 8: 293 (in subgenus Icarielia; cat.). -- Kojima and van Achterberg, 1997, Zool. Meded., Leiden 71: 160 (holotype depository). Ropalidia extrema; Kojima, 1982, Kontyû 50: 109 (key), 112 (in subgenus Icarielia; female, male; male genitalia; larva; fig.; distr.). -- Jeanne et al., 1983, Zoomorphologie 103: 155 (in subgenus Icarielia; morphology). -- Kojima and Jeanne, 1986, Biotropica 18: 327 (in subgenus Icarielia; nest). -- Macalintal and Starr, 1996, Mem. Ent. Soc. Washington 17: tables 1, 2 (in subgenus Icarielia; morphology). -- Kojima, 1996, Zool. Meded., Leiden 70: 326. DISTRIBUTION: Luzon I.; Negros I. fasciata (Fabricius) Eumenes fasciata Fabricius, 1804, Syst. Piez.: 290 -- “Java” (syntype males Kobenhavn). -- Dalla Torre, 1894, Cat. Hym. 9: 24 (cat.; unidentified sp.); 1904, Genera Insectorum 19: 25 (cat.; unidentified sp.). -- Schulz, 1912, Berlin. Entomol. Z. 57: 88 (types examined; syn. of Icaria cyathiformis (Fabricius)). Polistes bioculata Fabricius 1804, Syst. Piez.: 278, female -- “nova Cambria” (Kovenhavn). -- de Saussure, 1853, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2: 41 (species dubiae; ? Icaria). -- Dalla Torre, 1894, Cat. Hym. 9: 117 (syn.: Icaria artifex de Saussure). -- Richards, 1978, Aust. J. Zool. Suppl. Ser. 61: 86 (“... examined the female type of P. bioculata ... It is in bad condition and might be either R. gregaria or R. fasciata. From the colour, it can hardly have been captured in New South Wales. We propose to ignore the name”). — Kojima, 2001a, Nat. Hist. Bull. Ibaraki Univ. (5): 8 (syn. of Ropaidia fasciata (Fabricius)) Icaria picta de Saussure, 1854, Ét. Fam. Vesp.: 238, female -- “Le Bengale” [India] (Paris). -- Smith, 1871, J. Proc. Linn. Soc. Zool. 11: 380 (cat.). -- Dalla Torre, 1894, Cat. Hym. 9: 120 (cat.); 1904, Genera Insectorum 19: 74 (cat.). -- van der Vecht, 1959, Arch. Neerl. Zool. 13(1), suppl. 1958: 245 (syn. of R. fasciata (Fabricius)). ?Icaria pendula Smith; de Saussure, 1867, Reise Novara, Zool. 2, 1 Hym.: 22 (distr.). Icaria variegata Smith; Bingham, 1897, Fauna Br. India, Hym. I: 386 (key), 388 (female). Icaria maculifrons Cameron, 1903, J. Straits Br. R. Asiat. Soc. 39: 172, female -- “Santubong” [Borneo] (London, no. 18835); 1905, Tijdschr. Entomol. 48: 71 (distr.); 1906, Tijdschr. Entomol. 49: 231 (compared to Icaria spilocephala n. sp.); 1907, J. Straits Br. R. Asiat. Soc. 48: 26 (distr.). -- van der Vecht, 1941, Treubia 18: 104 (syn. of R. picta (de Saussure)). Icaria intermedia Cameron, 1905, Tijdschr. Entomol. 48: 70, female, “Tjandi near Semarang” (lectotype Amsterdam); 1907, J. Straits Br. R. Asiat. Soc. 48: 26 (distr.). -- van der Vecht, 1941, Treubia 18: 104 (syn. of R. picta (de Saussure)). -- Kojima and Carpenter, 1997, Am. Mus. Novit. 3199: 4 (designation of lectotype). -- Kojima and van Achterberg, 1997, Zool. Meded., Leiden 71: 165 (lectotype depository). Icaria ferruginea; Kuroiwa, 1908, Prov. List Hym. in Loochoo: 5 (distr.) [misidentification]. -- Matsumura, 1910, Schäd. Nützl. Insek. Zuckerrohr Formosas: 52. -- Matsumura and Uchida, 1926, Insecta Matsumurana 1: 35 (distr.) [misidentification]. Ropalidia variegata; Dover, 1929, Bull. Raffles Mus., Singapore 2: 47; 1931, J. Fed. Mal. St. Mus. 16: 257. -- Sonan, 1935, Trans. Nat. Hist. Soc. Formosa 25: 199, 200 (description; key). -- Yasumatsu, 1935, Annot. Zool. Japon. 15: 36 (distr.: Yonakuni). -- Liu, 1936--37, Peking Nat. Hist. Bull. 11 (3): 207, 348 (cat.; distr.). -- Kuo and Yeh, 1987, J. Nat. Chiayi Inst. Agric. 11: 82. ?Ropalidia artifex; Carl, 1934, Rev. Suisse Zool. 41: fig. 7 (male genitalia). — Kojima, 2001a, Nat. Hist. Bull. Ibaraki Univ. (5): 9 (Carl's "artifex" may well be R. fasciata). Ropalidia picta; van der Vecht, 1941, Treubia 18: 104 (syn: Icaria intermedia Cameron, I. maculifrons Cameron), 111 (key), 145 (male; fig., distr.). -- Tweedie, 1941, Poisonous Anim. Malaya: 60 (effect of sting). -- Walrecht, 1953, Levende Nat. 56: 53--54 (nest). -- Yasumatsu, 1962, Kontyû 30: 241. Ropalidia fasciata; van der Vecht, 1959, Arch. Neerl. Zool. 13(1), suppl. 1958: 245 (taxonomy); 1962, Zool. Verh., Leiden 57: 23 (in subgenus Anthreneida; ethology; distr.). -- Yoshikawa, 1964, Nat. Life S. E. Asia 3: 395, pl. 5 figs. 7, 9 (nest). -- Baltazar, 1966, Pac. Insects Monogr. 8: 291 (in subgenus Anthreneida; cat.). -- van der Vecht, 1968, Proc. K. Ned. Akad. Wet. Ser. C Biol. Med. Sci. 71: 418, fig. 3h (morphology). -- Iwata, 1969, Kontyû 37: 437--443 (nest). -- Matsuura, 1975, Shokubutsu-boeki 29: 294 (key to nest). -- Iwata, 1976, Evol. Instinct: 295 (in subgenus Anthreneida; ethology). -- Richards, 1978, Aust. J. Zool. Suppl. Ser. 61: 53, 58 (in subgenus Icariola; nest; list). -- Yamane and Yamane, 1979, Insecta Matsumurana, n. ser. 15: 4 (key), 10, 32 (distr.). -- Suzuki and Murai, 1980, Res. Popul. Ecol. 22: 184 (biology). -- Tano, 1980, Hymen. Comm. (11): 16 (distr.). -- Lee, 1982, Hornets from Agric. Regions China: 83 (key), 86, pl. 2 fig. 2 (in subgenus Anthreneida); 1982, Zool. Res. 3: 86 (in subgenus Anthreneida; distr.). -- Itô, 1983, J. Ethol. 1: 1 (ethology); 1983, Kontyû 51: 269 (biology). -- Jeanne et al., 1983, Zoomorphologie 103: 155, fig. 16 (in subgenus Icariola; morphology). -- Kojima, 1983, Jpn. J. Ecol. 33: 213 (ethology); 1983, Kontyû 51: 502 (ethology). -- Das and Gupta, 1984 (1983), Orient. Insects 17: 417 (cat.; distr.). -- Kojima, 1984, Kontyû 52: 52, 53, fig. 3 (larva); 1984, Biol. Mag, Okinawa 22: 27 (ethology); 1984, Jpn. J. Ecol. 34: 233 (nest); 1984, Kontyû, 52: 525 (key), 530, 531 (in subgenus Icariola; distr.; male genitalia) -- Kojima and Yamane, 1984, Rep. Fac. Sci., Kagoshima Univ. (Earth Sci., Biol.) 17: 109, figs. 23--29 (larva). -- Lee, 1985, Econ. Insect Fauna China, 30 Hym.: Vespoidea: 46 (key), 47, pl. 2 fig. 2 (in subgenus Anthreneida; female, male). -- Itô, 1985, Res. Popul. Ecol. 27: 333 (biology) -- Itô et al., 1985, Kontyû 53: 486 (biology). -- Itô and Sk. Yamane, 1985, Insectes Soc. 32: 403 (biology). -- Turillazzi and Marucelli-Turillazzi, 1985, Monit. Zool. Ital. (n. ser.) 19: 219--230 (ethology). -- Itô, 1986, J. Ethol. 4: 73 (ethology). -- Itô and Iwahashi, 1987, Res. Popul. Ecol. 29: 189 (population). -- Lee, 1987, in Forest Insects Yunnan: 1348 (in subgenus Anthreneida; key). -- Tano, 1987, Hoyu-tsushin 27: 118 (distr.: Yonakuni, Iriomote, hatoma, Okinoerabu, Tokunoshima, Amamiooshima). -- Kojima, 1988, Kontyû, 56: 169 (ethology); 1989, Insectes Soc. 36: 197 (biology). -- Das and Gupta, 1989, Orient. Insects Monogr. 11: 112 (key), 140, map 22 (in sumatrae group of subgenus Anthreneida; female, male; fig.; distr.). -- Kojima and Yamane, 1990, in Sakagami et al., Nat. Hist. Soc. Wasps Bees Eq. Sumatra: 34, 36 (key; distr.). -- Spradbery, 1991, in Ross and Matthews, Soc. Biol. Wasps: 341, 349, 350, 351, 354, 372, 374, 375 (colony population). -- Jeanne, 1991, inRoss and Matthews, Soc. Biol. Wasps: 395, 404 (ethology). -- Ross and Carpenter, 1991, in Ross and Matthews, Soc. Biol. Wasps: 459, 463 (biology). -- Starr, 1992, Bull. Natl. Mus. Nat. Sci. 3: 115. -- Itô, 1992, J. Ethol. 10:109 (ethology); 1993, Behav. Soc. Evol. Wasps: 8, 20, 25, 27, 28, 32, 34, 56, 67, 68, 71, 76, 87, 93, 107, 127, 128, 129, 132 (in subgenus Icariola; ethology). -- Itô et al., 1994, J. Ethol. 12: 187 (ethology). -- Itô, 1995, Insectarium 32 (1): 18; 1995, Pac. Sci. 49: 42 (ethology); 1996, Ecol. Res. 11: 79 (ethology). -- Macalintal and Starr, 1996, Mem. Ent. Soc. Washington 17: 112, table 1 (in subgenus Icariola; morphology). -- Katada and Iwahashi, 1996, Insectes Soc. 43: 247 (ethology). -- Yamane and Wang, 1996, Guide Book to Insects in Taiwan (16): 103 (key), 107-109. — Kojima et al., 2005, Treubia 33: 173 (distr.). ?Ropalidia variegata variegata; Lee, 1982, Hornets from Agric. Regions China: 83 (key), 88, pl. 3 fig. 2 (in subgenus Anthreneida); 1985, Econ. Insect Fauna China 30 Hym.: Vespoidea: 46 (key), 47, pl. 3 fig. 2 (in subgenus Anthreneida; female, male; distr.). -- Lee and Ma, 1992, in Icono. Forest Insects Hunan China: 1328 (distr.). DISTRIBUTION: Nepal; India; Myanmar; Thailand; Malay Peninsula; Sumatra; Nias; Bangka I.; Java; Karimon Djawa I.; Bali; Komodo; Flores; Timor; Borneo; South China; Palawan; Taiwan; Ryukyu Islands. festina (Smith) Icaria festina Smith, 1865, J. Proc. Linn. Soc. Zool. 8: 90, female – “New Guinea” (Oxford). — Dalla Torre, 1894, Cat. Hym. 9: 118 (cat.); 1904, Genera Insectorum 19: 73 (cat.). Icaria zonata Cameron, 1906, in Wichmann, Nova Guinea 5, Zool. 1: 61, female – “Moaif” [New Guinea] (lectotype Amsterdam); also from another locality in New Guinea. — Meade-Waldo, 1911, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (8)7: 100 (syn. of I. festina). — van der Vecht, 1934, Tijdschr. Entomol. 77, Verslag: 8 (syn. of R. festina (Smith)). — Kojima and Carpenter, 1997, Am. Mus. Novit. 3199: 5 (designation of lectotype). — Kojima and van Achterberg, 1997, Zool. Meded., Leiden 71: 166 (lectotype depository). Ropalidia festina; Bequaert, 1932, Rés. Scient. Voyage Indes Or. Néerl. Léopold de Belgique 4 (5): 51. — van der Vecht, 1934, Tijdschr. Entomol. 77, Verslag: 8 (syn.: Polistes albobalteatus Cam. 1906, Icaria zonata Cam. 1906, Polybia papuana Cam. 1913). — Richards, 1978, Aust. J. Zool. Suppl. Ser. 61: 58 (in subgenus Icarielia; list), 129 (key). — Kojima, 1996, Zool. Meded., Leiden 70: 328; 1996, Zool. Meded., Leiden 70: 350. — Kojima, 2001b, Nat. Hist. Bull. Ibaraki Univ. (5): 36, 53 (taxonomy; syn.: Icaria zonata). Ropalidia reactionalis festina; Cheesman, 1952, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (12) 5: 3, 21 (redescription of types). Ropalidia zonata; Cheesman, 1952, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (12) 5: 3, 22. — Richards, 1978, Aust. J. Zool. Suppl. Ser. 61: 58 (in subgenus Icarielia; list), 129 (key). — Kojima, 1996, Zool. Meded., Leiden 70: 328. — Kojima and van Achterberg, 1997, Zool. Meded., Leiden 71: 166. DISTRIBUTION: New Guinea. flavinoda van der Vecht Ropalidia variegata flavinoda van der Vecht, 1941, Treubia, 18: 158, female -- “Cape York” [Australia] (Cambridge). — Kojima, 2001a, Nat. Hist. Bull. Ibaraki Univ. (5): 8. Ropalidia interrupta flavinoda; Richards, 1978, Aust. J. Zool. Suppl. Ser. 61: 91. -- Cardale, 1985, Zoolog. Cat. Australia 2, Hym.: Vesp. Sphec.: 215 (in subgenus Icariola; cat.). Ropalidia flavinoda; Kojima, 1999— Kojima, 2001a, Nat. Hist. Bull. Ibaraki Univ. (5): 8 (Kojima's (1999) synonymy of R. mutabilis torresiana under R. flavinoda is doubtfull) — Saito and Kojima, 2005, Entomol. Sci. 8: 185 (taxonomy). DISTRIBUTION: Australia (Queensland). flavobrunnea van der Vecht Ropalidia flavopicta flavobrunnea van der Vecht, 1962, Zool. Verh., Leiden 57: 58, key, female (in subgenus Icarielia) -- “Calapan, Mindoro” [Philippines] (Gainesville); also from Luzon, Negros, Samar, Mindanao. -- Baltazar, 1966, Pac. Insects Monogr. 8: 293 (in subgenus Icarielia; cat.). -- Kojima, 1982, Biotropica 14: 272 (in subgenus Icarielia; nest). Ropalidia flavobrunnea flavobrunnea; Kojima, 1982, Kontyû 50: 109 (key), 118 (in subgenus Icarielia; female, male; fig.; distr.). Ropalidia flavobrunnea lapiniga Kojima, 1982, Kontyû 50: 110 (key), 116, 120, female, male, larva (in subgenus Icarielia) -- “Palo, Leyte I.” [Philippines] (holotype female Sapporo); also from two other localities in Leyte; and Samar. -- Yamane and Kojima, 1982, Kontyû, 50: 183 (record of trigonalyid parasite, Pseudonomadina biceps Yamane and Kojima). -- Jeanne et al., 1983, Zoomorphologie 103: 155 (in subgenus Icarielia; morphology). -- Kojima, 1996, Zool. Meded., Leiden 70: 343 (syn. of Ropalidia flavobrunnea). Ropalidia flavobrunnea iracunda Kojima, 1982, Kontyû 50: 110 (key), 122, female, male (in subgenus Icarielia) -- “Central Mindanao University, Musuan, Bukidnon, Mindanao I.” [Philippines] (holotype female Sapporo). -- Kojima and Jeanne, 1986, Biotropica 18: 329 (in subgenus Icarielia; nest). -- Kojima, 1996, Zool. Meded., Leiden 70: 343 (syn. of Ropalidia flavobrunnea). Ropalidia flavobrunnea; Wenzel, 1991, in Ross and Matthews, Soc. Biol. Wasps: 501 (in subgenus Icarielia; nest). -- Macalintal and Starr, 1996, Mem. Ent. Soc. Washington 17: tables 1, 2 (in subgenus Icarielia; morphology). -- Kojima, 1996, Zool. Meded., Leiden 70: 325, 342, figs. 91, 101 (taxonomy; syn: Ropalidia flavobrunnea iracunda Kojima, Ropalidia flavobrunnea lapiniga Kojima). DISTRIBUTION: Luzon; Mindoro; Negros; Leyte; Samar; Mindanao. flavopicta (Smith) Icaria flavopicta Smith, 1857, Cat. Hym. Br. Mus. 5: 99, female -- “Borneo (Sarawak)” (London). -- de Saussure, 1862, Stettin. Entomol. Ztg., 23: 135 (distr.). -- Smith, 1871, J. Proc. Linn. Soc. Zool. 11: 379 (cat.). -- Dalla Torre, 1894. Cat. Hym., 9: 118 (cat.); 1904, Genera Insectorum 19: 73 (cat.). -- Bingham, 1905, Fasc. Malay. 3: 50 (distr.). -- Meade-Waldo, 1911, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (8) 7: 100 (syn.: I. ornaticeps Cameron; distr.); 1913, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (8) 11: 46 (designated as type species of subgenus Icarielia Dalla Torre). -- von Schulthess, 1914, Zool. Jahrb. Syst. 37: 259 (distr.). Ropalidia flavopicta; Bequaert, 1918, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. 39: 246. -- Dover, 1926, China J. Sci. Arts 4: 233; 1931 (1930), J. Fed. Malay St. Mus. 16: 257 (distr.). -- Liu, 1936--37, Peking Nat. Hist. Bull. 11: 206, 338 (cat.; distr.). -- van der Vecht, 1968, Proc. K. Ned. Akad. Wet. Ser. C Biol. Med. Sci. 71: 418, fig. 3e (morphology). -- Richards, 1978, Aust. J. Zool. Suppl. Ser. 61: 59 (in subgenus Icarielia; list), 128 (key). -- Kojima and Yamane, 1990, in Sakagami et al., Nat. Hist. Soc. Wasps Bees Eq. Sumatra: 35 (key), 37 (distr.). -- Itô, 1993, Behav. Soc. Evol. Wasps: 89 (in subgenus Icarielia; ethology). -- Macalintal and Starr, 1996, Mem. Ent. Soc. Washington 17: tables 1, 2 (in subgenus Icarielia;morphology). -- Kojima, 1996, Zool. Meded., Leiden 70: 325, 328, figs. 27--44, 48, 51, 54, 55, 60, 63--74 (taxonomy; distr.). -- Kojima, 1997, Zool. Meded., Leiden 71: 59, 60, figs. 9, 13 (compared with thailandia). -- Kojima and van Achterberg, 1997, Nat. Hist. Bull. Ibaraki Univ. 1: 3 (distr.: Sabah). Ropalidia flavopicta flavopicta; van der Vecht, 1962, Zool. Verh., Leiden 57: 42, 48, 49 (key), 51 (in subgenus Icarielia; distr.; biology). -- Iwata, 1976, Evol. Instinct: 295 (in subgenus Icarielia; ethology). -- Das and Gupta, 1984 (1983), Orient. Insects 17: 427 (in subgenus Icarielia; cat.) -- Kojima, 1982, Kontyû 50: 110, 111. -- Kojima and Yamane, 1984, Rep. Fac. Sci. Kagoshima Univ. (Earth Sci. Biol.) 17: 116, figs. 50--56 (larva). -- Das and Gupta, 1989, Orient. Insects Monogr. 11: 113 (key), 150 (in subgenus Icarielia). -- Jeanne, 1991, in Ross and Matthews, Soc. Biol. Wasps: 212 (colony population). DISTRIBUTION: Hong Kong; Vietnam; Malay Peninsula: Borneo; Sumatra. fluviatilis (Meade-Waldo) Icaria fluviatilis Meade-Waldo, 1912, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (8) 9: 449 (key), 451, female (in subgenus Icariola) – “Mimika River” [S. W. New Guinea] (?London). — Kojima, 2001b, Nat. Hist. Bull. Ibaraki Univ. (5): 36, 53 (holotype headless, exact status uncertain; ? syn. of R. albobalteata). Ropalidia fluviatilis; Bequaert, 1932, Rés. Scient. Voyage Indes Or. Néerl. Léopold de Belgique 4 (5): 51. — Cheesman, 1952, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (12) 5: 2, 17 (redescription; distr.), 26 (fluvialis [!]). — Richards, 1978, Aust. J. Zool. Suppl. Ser. 61: 58 (in subgenus Icariola; list). DISTRIBUTION: Southwestern New Guinea. formosa (de Saussure) Icaria formosa de Saussure, 1853, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2: 37, female -- “Les Indes Orientales” (London). -- Smith, 1857, Cat. Hym. Br. Mus. 5: 98 (cat.); 1871, J. Proc. Linn. Soc. Zool. 11: 378 (cat.). -- Dalla Torre, 1894, Cat. Hym. 9: 118 (cat. [erroneously recorded from India]); 1904, Genera Insectorum 19: 73 (cat.; as 1894). -- Bingham, 1897, Fauna Br. India Hym. 1: 387 (key), 392. Icaria hova de Saussure, 1890, in Grandidier, Hist. Madagascar 20, Hym. 1: 104, 113 (key), 131, fig. A (ethology), pl. 4 figs. 2, 2b, female, male -- “Madagascar ... aux environs d’Andrangoloaka (Imerina)” (Genève, Paris). -- Dalla Torre, 1894, Cat. Hym. 9: 119 (cat.). -- de Saussure, 1900, Abh. Senckenb. Naturforsch. Ges. 26 (2): 217, 228. -- Dalla Torre, 1904, Genera Insectorum 19: 73 (cat.). Ropalidia hova; Bequaert, 1918, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. 39: 342 (cat.; distr.). -- van der Vecht, 1941, Treubia 18: 105 (syn. of formosa de Saussure). -- Giordani Soika, 1991, Lav. Soc. Ven. Sci. Nat. 16: 85, 87 (key), fig. 5. Ropalidia formosa; van der Vecht, 1941, Treubia 18: 105 (erroneously described from Oriental Region; syn.: Icaria hova de Saussure). -- Richards, 1978, Aust. J. Zool. Suppl. Ser. 61: 58 (in subgenus Icariola; list; syn.: hova (de Saussure)). -- Wenzel, 1987, J. Kansas Entomol. Soc. 60: 549 (ethology). -- Kojima, 1988, J. Kansas Entomol. Soc. 61: 297, figs. 33--38 (larva). -- Das and Gupta, 1989, Orient. Insects Monogr. 11: 108. -- Wenzel, 1991, in Ross and Matthews, Soc. Biol. Wasps: 487 (nest). -- Itô, 1993, Behav. Soc. Evol. Wasps: 20 (formosae [!]; ethology). -- Macalintal and Starr, 1996, Mem. Ent. Soc. Washington 17: tables 1, 2 (in subgenus Icariola; morphology). DISTRIBUTION: Madagascar. fraterna (de Saussure) Icaria fraterna de Saussure, 1900, Abh. Senckenb. Naturforsch. Ges. 26 (2): 216 (key), 225, female, male -- “Madagascar; Imerina” (Genève). -- Dalla Torre, 1904, Genera Insectorum 19: 73 (cat.). -- von Schulthess, 1907, Voeltzkow, Reise in Ostafrika 1903--1905, Wiss. Ergebn. 2 (2): 65. Ropalidia fraterna; Bequaert, 1918, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. 39: 341 (cat.; distr.). -- FitzGerald, 1950, Proc. R. Entomol. Soc. London Ser. A Gen. Entomol. 25: 83 (nest). -- Richards, 1978, Aust. J. Zool. Suppl. Ser. 61: 53 (in subgenus Icariola; nest). -- Giordani Soika, 1991, Lav. Soc. Ven. Sci. Nat. 16: 86, 87 (key), fig. 14. DISTRIBUTION: Madagascar. fulvopruinosa (Cameron) Odynerus (Leionotus) fulvopruinosa Cameron, 1906, Tijdschr. Entomol. 49: 225, female – “Etna Bay” (unique Amsterdam) [2nd-6th metasomal segments lacking (noted in original description), with a label on which are “Leionotus fulvopruinosus Cam. Type New Guinea” (in Cameron’s handwriting) and “Holotype sec. J. v.d.Vecht ’33” (in van der Vecht’s handwriting)]. — Kojima and van Achterberg, 1997, Zool. Meded., Leiden 71: 166 (holotype depository). Ropalidia fulvopruinosa; Bequaert, 1932, Rés. Scient. Voyage Indes Or. Néerl. Léopold de Belgique 4 (5): 50. — Richards, 1978, Aust. J. Zool. Suppl. Ser. 61: 54 (nest), 56 (list), 63 (key), 67, figs. 12, 25, 33, 41 (in subgenus Ropalidia; redescription.; distr.; nest). — Cardale, 1985, Zoolog. Cat. Australia 2, Hym.: Vesp. Sphec.: 213 (in subgenus Ropalidia; cat.). — Kojima and Spradbery, 1987, Kontyû, 55: 603, fig. 8 (larva). — Kojima, 1999a, Entomol. Sci. 2: 375. DISTRIBUTION: New Guinea; Australia (Queensland). galimatia (de Saussure) Icaria galimatia de Saussure, 1853, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2: 36, female, male – “Madagascar” (coll. Guérin-Méneville; lectotype female Paris); 1854, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2: 249. Table Alphabétique (galimatias [!]). — Smith, 1857, Cat. Hym. Br. Mus. 5: 96 (cat.). — Dalla Torre, 1894, Cat. Hym. 9: 119 (cat.); 1904, Genera Insectorum 19: 73 (cat.). — Kojima et al., Entomol. Sci. 1: 393 (designation of lectotype; syn.: ignobilis de Saussure, 1890). Icaria gallimathias de Saussure, 1890, in Grandidier, Hist. Madagascar 20, Hym. 1: 125. Unjustified emendation of Icaria galimatia de Saussure. Icaria ignobilis de Saussure, 1890, in Grandidier, Hist. Madagascar 20, Hym. 1: 114 (key), 127, pl. 4 figs. 7, 7b, female, male – “Madagascar” (Genève, Paris). -- Dalla Torre, 1894, Cat. Hym. 9: 119 (cat.). — de Saussure, 1900, Abh. Senckenb. Naturforsch. Ges. 26 (2): 216, 224 (female, male), 225 (perhaps small form of Icaria madecassa de Saussure). -- Dalla Torre, 1904, Genera Insectorum 19: 73 (cat.). -- Kojima et al., 1998: 394 (designation of lectotype; syn. of galimatia). Icaria madecassa de Saussure, 1890, in Grandidier, Hist. Madagascar 20, Hym. 1: 113, 114 (key), 125, pl. 18 fig. 16 (female) [unnecessary replacement name for Icaria gallimathias de Saussure]; 1900, Abh. Senckenb. Naturforsch. Ges. 26 (2): 216, 224 (female). -- von Schulthess, 1907, Voeltzkow, Reise in Ostafrika 1903--1905, Wiss. Ergebn. 2 (2): 64. -- Bequaert, 1918, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. 39: 341 (syn. of R. galimatia (de Saussure)). Icaria madecassa var. flavopicta de Saussure, 1900,, Abh. Senckenb. Naturforsch. Ges. 26 (2): 217 (key), 224, female -- “Madagascar meridionalis et centralis;...Nossi-Bé” (?Genève). Junior primary homonym of Icaria flavopicta Smith, 1857. -- Kojima and Carpenter, 1997, Am. Mus. Novit. 3199: 26. Ropalidia galimatia; Bequaert, 1918, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. 39: 341 (cat.; syn.: Icaria madecassa de Saussure; distr.). -- FitzGerald, 1950, Proc. R. Entomol. Soc. London Ser. A Gen. Entomol. 25: 83 (nest). -- Richards, 1978, Aust. J. Zool. Suppl. Ser. 61: 58 (list). -- Giordani Soika, 1991, Lav. Soc. Ven. Sci. Nat. 16: 86, 87 (key), fig. 15. Icaria madecassa var. ignobilis; von Schulthess, 1907, Voeltzkow, Reise in Ostafrika 1903--1905, Wiss. Ergebn. 2 (2): 64--65. Ropalidia galimatia var. ignobilis; Bequaert, 1918, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. 39: 341 (cat.; distr.). Ropalidia ignobilis; FitzGerald, 1950, Proc. R. Entomol. Soc. London Ser. A Gen. Entomol. 25: 85 (distr.; nest). -- Kojima, 1988, J. Kansas Entomol. Soc. 61: 299, figs. 44--46 (larva). -- Wenzel, 1991, in Ross and Matthews, Soc. Biol. Wasps: 487 (nest); 1992, Insectes Soc. 39: 31 (caste dimorphism). DISTRIBUTION: Madagascar. gemmea Cheesman Ropalidia gemmea Cheesman, 1952, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (12) 5: 3, 22, female, male – “Papua, Owen Stanley Mts., Kokoda, 1200 ft.” (holotype female London); also from Mondo. — Richards, 1978, Aust. J. Zool. Suppl. Ser. 61: 58 (in subgenus Icarielia; list), 129 (key). — Kojima, 2001b, Nat. Hist. Bull. Ibaraki Uiv. 5: 52 (in R. lefebvrei-group). DISTRIBUTION: New Guinea. gracilenta Richards Ropalidia gracilenta Richards, 1978, Aust. J. Zool. Suppl. Ser. 61: 61 (key), 98, figs. 11, 15, female (in subgenus Icariola) -- “New South Wales, near Ballina, North Creek” [Australia] (Sydney); also from Queensland. -- Cardale, 1985, Zoolog. Cat. Australia 2, Hym: 214 (in subgenus Icariola; cat.). -- Kojima, 1987, J. Aust. Entomol. Soc. 26: 146, figs. 59--68 (larva); Kojima, 1987, J. Aust. Entomol. Soc. 26: 149 (male; nest); 1999a, Entool. Sci. 2: 368 (distr.; taxonomy). DISTRIBUTION: Australia (New South Wales, Queensland). gracilis (Smith) Icaria gracilis Smith, 1859, J. Proc. Linn. Soc. Zool. 3: 167, female – “Aru” (Oxford); 1863 (1864), J. Proc. Linn. Soc. Zool. 7: 138 (distr.); 1865, J. Proc. Linn. Soc. Zool. 8: 90 (listed); 1871, J. Proc. Linn. Soc. Zool. 11: 380 (cat.). -- Dalla Torre, 1894, Cat. Hym. 9: 119 (cat.); 1904, Genera Insectorum 19: 73 (cat.) [error: year of publication 1868]. Icaria deceptor Smith, 1863 (1864), J. Proc. Linn. Soc. Zool. 7: 42, female – “Mysol” (Oxford); 1863 (1864), J. Proc. Linn. Soc. Zool. 7: 138 (distr.); 1871, J. Proc. Linn. Soc. Zool. 11: 380 (cat.) — Dalla Torre, 1894, Cat. Hym. 9: 118 (cat.); 1904, Genera Insectorum 19: 73 (cat.). Ropalidia gracilis; Bequaert, 1932, Rés. Scient. Voyage Indes Or. Néerl. Léopold de Belgique 4 (5): 50 (gracillis [!]; “probablement un Parapolybia”). — Cheesman, 1952, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (12) 5: 3, 18 (syn.: Icaria deceptor Smith, 1863; redescription of type; distr.). — Richards, 1978, Aust. J. Zool. Suppl. Ser. 61: 58, 99 (in subgenus Icariola; list; female). — Kojima, 2001b, Nat. Hist. Bull. Ibaraki Univ. (5): 36, 56 (taxonomy; syn.: Icaria deceptor Smith). Ropalidia deceptor; Bequaert, 1932, Rés. Scient. Voyage Indes Or. Néerl. Léopold de Belgique 4 (5): 50. — ichards, 1978, Aust. J. Zool. Suppl. Ser. 61: 53 (nest), 58 (list), 61 (key), 99, figs. 20, 34 (in subgenus Icariola; female, male; distr.). — Cardale, 1985, Zoolog. Cat. Australia 2, Hym.: 214 (in subgenus Icariola; cat.). — Naumann, 1993, in Naumann et al., Cape York Penin. Sci. Exp. Wet Season 1992 Rep. 2: 179 (distr.). — Kojima, 1999a, Entool. Sci. 2: 368 (distr.). DISTRIBUTION: New Guinea; Australia (North Queensland). grandidieri (de Saussure) Icaria grandidieri de Saussure, 1890, in Grandidier, Hist. Madagascar 20, Hym. 1: 113 (key), 120, pl. 4 figs. 5, 5b, female, male -- “Madagascar” (Genève, Paris). -- Dalla Torre, 1894, Cat. Hym. 9: 119 (cat.). -- de Saussure, 1900, Abh. Senckenb. Naturforsch. Ges. 26 (2): 215, 221 (female, male). -- Dalla Torre, 1904, Genera Insectorum 19: 73 (cat.). -- von Schulthess, 1907, Voeltzkow, Reise in Ostafrika 1903--1905, Wiss. Ergebn. 2 (2): 64; 1931, Mitt. Schweiz. Entomol. Ges. 15 (2): 51, fig. 3 (compared to Icaria shestakovi n. sp.). Ropalidia grandidieri; Bequaert, 1918, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. 39: 342 (cat.; distr.). -- FitzGerald, 1950, Proc. R. Entomol. Soc. London Ser. A Gen. Entomol. 25: 83 (nest). -- Richards, 1978, Aust. J. Zool. Suppl. Ser. 61: 54, 58 (in subgenus Icariola; nest; list). -- Kojima, 1988, J. Kansas Entomol. Soc. 61: 297, figs. 26--30 (larva). -- Giordani Soika, 1991, Lav. Soc. Ven. Sci. Nat. 16: 83 (distr.), 86, 87 (key), fig. 3. ? Ropalidia xanthura; Bequaert, 1918, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. 39: 345 (cat.; distr.). -- Kojima, 1988, J. Kansas Entomol. Soc. 61: 297, figs. 31--32 (larva). -- van der Vecht and Carpenter, 1990, Zool. Verh., Leiden 260: 47 (“erroneously placed in Polistratus by Richards (1978)”). -- Kojima and Carpenter, 1998, Entomol. Sci. 1: 420 (exact status of Ropalidia xanthura of authors uncertain). DISTRIBUTION: Madagascar. granulata borneensis van der Vecht Ropalidia granulata borneensis van der Vecht, 1941, Treubia 18: 190, female -- “Borneo: ... Bettotan near Sandakan” (Leiden); 1962, Zool. Verh., Leiden 57: 37 (distr.; nest). -- Richards, 1978, Aust. J. Zool. Suppl. Ser. 61: 54 (nest). -- Macalintal and Starr, 1996, Mem. Ent. Soc. Washington 17: table 1 (in subgenus Icariola). -- Kojima and van Achterberg, 1997, Zool. Meded., Leiden 71: 161 (holotype depository). Ropalidia granulata; Macalintal and Starr, 1996, Mem. Ent. Soc. Washington 17: table 2 (in subgenus Icariola; morphology). DISTRIBUTION: Borneo; Malay Peninsula. granulata granulata van der Vecht Ropalidia granulata van der Vecht, 1941, Treubia 18: 113 (key), 189, female -- “Malay Peninsula, Pahang, Kuala Teku” (Leiden); also from Sumatra. -- Richards, 1978, Aust. J. Zool. Suppl. Ser. 61: 58 (in subgenus Icariola; list). -- Kojima and Yamane, 1990, in Sakagami et al., Nat. Hist. Soc. Wasps Bees Eq. Sumatra: 35 (key), 37 (distr.). -- Kojima and van Achterberg, 1997, Zool. Meded., Leiden 71: 161 (holotype depository). DISTRIBUTION: Malay Peninsula; Sumatra. gregaria (de Saussure) Icaria gregaria de Saussure, 1854, Ét. Fam. Vesp.: 236, female -- “La Nouvelle Hollande” (coll. Romand; type depository unknown); 1862, Stett. Entomol. Ztg. 23: 137. -- Dalla Torre, 1894, Cat. Hym. 9: 119 (cat.); 1904, Genera Insectorum 19: 73 (cat.). — Kojima, 2001a, Nat. Hist. Bull. Ibaraki Univ. (5): 5 (designation of lectotype; redescription of types), figs. 5-12. Ropalidia variegata interrupta van der Vecht, 1941, Treubia 18: 158, female -- “Thursday Island” [Australia] (Cambridge). — Kojima, 2001a, Nat. Hist. Bull. Ibaraki Univ. (5): 6 (syn. of Ropalidia gregaria). Ropalidia interrupta interrupta; Richards, 1978, Aust. J. Zool. Suppl. Ser. 61: 58, 90 (in subgenus Icariola; list; distr.). -- Cardale, 1985, Zoolog. Cat. Australia 2, Hym.: Vesp. Sphec.: 215 (in subgenus Icariola; cat.). Ropalidia interrupta; Kojima, 1999a, Entomol. Sci. 2: 372 (taxonomy; syn: Ropalidia mutabilis mutabilis Richards). Ropalidia grearia; Kojima, 2001a, Nat. Hist. Bull. Ibaraki Univ. (5): 6 (different species from "gregaria" of authors; syn.: Ropalidia variegata interrupta van der Vecht). Ropalidia mutabilis torresiana Richards, 1978, Aust. J. Zool. Suppl. Ser. 61: 96, female -- “Queensland Q3, Iron Range” [Australia] (Canberra); also from two other localities in Queensland. -- Cardale, 1985, Zoolog. Cat. Australia 2, Hym.: Vesp. Sphec.: 216 (in subgenus Icariola; cat.). — Kojima, 1999a, Entomol. Sci. 2: 373 (syn. of Ropalidia flavinoda); Kojima, 2001a, Nat. Hist. Bull. Ibaraki Univ. (5): 8 (doubting Kojima's (1999) synonymy of R. mutabilis torresiana under R. flavinoda van der Vecht). — Saito and Kojima, 2005, Entomol. Sci. 8: 184 (taxonomy; syn. of R. gregaria). DISTRIBUTION: Australia (northern Queensland, northern part of Northern Territory). guttatipennis (de Saussure) ?Polistes punctum Fabricius, 1804, Syst. Piez.: 273 -- “nova Cambria” (Kobenhavn). -- Dalla Torre, 1894, Cat. Hym. 9: 152 (unidentified sp.). ?Vespa punctum; Jurine, 1807, Nouv. Méth. Class. Hym.: 169. Icaria guttatipennis de Saussure, 1853, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2: 40, pl. 5 fig. 8, female -- “Le Sénégal” (Paris). -- Smith, 1856, Trans. R. Entomol. Soc. London (2) 3, Proc.: 129 (ethology); 1857, Cat. Hym. Br. Mus. 5: 97, pl. 6 (cat.; nest). -- Radoszkowski, 1881, J. Sci. Math. Phys. Nat. Lisboa 8 (31): 204. -- André, 1889, Le Naturaliste: 189 (ethology). -- Kohl, 1891, Ann. Naturforsch. Hofmus. Wien 9: 343. -- Dalla Torre, 1894, Cat. Hym. 9: 119 (cat.). -- Gribodo, 1894, inEmery et al., Mem. R. Accad. Sci. Bologna (5) 4: 125, 126 (compared to I. ambigua n. sp.). -- Magretti, 1898, Ann. Mus. Civ. Stor. Nat. Genova (2) 19 (= 39): 35. -- du Buysson, 1898, Ann. Soc. Entomol. France 66, 2--3: 361. -- Dalla Torre, 1904, Genera Insectorum 19: 73 (cat.). -- von Schulthess, 1907, Voeltzkow, Reise in Ostafrika 1903--1905, Wiss. Ergebn. 2 (2): 66. -- von Schulthess, 1913, Mitt. Zool. Mus. Berlin 6, Heft 3: 340; 1914, Dtsch. Entomol. Z. 1914: 290 (distr. [erroneously recorded from Asia]). -- du Buysson, 1914, in Voy. Alluaud et Jeannel, Afr. Or., Rés. Sci., Ins. Hym., 3, Vesp.: 156. -- Roubaud, 1916, Ann. Sci. Nat. Zool. (10) 1 (1): 141 (ethology). -- von Schulthess, 1928, Senckenbergiana 10 (3/4): 96 (distr.). — Kojima, 2001a, Nat. Hist. Bull. Ibaraki Univ. (5): 9 (designation of lectotype). Ropalidia guttatipennis; Bequaert, 1918, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. 39: 250 (key), 342, figs. 243--245, pl. 1 fig. 11 (cat.; syn.: Icaria politica de Saussure; distr.). -- Schouteden, 1919, Rev. Zool. Afr. 6: 187 (Rhopalidia [!]; Zaire). -- Verlaine, 1930 (1929), Bull. Ann. Soc. R. Belge. Entomol. 69: 283 (ethology). -- van der Vecht, 1959, Arch. Neerl. Zool. 13, suppl.: 245 (?syn. of R. punctum (Fabricius)). -- Richards, 1978, Aust. J. Zool. Suppl. Ser. 61: 53, 58 (in subgenus Icariola; nest; list). -- Kojima and King, 1986, New Entomol. 35: 4, figs. 1--11 (larva). -- Spradbery, 1991, in Ross and Matthews, Soc. Biol. Wasps: 351 (colony population). -- Dejean and Turillazzi, 1992, Trop. Zool. 5: 237--247 (trophobiosis with homopterans). DISTRIBUTION: Senegal; Gambia; Côte d’Ivoire; Cameroon; Equatorial Guinea; Gabon; Congo; Zaire; Tanzania; Kenya; Somalia; Angola; South Africa (Transvaal, Kwazulu-Natal). hongkongensis hongkongensis (de Saussure) Icaria hongkongensis de Saussure, 1854, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2: 239, female -- “La Chine. Hong-Kong” (London). -- Smith, 1857, Cat. Hym. Br. Mus. 5: 99 (cat.). -- Dalla Torre, 1894, Cat. Hym. 9: 119 (cat.); 1904, Genera Insectorum 19: 73 (cat.). - Ropalidia hongkongensis; Dover, 1926, China J. Sci. Arts 4: 233 (distr.). -- Liu, 1936--37, Peking Nat. Hist. Bull. 11: 206, 340 (cat.). -- van der Vecht, 1941, Treubia 18: 110 (key), 139 (in stigma group; female, male; distr.). -- Lee, 1981, Wuyi Sci. J. 1: 198 (in subgenus Anthreneida; distr.); 1985, Econ. Insect Fauna China 30 Hym.: Vespoidea: 46 (key), 48, pl. 3 fig. 3 (in subgenus Anthreneida; distr.). -- Richards, 1978, Aust. J. Zool. Suppl. Ser. 61: 58 (in subgenus Icariola; list). Ropalidia hongkongensis hongkongensis; Lee, 1982, Hornets from Agric. Regions China: 83 (honkongensis[!]; key), 83, pl. 3 fig. 3 (in subgenus Anthreneida). -- Das and Gupta, 1984 (1983), Orient. Insects 17: 418 (in subgenus Anthreneida; cat.); 1989, Orient. Insects Monogr. 11: 111, 132 (in stigma group of subgenus Anthreneida; key). DISTRIBUTION: South China; Hong Kong. hongkongensis juncta van der Vecht Ropalidia hongkongensis juncta van der Vecht, 1941, Treubia 18: 141, male, female -- “Tjiboerial near Buitenzorg, W.-Java” (holotype female Leiden); also from Bangka; Myanmar; India; 1962, Zool. Verh., Leiden 57: 22 (in subgenus Anthreneida; distr.). -- Das and Gupta, 1984 (1983), Orient. Insects 17: 418 (cat.; distr.); 1989, Orient. Insects Monogr. 11: 132, map 19 (in stigma group of subgenus Anthreneida; key; female; distr.). -- Kojima and van Achterberg, 1997, Zool. Meded., Leiden 71: 161 (holotype depository). DISTRIBUTION: India (Meghayala); Myanmar; Bangka; Java. horni Sonan Ropalidia horni Sonan, 1938, Arb. Morphol. Tax. Entomol. 5: 260, female -- “Zamboanga, South Mindanao, Philippines” (Eberswalde). -- van der Vecht, 1941, Treubia 18: 112 (key), 171 (female, male; fig; distr.); 1962, Zool. Verh., Leiden 57: 33 (distr.). -- Baltazar, 1966, Pac. Insects Monogr. 8: 292 (in subgenus Anthreneida; cat.). -- Yoshikawa et al., 1969, Nat. Life S. E. Asia 6: 166 (in subgenus Anthreneida; colony population). -- Richards, 1978, Aust. J. Zool. Suppl. Ser. 61: 58 (in subgenus Icariola; list). -- Kojima, 1982, Biotropica 14: 272 (in subgenus Icariola; nest). -- Jeanne et al., 1983, Zoomorphologie 103: 155 (in subgenus Anthreneida; morphology). -- Kojima, 1984, Kontyû, 52: 53, 54, fig. 4 (larva); 1984, Kontyû, 52: 525 (key), 529 (Popalidia [!] by miss type-setting; in subgenus Icariola; distr.), 530, 531 (male genitalia). -- Kojima and Tano, 1985, Kontyû 53: 524, 525 (distr.). -- Spradbery, 1991, in Ross and Matthews, Soc. Biol. Wasps: 351 (colony population). -- Wenzel, 1991, in Ross and Matthews, Soc. Biol. Wasps: 487 (nest). -- Starr, 1991, in Ross and Matthews, Soc. Biol. Wasps: 527 (nest). -- Macalintal and Starr, 1996, Mem. Ent. Soc. Washington 17: fig. 1, table 1 (in subgenus Icariola; morphology). DISTRIBUTION: Palawan; Panay; Samar; Leyte; Mindanao; North Borneo. impetuosa (Smith) Icaria impetuosa Smith, 1860 (1861), J. Proc. Linn. Soc. Zool. 5: 131, female – “Batchian; Amboyna” (lectotype Oxford); 1863 (1864), J. Proc. Linn. Soc. Zool. 7: 41 (distr.); 1863 (1864), J. Proc. Linn. Soc. Zool. 7: 138 (distr.); 1871, J. Proc. Linn. Soc. Zool. 11: 380 (cat.). — Dalla Torre, 1894, Cat. Hym. 9: 118 (cat.); 1904, Genera Insectorum 19: 73 (cat.). — van der Vecht, 1941, Treubia 18: 104 (syn. of R. gregaria (de Saussure)). — Kojima and Carpenter, 1997, Am. Mus. Novit. 3199: 4 (designation of lectotype). — Kojima, 2001a, Nat. Hist. Bull. Ibaraki Univ. (5): 9. Ropalidia impetuosa; Bequaert, 1932, Rés. Scient. Voyage Indes Or. Néerl. Léopold de Belgique 4 (5): 51. — Richards, 1978, Aust. J. Zool. Suppl. Ser. 61: 58 (in subgenus Icariola; list), 86 (possible syn.: Ropalidia gregaria spilocephala(Cameron)). — Kojima, 2001a, Nat. Hist. Bull. Ibaraki Univ. (5): 9 (". . . adopt R. impetuosa for "R. gregaria" of authurs."), 10 (syns.: Icaria spilocephala Cameron, Icaria cohni du Buysson, Ropalidia gregaria inquieta Cheesman, Ropalidia gregaria var. tolerans Cheesman); 2001b, Nat. Hist. Bull. Ibaraki Univ. (5): 36, 54 (syn.; distr.). Ropalidia gregaria; Tillyard, 1926, Insects Aust. New Zealand: 297. -- van der Vecht, 1941, Treubia 18: 104 (syn.: Icaria cohni du Buysson, I. impetuosa Smith, I. spilocephala Cameron), 111 (key), 149 (distr. [including subspecies spilocephala]). -- Cheesman, 1952, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (12) 5: 3, 20 (male). -- van der Vecht, 1962, Zool. Verh., Leiden 57: 27 (distr.; nest). -- Baltazar, 1966, Pac. Insects Monogr. 8: 291 (in subgenus Anthreneida; cat.). -- Iwata, 1976, Evol. Instinct: 295 (in subgenus Anthreneida; ethology). -- Richards, 1978, Aust. J. Zool. Suppl. Ser. 61: 53, 58, 64, 65, 83, 94 (in subgenus Icariola; nest; list; larva in key; description). -- Kojima, 1982, Biotropica 14: 272 (in subgenus Icariola; nest); 1982, New Entomol. 31: 17 (ethology); 1984, Kontyû, 52: 52, fig. 2 (larva from the Philippines); 1984, Kontyû, 52: 525 (key), 528, 530, 531 (in subgenus Icariola; distr.; male genitalia). -- Spradbery, 1991, in Ross and Matthews, Soc. Biol. Wasps: 349 (colony population). -- Wenzel, 1991, in Ross and Matthews, Soc. Biol. Wasps: 487 (nest). -- Itô, 1993, Behav. Soc. Evol. Wasps: 87 (in subgenus Icariola; ethology). -- Macalintal and Starr, 1996, Mem. Ent. Soc. Washington 17: tables 1, 2 (in subgenus Icariola; morphology). — Kojima, 1999a, Entomol. Sci. 2: 371 (taxonomy; distr.; syn.: Icaria spilocephala, erroneously marked "Syn. nov."). Ropalidia gregaria gregaria; Richards, 1978, Aust. J. Zool. Suppl. Ser. 61: 53 (nest), 62 (key), 86 (in subgenus Icariola; “two [subspecies] can be recognized in the Australia-New Guinea region. The forms of Malaya will require separate study.”). -- Cardale, 1985, Zoolog. Cat. Australia 2, Hym.: Vesp. Sphec.: 214 (in subgenus Icariola; cat.). -- Itô, 1986, J. Aust. Entomol. Soc. 25: 309 (ethology). -- Kojima, 1987, J. Aust. Entomol. Soc. 26: 145, figs. 52--58 (larva). -- Spradbery, 1991, in Ross and Matthews, Soc. Biol. Wasps: 351 (colony population). -- Itô and Yamane, 1992, J. Ethol. 10: 63 (ethology). -- Itô, 1993, Behav. Soc. Evol. Wasps: 27, 46, 66, 68 (in subgenus Icariola; ethology). -- Borsato, 1994 (1993), Boll. Soc. Entomol. Ital. 125 (3): 250 (in subgenus Icariola; distr.). Icaria spilocephala Cameron, 1906, Tijdschr. Entomol. 49: 230, female -- “Etna Bay” [New Guinea] (lectotype Amsterdam). -- van der Vecht, 1941, Treubia 18: 104 (syn. of R. gregaria (de Saussure)). -- Kojima and Carpenter, 1997, Am. Mus. Novit. 3199: 5 (designation of lectotype). -- Kojima and van Achterberg, 1997, Zool. Meded., Leiden 71: 166 (lectotype depository). — Kojima, 2001a, Nat. Hist. Bull. Ibaraki Univ. (5): 9 (syn. of R. impetuosa (Smith)). Icaria cohni du Buysson, 1909, Bull. Soc. Entomol. France 1909: 306, male -- “Bougainville” (Paris). -- van der Vecht, 1941, Treubia 18: 104 (syn. of R. gregaria (de Saussure)). -- Richards, 1978, Aust. J. Zool. Suppl. Ser. 61: 86 (kohni [!]; syn. of R. gregaria spilocephala (Cameron)). — Kojima, 2001a, Nat. Hist. Bull. Ibaraki Univ. (5): 5 (designatio of lectotype), 9 (syn. of R. impetuosa (Smith)). Icaria picta; du Buysson, 1911, Abh. Senckenb. Naturforsch. Ges. 34: 229 (distr.). Ropalidia cohni; Bequaert, 1932, Rés. Scient. Voyage Indes Or. Néerl. Léopold de Belgique 4 (5): 51. ?Ropalidia cyathiformis; Bequaert, 1932, Rés. Scient. Voyage Indes Or. Néerl. Léopold de Belgique 4 (5): 51 (recorded from New Guinea; syn: variegata Smith, picta de Saussure) [misidentification?]. Ropalidia spilocephala; Bequaert, 1932, Rés. Scient. Voyage Indes Or. Néerl. Léopold de Belgique 4 (5): 51. Ropalidia gregaria inquieta Cheesman, 1952, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (12) 5: 3, 20, female, male -- “Papua, ... Mafulu, 4000 ft.” (lectotype male London); also from 3 other localities in New Guinea. -- Richards, 1978, Aust. J. Zool. Suppl. Ser. 61: 86 (designation of lectotype [error in locality: Mafalu]; syn. of R. gregaria spilocephala). — Kojima, 2001a, Nat. Hist. Bull. Ibaraki Univ. (5): 9 (syn. of R. impetuosa (Smith)). Ropaidia gregaria var. tolerans Cheesman, 1952, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. 12 (5): 3 (as subspecies), 21 (as var.), female -- “Cyclops Mts. Sabron” [New Guinea] (lectotype London). -- Richards, 1978, Aust. J. Zool. Suppl. Ser. 61: 86 (designation of lectotype; syn. of R. gregaria spilocephala). — Kojima, 2001a, Nat. Hist. Bull. Ibaraki Univ. (5): 9 (syn. of R. impetuosa (Smith)). Ropalidia gregaria spilocephala; Richards, 1978, Aust. J. Zool. Suppl. Ser. 61: 53, 62 (key), 86 (syns.: Icaria kohni [!] du Buysson, Ropalidia gregaria inquieta Cheesman, Ropalidia gregaria var. tolerans Cheesman; possibly syn. of Icaria impetuosa Smith; “I examined the holotype male [!] in the Zoological Museum, Amsterdam.”; description; nest). -- Cardale, 1985, Zoolog. Cat. Australia 2, Hym.: Vesp. Sphec.: 215 (in subgenus Icariola; cat.). -- Spradbery and Kojima, 1989, Jpn. J. Entomol. 57: 636 (nest; colony population). -- Spradbery, 1991, in Ross and Matthews, Soc. Biol. Wasps: 351 (colony population). -- Borsato, 1994 (1993), Boll. Soc. Entomol. Ital. 125 (3): 250 (in subgenus Icariola; distr.). -- Itô et al., 1996, Austr. J. Entomology 35: 231 (social organization). Ropalidia gregaria; Naumann, 1993, in Naumann et al., Cape York Penin. Sci. Exp. Wet Season 1992 Rep. 2: 180 (distr.). DISTRIBUTION: Philippine Is. excluding Palawan; Sulawesi; Australia (Northern Territory).East Australia; New Guinea; New Ireland; Solomon Is.; Fiji. DISTRIBUTION: Ceram; Bacan; Ambon. incurva Cheesman Ropalidia incurva Cheesman, 1952, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (12) 5: 2, 7, female, male – “Papua, Mondo, 4000 ft” (holotype female London). — Kojima, 2001b, Nat. Hist. Bull. Ibaraki Univ. 5: 44 (in R. maculiventris-group; holotype label data). DISTRIBUTION: Eastern New Guinea. indica Lambert and Narendran Ropalidia indica Lambert and Narendran, in Lambert, Narendran and Kumar, 2005, Zoos’ Print J. 20 (7): 1921, female (in subgenus Anthreneida!) - “Kasaragod ... Kerala” (OZUC, Department of Zoology, University of Calicut). Unavailable name: Junior primary homonym of Ropalidia marginata indica van der Vecht, 1941. DISTRIBUTION: India (Keraka). interjecta (de Saussure) Icaria interjecta de Saussure, 1900, Abh. Senckenb. Naturforsch. Ges. 26 (2): 216 (key), 225, female, male -- “Madagascar. -- Nossi-Bé” (Genève). -- Dalla Torre, 1904, Genera Insectorum 19: 73 (cat.). -- von Schulthess, 1907, Voeltzkow, Reise in Ostafrika 1903--1905, Wiss. Ergebn. 2 (2): 65. Ropalidia interjecta; Bequaert, 1918, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. 39: 342 (cat.; distr.). -- Giordani Soika, 1991, Lav. Soc. Ven. Sci. Nat. 16: 86, 87 (key), fig. 17. DISTRIBUTION: Madagascar. irrequieta (Kohl) Icaria irrequieta Kohl, 1907, Denkschr. K. Akad. Wiss. Wien, Math. -Naturw. Kl. 71 (1): 222, pl. 2 figs. 1, 13, 14, female – “Südarabien (Ras Farták)” (?Wien). Ropalidia irrequieta; Bequaert, 1918, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. 39: 342 (cat.). — Kojima, 2001a, Nat. Hist. Bull. Ibaraki Univ. 5: 3. DISTRIBUTION: Yemen. irritata (Smith) Icaria irritata Smith, 1863 (1864), J. Proc. Linn. Soc. Zool. 7: 42, female – “Mysol” (Oxford); 1863 (1864), J. Proc. Linn. Soc. Zool. 7: 138 (irritator [!]; distr.); 1865, J. Proc. Linn. Soc. Zool. 8: 90 (listed); 1871, J. Proc. Linn. Soc. Zool. 11: 380 (cat.). — Dalla Torre, 1894, Cat. Hym. 9: 119 (cat.); 1904, Genera Insectorum 19: 74 (cat.). Ropalidia irritata; Bequaert, 1932, Rés. Scient. Voyage Indes Or. Néerl. Léopold de Belgique 4 (5): 51. — Cheesman, 1952, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (12) 5: 2, 9 (redescription of type; distr.). — Richards, 1978, Aust. J. Zool. Suppl. Ser. 61: 56 (in subgenus Ropalidia; list). — Kojima, 2001b, Nat. Hist. Bull. Ibaraki Univ. 5: 44 (in R. maculiventris-group; holotype label data). DISTRIBUTION: Western New Guinea. jacobsoni flavoscutellata Das and Gupta Ropalidia jacobsoni flavoscutellata Das and Gupta, 1984 (1983), Orient. Insects 17: 419. Nomen nudum. Ropalidia jacobsoni flavoscutellata Das and Gupta, 1989, Orient. Insects Monogr. 11: 146 (key), 147, fig. 28I, map 24, female, male (in sumatrae group of subgenus Anthreneida) -- “INDIA: Assam: Rongooni” (holotype female Calcutta). DISTRIBUTION: India (Assam). jacobsoni jacobsoni (du Buysson) Icaria jacobsoni du Buysson, 1908, Notes Leyden Mus. 30: 123, female -- “aux environs de Batavia” [Java] (lectotype Leiden); also from another locality. -- van der Vecht, 1941, Treubia 18: 157 (designation of lectotype, by inadvertently referring a specimen as “holotype”). -- Kojima and van Achterberg, 1997, Zool. Meded., Leiden 71: 160 (lectotype depository; comment on type status). Ropalidia variegata jacobsoni; van der Vecht, 1941, Treubia 18: 104, 156 (key), 157 (distr.). -- 1962, Zool. Verh., Leiden 57: 29 (in subgenus Anthreneida; ethology; distr.). -- Yoshikawa, 1964, Nat. Life S. E. Asia 3: 396, pl. 4 figs. 5, 6, 8, 10, pl. 7 fig. 19 (nest). -- Iwata, 1969, Kontyû, 37: 438 (in subgenus Anthreneida; nest); 1976, Evol. Instinct: 295, 297, 198 (in subgenus Anthreneida; ethology). -- Richards, 1978, Aust. J. Zool. Suppl. Ser. 61: 54 (nest). -- Yamane and Yamane, 1979, Insecta Matsumurana, n. ser. 15: 32 (distr.). -- Yamane, 1985, Evol. Ecol. Ins. Humid Trop. Esp. Cent. Sumatra: 13 (social behavior); 1986, Monit. Zool. Ital. (n. ser.) 20: 135 (in subgenus Icariola; ethology). -- Spradbery, 1991, in Ross and Matthews, Soc. Biol. Wasps: 349, 353, 374 (colony population). -- Jeanne, 1991, in Ross and Matthews, Soc. Biol. Wasps: 395 (ethology). -- Itô, 1993, Behav. Soc. Evol. Wasps: 27, 41, 52, 71 (ethology). Ropalidia jacobsoni; Richards, 1978, Aust. J. Zool. Suppl. Ser. 61: 58 (list). -- Kojima and Yamane, 1984, Rep. Fac. Sci. Kagoshima Univ. (Earth Sci. Biol.) 17: 110, figs. 30--36 (larva). -- Kojima and Yamane, 1990, in Sakagami et al., Nat. Hist. Soc. Wasps Bees Eq. Sumatra: 34 (key), 36 (distr.). Ropalidia jacobsoni jacobsoni; Das and Gupta, 1984 (1983), Orient. Insects 17: 418 (cat.); 1989, Orient. Insects Monogr. 11: 113, 146, map 24 (in sumatrae group of subgenus Anthreneida; key; female, male; distr.). DISTRIBUTION: India; Myanmar; Bangka; Sumatra; Java; Sulawesi. jaculator (Smith) Odynerus fallax Smith, 1863 (1864), J. Proc. Linn. Soc. Zool. 7: 40, female -- “Mysol” (Oxford); 1863 (1864), J. Proc. Linn. Soc. Zool. 7: 137 (distr.). Odynerus jaculator Smith, 1871, J. Proc. Linn. Soc. Zool. 11: 377. Replacement name for O. fallax Smith, 1863, non 1861. Odynerus tertius Dalla Torre, 1889, Wien. Entomol. Ztg. 8: 125. Unnecessary replacement name for Odynerus fallax Smith, 1863, non 1861 and de Saussure, 1852; 1894, Cat. Hym. 9: 100 (cat.); 1904, Genera Insectorum 19: 55 (cat.). Ropalidia ivorina Cheesman, 1952, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (12) 5: 3, 25, female – “Papua, Kokoda, 1200 ft” (London); also from Mafulu (4000 ft). — Richards, 1978, Aust. J. Zool. Suppl. Ser. 61: 58, (in subgenus Icarielia; list), 129 (key). — Kojima, 1996, Zool. Meded., Leiden 70: 328. — Kojima, 2001b, Nat. Hist. Bull. Ibaraki Univ. (5): 36, 47 (syn. of R. jaculator). Ropalidia jaculator; Kojima and Carpenter, 1997, Am. Mus. Novit. 3199: 6 (new combination). — Kojima, 2001b, Nat. Hist. Bull. Ibaraki Univ. (5): 36, 47 (taxonomy; syn.: Ropalidia ivorina Cheesman). DISTRIBUTION: New Guinea (Misool, eastern New Guinea). javanica van der Vecht Ropalidia flavopicta; van der Vecht, 1940, Entomol. Meded. Ned. Indië 6: 47, pl. 5 (nest). -- Richards and Richards, 1951, Trans. R. Entomol. Soc. London 102: 8 (nest: calyptodomous, laterinidial). -- Berland and Grassé, 1951, in Grassé, Traité Zool. 10 (2): 1165 (nest). -- Wenzel, 1991, in Ross and Matthews, Soc. Biol. Wasps: 496, 498, 512 (in subgenus Icarielia; nest). Ropalidia flavopicta javanica van der Vecht, 1962, Zool. Verh., Leiden 57: 49 (key), 54, female, male, nest (in subgenus Icarielia) -- “East Java, Blawan” (holotype female Leiden); also from Flores. -- Iwata, 1976, Evol. Instinct: 295 (in subgenus Icarielia; ethology). -- Richards, 1978, Aust. J. Zool. Suppl. Ser. 61: 50 (nest). -- Jeanne, 1991, in Ross and Matthews, Soc. Biol. Wasps: 212 (colony population). -- Kojima and van Achterberg, 1997, Zool. Meded., Leiden 71: 160 (holotype depository). Ropalidia flavopicta flavopicta; Richards, 1978, Aust. J. Zool. Suppl. Ser. 61: 55 (nest, citing van der Vecht, 1940). Ropalidia javanica; Kojima, 1996, Zool. Meded., Leiden 70: 325, 326, 334, figs. 45, 49, 52, 56, 75--77 (taxonomy; distr.). — Kojima et al., 2005, Treubia 33: 174 (distr.). DISTRIBUTION: Java; Flores. kurandae Richards Ropalidia kurandae Richards, 1978, Aust. J. Zool. Suppl. Ser. 61: 55 (nest), 62 (key), 65 (larva in key), 106, figs. 29, 35, 40, female, male, nest (in subgenus Icariola) – “Queensland Q2, Cairns north of Ellis beach” (holotype female Canberra); also from numerous other localities in Queensland. — Cardale, 1985, Zoolog. Cat. Australia 2, Hym.: Vesp. Sphec.: 215 (in subgenus Icariola; cat.). — Jeanne, 1991, in Ross and Matthews, Soc. Biol. Wasps: 203, 212, 225 (colony population). — Naumann, 1993, in Naumann et al., Cape York Penin. Sci. Exp. Wet Season 1992 Rep. 2: 180 (distr.). — Borsato, 1994 (1993), Boll. Soc. Entomol. Ital. 125 (3): 250 (in subgenus Icariola; distr.). — Macalintal and Starr, 1996, Mem. Ent. Soc. Washington 17: tables 1, 2 (in subgenus Icariola; morphology). — Kojima, 1996a, Zool. Meded., Leiden 70: 328; 1996b, Zool. Meded., Leiden 70: 350; 1999a, Entomol. Sci. 2: 375. DISTRIBUTION: Australia (Queensland). latebalteata (Cameron) Icaria latebalteata Cameron, 1902, J. Straits Br. R. Asiat. Soc. 37: 100, female – “Kuching, Sarawak” (London). — Dalla Torre, 1904, Genera Insectorum 19: 74 (cat.). — Cameron, 1906, Tijdschr. Entomol. 49: 231 (latibalteata [!]; compared to I. spilocephala n. sp.). Ropalidia latebalteata; Dover, 1931 (1930), J. Fed. Mal. St. Mus. 16: 257 (Selangor, Perak). — van der Vecht, 1941, Treubia 18: 113 (key), 178 (female; distr.); 1962, Zool. Verh., Leiden, 57: 35 (in subgenus Anthreneida; distr.). — Kojima and Yamane, 1984, Rep. Fac. Sci. Kagoshima Univ. (Earth Sci. Biol.) 17: 105, figs. 8–15 (in subgenus Anthreneida; larva). -- Kojima and Yamane, 1990, in Sakagami et al., Nat. Hist. Soc. Wasps Bees Eq. Sumatra: 35 (key), 36 (distr.). — Macalintal and Starr, 1996, Mem. Ent. Soc. Washington 17: tables 1, 2 (in subgenus Anthreneida; morphology). — Kojima and van Achterberg, 1997, Nat. Hist. Bull. Ibaraki Univ. 1: 3 (distr.: Sabah). DISTRIBUTION: Malay Peninsula; Borneo; Sumatra. latetergum Richards Ropalidia latetergum Richards, 1978, Aust. J. Zool. Suppl. Ser. 61: 57 (list), 65 (key), 69, female (in subgenus Polistratus) – “Queensland Q2, Kuranda” [Australia] (Melbourne), 122 (key). — Cardale, 1985, Zoolog. Cat. Australia 2, Hym.: Vesp. Sphec.: 214 (in subgenus Polistratus; cat.). — Kojima, 1993, New Entomol. 42: 4 (biology). — Naumann, 1993, in Naumann et al., Cape York Penin. Sci. Exp. Wet Season 1992 Rep. 2: 180 (distr.). — Borsato, 1994 (1993), Boll. Soc. Entomol. Ital. 125 (3): 250 (in subgenus Polistratus; distr.). — Kojima, 1999a, Entomol. Sci. 2: 375. DISTRIBUTION: Australia (North Queensland). laticincta laticincta van der Vecht Ropalidia laticincta laticincta van der Vecht, 1962, Zool. Verh., Leiden 57: 14, male, female (in subgenus Anthreneida) -- “Sumba, Waikarudi” (holotype male Basel); also from Timor, Roti, Wetar, Roma, Kisar, Moluccas. Ropalidia laticincta floresiana van der Vecht, 1962, Zool. Verh., Leiden 57: 16, male, female -- “Flores, Boa Wae, 450 m” (holotype male Leiden). -- Kojima and van Achterberg, 1997, Zool. Meded., Leiden 71: 161 (holotype depository). — Kojima et al., 2005, Treubia 33: 174 (taxonomy; syn. of R. laticincta). Ropalidia laticincta; Richards, 1978, Aust. J. Zool. Suppl. Ser. 61: 58 (in subgenus Icariola; list). — Kojima et al., 2005, Treubia 33: 174 (taxonomy, distr.). DISTRIBUTION: Sumba; Roti; Flores; Timor; Wetar; Romang; Kisar; Moluccas. lefebvrei (Le Guillou) Polistes lefebvrei Le Guillou, 1841, Rev. Zool. 1841: 325, female – “Triton-Bay” [New Guinea] (Paris); 1841, Ann. Soc. Entomol. France 10: 322. ?Icaria lefebvrei; de Saussure, 1854, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2: 241 (unidentified species). Icaria lefebvrei; Smith, 1857, Cat. Hym. Br. Mus. 5: 95 (cat.); 1871, J. Proc. Linn. Soc. Zool. 11: 379 (cat.). — Dalla Torre, 1894, Hym. Cat. 9: 119 (cat.); 1904, Genera Insectorum 19: 74 (cat.). — du Buysson, 1911, Abh. Senckenb. Naturforsch. Ges. 34: 229 (taxonomy; distr.). Ropalidia lefebvrei; Bequaert, 1932, Rés. Scient. Voyage Indes Or. Néerl. Léopold de Belgique 4 (5): 50. — Kojima, 2001b, Nat. Hist. Bull. Ibaraki Univ. (5): 36, 51 (taxonomy; ?syn.: Icaria reactionalis de Saussure). DISTRIBUTION: New Guinea. leopoldi Bequaert Ropalidia leopoldi Bequaert, 1932, Rés. Scient. Voyage Indes Or. Néerl. Léopold de Belgique 4 (5): 47, female – “Nouvelle-Guinée hollandaise. Lac d’Angi-Gita” [Anggi Gita] (Brussels). — Kojima, 1996, Zool. Meded., Leiden 70: 328, figs. 11, 24; 2001b, Nat. Hist. Bull. Ibaraki Univ. 5: 51 (in R. flavopicta-group). Icaria spec.; von Schulthess, 1932, Rés. Scient. Voyage Indes Or. Néerl. Léopold de Belgique 4 (5): 40 (Nouvelle-Guineé, Lac de Angi-Gita). ?Ropalidia leopoldi; Richards, 1978, Aust. J. Zool. Suppl. Ser. 61: 58 (in subgenus Icarielia; list), 129 (key). DISTRIBUTION: New Guinea. lepida van der Vecht Ropalidia lepida van der Vecht, 1962, Zool. Verh., Leiden 57: 42 (key), 43 (fig.), 66, female, male (in subgenus Icarielia) -- “Luzon: ... Damalon” [Philippines] (holotype female Leiden). -- Baltazar, 1966, Pac. Insects Monogr. 8: 293 (in subgenus Icarielia; cat.). -- Kojima, 1982, Kontyû 50: 109, 110 (in subgenus Icarielia; key). -- Kojima and Tano, 1985, Kontyû 53: 525, 526 (distr.; fig.; male genitalia). -- Kojima, 1996, Zool. Meded., Leiden 70: 325, 328, figs. 2, 15. -- Kojima and van Achterberg, 1997, Zool. Meded., Leiden 71: 161 (holotype depository). DISTRIBUTION: Luzon; Mindanao. longipetiolata (Cameron) Icaria longipetiolata Cameron, 1911, Nova Guinea 9, Zool. 2: 189, female – “Lorentz River” (lectotype Amsterdam). — van der Vecht, 1941, Treubia 18: 105 (subfamily Polybiinae). — Kojima and Carpenter, 1997, Am. Mus. Novit. 3199: 4 (designation of lectotype). -- Kojima and van Achterberg, 1997, Zool. Meded., Leiden 71: 165 (lectolotype depository). Ropalidia longipetiolata; Bequaert, 1932, Rés. Scient. Voyage Indes Or. Néerl. Léopold de Belgique 4 (5): 50 (“probablement un Parapolybia”). — Kojima, 1996, Zool. Meded., Leiden 70: 328; 2001b, Nat. Hist. Bull. Ibaraki Univ. 5: 37 (taxonomy), 42 (key), figs. 8–21. ?Ropalidia loriana; Richards, 1978, Aust. J. Zool. Suppl. Ser. 61: 58 (in subgenus Icarielia; list), 128 (key). Ropalidia loriana; Kojima and Spradbery, 1987, Kontyû, 55: 607, figs. 37–41 (larva). — Spradbery and Kojima, 1989, Jpn. J. Entomol. 57: 633 (nest; colony population). — Spradbery, 1991, in Ross and Matthews, Soc. Biol. Wasps: 351 (colony population). DISTRIBUTION: New Guinea. loriana (du Buysson) Polybia loriana du Buysson, 1909, Ann. Mus. Civ. Stor. Nat. Genova (3) 4 [= 44]: 314, female – “Nouvelle Guinée S. E. Moroka 1300 m” (Paris). Parapolybia loriana; von Schulthess, 1913, Mitt. Schweiz. Entomol. Ges. 12: 153 (key), 158, pl. 11 fig. 5 (female). Ropalidia loriana; van der Vecht, 1966, Zool. Verh., Leiden 82: 6. -- Kojima, 1996, Zool. Meded., Leiden 70: 328; 2001b, Nat. Hist. Bull. Ibaraki Univ. 5: 38 (taxonomy), 42 (key), figs. 22–27. DISTRIBUTION: New Guinea. lugubris (Smith) Icaria lugubris Smith, 1858, J. Proc. Linn. Soc. Zool. 2: 115, female -- “Borneo (Sarawak)” (lectotype Oxford). -- de Saussure, 1862, Stettin. Entomol. Ztg. 23: 134. -- Smith, 1863 (1864), J. Proc. Linn. Soc. Zool. 7: 138 (distr.); 1871, J. Proc. Linn. Soc. Zool. 11: 379 (cat.). -- Dalla Torre, 1894, Cat. Hym. 9: 119 (cat.); 1904, Genera Insectorum 19: 74 (cat.). -- van der Vecht, 1962, Zool. Verh., Leiden 57: 36 (designation of lectotype). Ropalidia krishna Dover and Rao, 1922, J. Asiat. Soc. Bengal (n. ser.) 18: 246, female -- “Calcutta and environs” [India] (Calcutta). -- Dover, 1925 (1924), J. Asiat. Soc. Bengal (N.S.) 20: 302 (syn. of Ropalidia lugubris (Smith)). Ropalidia lugubris; Dover, 1925 (1924), J. Asiat. Soc. Bengal (n. ser.) 20: 302 (syn: R. krishna). -- Richards, 1978, Aust. J. Zool. Suppl. Ser. 61: 57 (in subgenus Anthreneida; list). Ropalidia sumatrae lugubris; van der Vecht, 1941, Treubia 18: 104, 185 (distr.); 1962, Zool. Verh., Leiden 57: 36 (in subgenus Anthreneida; distr.). -- Yamane and Yamane, 1979, Insecta Matsumurana, n. ser. 15: 32 (in subgenus Anthreneida). -- Das and Gupta, 1984 (1983), Orient. Insects 17: 425 (in subgenus Anthreneida; cat.); 1989, Orient. Insects Monogr. 11: 136, map 20 (in sumatrae group of subgenus Anthreneida; distr.). DISTRIBUTION: India (West Bengal); Borneo. luzonensis Kojima Ropalidia flavopicta flavobrunnea; van der Vecht, 1962, Zool. Verh., Leiden 57: 59 [partim]. Ropalidia luzonensis Kojima, 1996, Zool. Meded., Leiden 70: 343, figs. 98--100, 102--106, female -- “Philippines, Montalba [probably Montalban, outside Quezon City, Luzon, 14°44’N, 121°07’E]” (holotype Leiden); the unique holotype “is listed under R. flavopicta flavobrunnea by van der Vecht (1962: 59)”. -- Kojima and van Achterberg, 1997, Zool. Meded., Leiden 71: 161 (holotype depository). DISTRIBUTION: Luzon. mackayensis Richards Ropalidia mackayensis Richards, 1978, Aust. J. Zool. Suppl. Ser. 61: 62 (key), 105, fig. 14, female, male (in subgenus Icariola) – “Queensland Q2, 35 miles SE. of Ayr” [Australia] (holotype female Canberra); also from numerous other localities in Queensland. — Cardale, 1985, Zoolog. Cat. Australia 2, Hym.: Vesp. Sphec.: 215 (in subgenus Icariola; cat.). — Jeanne, 1991, in Ross and Matthews, Soc. Biol. Wasps: 203, 212, 225 (colony population). — Kojima, 1993, New Entomol. 42: 4 (biology). — Itô, 1993, Behav. Soc. Evol. Wasps: 89 (in subgenus Icariola; ethology). — Kojima, 1996a, Zool. Meded., Leiden 70: 328; 1996b, Zool. Meded., Leiden 70: 350; 1999a, Entomol. Sci. 2: 375 (label data of the holotype). DISTRIBUTION: Australia (Queensland). maculata (Radoszkowski) Icaria maculata Radoszkowski, 1881, J. Sci. Math. Phys. Nat. Acad. Lisboa 8, (31): 204, male – “Angola” (type depository unknown). — Dalla Torre, 1894, Cat. Hym. 9: 119 (cat.); 1904, Genera Insectorum 19: 74 (cat.). — Bequaert, 1918, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. 39: 342 (“a very doutful species”). DISTRIBUTION: Angola. maculiventris Guérin-Méneville Ropalidia maculiventris Guérin-Méneville, 1831, in Duperrey, Voyage Coquille, Zool., Atlas, Ins.: pl. 9 fig. 8 – “Dory” [= Manukwari, New Guinea] (Genova); 1838, , in Duperrey, Voyage Coquille, Zool. 2, Texte 2nd part, 1st div.: 266 (Rhopalidia [!]). — Ducke, 1913: Dtsch. Entomol. Z. 1913: 331 (Rhopalidia [!]; correct name of Icaria maculipennis [!] de Saussure). — Bequaert, 1918, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 39: 244; 1932, Rés. Scient. Voyage Indes Or. Néerl. Léopold de Belgique 4 (5): 50. — van der Vecht, 1941, Ent. Med. Ned.-Indië 7: 28. — Guiglia, 1948 (1947--49), Ann. Mus. Civ. Stor. Nat. Genova, 63: 177 (Rhopalidia; type: a damaged specimen from “Austr. Voy. Coquille” ex coll. Guérin-Méneville in MCG). — Cheesman, 1952, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (12) 5: 2, 4 (female; distr. [erroneously recorded from Celebes and Borneo]). — van der Vecht, 1968, Proc. K. Ned. Akad. Wet. Ser. C Biol. Med. Sci. 71: 418, fig. 3g (morphology). -- Richards, 1978, Aust. J. Zool. Suppl. Ser. 61: 56 (in subgenus Ropalidia; list). -- Kojima, 1984, Kontyû, 52: 359, figs. 28--33 (larva). -- Spradbery and Kojima, 1989, Jpn. J. Entomol. 57: 643 (colony population; nest). -- Macalintal and Starr, 1996, Mem. Ent. Soc. Washington 17: tables 1, 2 (in subgenus Ropalidia; morphology). — Kojima, 2001b, Nat. Hist. Bull. Ibaraki Univ. 5: 35, 42 (syn.: Icaria sexmaculata Cameron, Ropalidia pratti Cheeslan,Ropalidia maculiventris humboldti Cheesman, R. mondoensis Cheesman). Icaria maculiventris; de Saussure, 1853, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2: 23. -- Smith, 1857, Cat. Hym. Br. Mus. 5: 95 (cat.); 1859, Proc. Linn. Soc. Zool. 3: 167 (female; distr.); 1863 (1864), J. Proc. Linn. Soc. Zool. 7: 41 (distr.); 1863 (1864), J. Proc. Linn. Soc. Zool. 7: 138 (distr.) [error: Sulawesi]; 1865, J. Proc. Linn. Soc. Zool. 8: 90 (distr.); 1871, J. Proc. Linn. Soc. Zool. 11: 379 (cat.). -- Dalla Torre, 1894, Cat. Hym., 9: 119 (cat. [erroneously recorded from “Australia”]); 1904, Genera Insectorum 19: 74 (cat., as 1894). -- Schulz, 1904, Berl. Entomol. Z., 49: 225 (Papua) [partim]. -- Cameron, 1906, in Wichmann, Nova Guinea 5, Zool. 1: 62 (distr.). -- du Buysson, 1911, Abh. Senckenb. Naturforsch. Ges. 34: 229 (distr.). -- Meade-Waldo, 1912, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (8) 9: (distr. [erroneously recorded from Borneo]). Ropalidia pratti Cheesman, 1952, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (12) 5: 2, 6, female, male – “Papua, Kokoda” (holotype female London); also from Ekeikei. — Richards, 1978, Aust. J. Zool. Suppl. Ser. 61: 56 (in subgenus Ropalidia; list). — Macalintal and Starr, 1996, Mem. Ent. Soc. Washington 17: tables 1, 2 (in subgenus Ropalidia; morphology). — Kojima, 2001b, Nat. Hist. Bull. Ibaraki Univ. 5: 35, 42 (syn. of R. maculiventris). Ropalidia maculiventris humboldti Cheesman, 1952, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (12) 5: 2, 5, female -- “Hollandia” [New Guinea] (London); also from 4 other localities in New Guinea; and Waigeu Is. — Kojima, 2001b, Nat. Hist. Bull. Ibaraki Univ. 5: 35, 42 (syn. of R. maculiventris). Ropalidia mondoensis Cheesman, 1952, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (12) 5: 2, 6, female – “Papua, Mafulu, 4000 ft” (London); also from Mondo (5000 ft). — Richards, 1978, Aust. J. Zool. Suppl. Ser. 61: 56 (in subgenus Ropalidia; list). — Kojima, 2001b, Nat. Hist. Bull. Ibaraki Univ. 5: 35, 42 (syn. of R. maculiventris). Ropalidia humboldti; Richards, 1978, Aust. J. Zool. Suppl. Ser. 61: 56 (in subgenus Ropalidia; list). — Macalintal and Starr, 1996, Mem. Ent. Soc. Washington 17: tables 1, 2 (in subgenus Ropalidia; morphology). Ropalidia maculiventris pratti; Kojima and Spradbery, 1987, Kontyû, 55: 601, figs. 1--7 (larva) — Spradbery, 1991, in Ross and Matthews, Soc. Biol. Wasps: 351, 354 (colony population). DISTRIBUTION: New Guinea. magnanima albitarsis van der Vecht Ropalidia magnanima albitarsis van der Vecht, 1941, Treubia 18: 125, female -- “Tenasserim: ... Haundraw Valley” [Myanmar] (London); also from Vietnam; 1962, Zool. Verh., Leiden 57: 9 (in subgenus Anthreneida; distr.). -- Das and Gupta, 1984 (1983), Orient. Insects 17: 419 (in subgenus Anthreneida; cat.); 1989, Orient. Insects Monogr. 11: 110, 116 (key), map 14 (distr.). DISTRIBUTION: Myanmar; Vietnam. magnanima anthracina Das and Gupta Ropalidia magnanima anthracina Das and Gupta, 1984 (1983), Orient. Insects 17: 419. Nomen nudum. Ropalidia magnanima anthracina Das and Gupta, 1989, Orient. Insects Monogr. 11: 110, 115 (key), 116, figs. 25g, 27a, map 14, male (in marginata group of subgenus Anthreneida) -- “BURMA: Kamaeng in Myitkyina District” (Calcutta). DISTRIBUTION: Myanmar. magnanima magnanima van der Vecht Icaria guttatipennis; Bingham, 1897, Fauna Br. India, Hym. 1: 386 (key), 387 (female; distr.) [misidentification of guttatipennis from Africa]. Ropalidia guttatipennis; Dover, 1929, Bull. Raffles Mus. 2: 46 (distr.) [misidentification of guttatipennis de Saussure]. Ropalidia magnanima magnanima van der Vecht, 1941, Treubia 18: 109 (key), 125, male, female -- “Burma: ... Schwego Myo” (holotype female Venezia); also from Tenasserim; 1962, Zool. Verh., Leiden 57: 9 (in subgenus Anthreneida; distr.; type location stated to be “London”). -- Richards, 1978, Aust. J. Zool. Suppl. Ser. 61: 58 (in subgenus Icariola; list). -- Das and Gupta, 1984 (1983), Orient. Insects 17: 419 (in subgenus Anthreneida; cat.); 1989, Orient. Insects Monogr. 11: 110, 116, map 14 (in marginata group of subgenus Anthreneida; key). DISTRIBUTION: Myanmar; Malay Peninsula. malaisei van der Vecht Ropalidia malaisei van der Vecht, 1962, Zool. Verh., Leiden 57: 42 (key), 65, male, female (in subgenus Icarielia) -- “Burma: North East Burma, ... Punkataung, Road Sadon-Myitkyina” (holotype female Leiden); also from Sadon. -- Das and Gupta, 1984 (1983), Orient. Insects 17: 427 (in subgenus Icarielia; cat.); 1989, Orient. Insects Monogr. 11: 113 (key), 151, map 25 (in subgenus Icarielia). -- Gusenleitner, 1996, Linz. Biol. Beitr. 28: 16 (compared to R. obscura n. sp.). -- Kojima, 1996, Zool. Meded., Leiden 70: 325, 328, 340. DISTRIBUTION: Myanmar. malayana (Cameron) Icaria malayana Cameron, 1903, J. Straits Br. R. Asiat. Soc. 39: 171, female -- “Sarawak” (London). Icaria parvimaculata Cameron, 1907, J. Straits Br. R. Asiat. Soc. 48: 25, female -- “Marup” [N. Borneo] (London). -- Kojima, 1996, Zool. Meded., Leiden 70: 351 (syn. of R. malayana). Ropalidia delicata Dover, 1931 (1930) J. Fed. Mal. St. Mus. 16: 257, female -- “Kuala Lipis (Bencha Forest Reserve), Pahang, F.M.S.” (London). -- van der Vecht, 1941, Treubia 18: 104 (syn. of R. malayana (Cam.)). -- Kojima, 1996, Zool. Meded., Leiden 70: 351 (syn. of R. malayana). Ropalidia malayana; van der Vecht, 1941, Treubia 18: 104 (syn.: R. delicata Dover), 112 (key), 174 (taxonomy; female, male; distr.); 1962, Zool. Verh., Leiden 57: 34 (in subgenus Anthreneida; distr.). -- Richards, 1978, Aust. J. Zool. Suppl. Ser. 61: 57, 58 (in subgenus Anthreneida and Icariola; list). -- Kojima and Yamane, 1990, in Sakagami et al., Nat. Hist. Soc. Wasps Bees Eq. Sumatra: 34 (key), 36 (distr.). -- Macalintal and Starr, 1996, Mem. Ent. Soc. Washington 17: tables 1, 2 (in subgenus Icariola; morphology). -- Kojima, 1996, Zool. Meded., Leiden 70: 349, 350, 357 (key), figs. 1, 2, 5, 7--9, 14, 15, 18, 19, 21, 26, 27 (taxonomy; syn.: Icaria parvimaculata, Ropalidia delicata). -- Kojima and van Achterberg, 1997, Nat. Hist. Bull. Ibaraki Univ. 1: 3 (distr.: Sabah). Ropalidia malayana var. parvimaculata; van der Vecht, 1941, Treubia 18: 104, 176 (taxonomy; female; distr.); 1962, Zool. Verh., Leiden 57: 34 (in subgenus Anthreneida; distr.). Ropalidia malayana parvimacula [!]; Gusenleitner, 1996, Linz. Biol. Beitr. 28: 18 (compared to R. vietnama n. sp.). DISTRIBUTION: Malay Peninsula; Sumatra; Sunda Shelf; Borneo. marginata jucunda (Cameron) Icaria jucunda Cameron, 1898, Mem. Proc. Manchr. Lit. Philos. Soc. 42 (11): 46, female – “New Guinea” (Oxford). — Dalla Torre, 1904, Genera Insectorum 19: 73 (cat.). — Cameron, 1906, Tijdschr. Entomol. 49: 230 (compared to I. pruinosa n. sp.). Icaria pruinosa Cameron, 1906, Tijdschr. Entomol. 49: 228, female – “Digoel” [New Guinea] (lectotype Amsterdam). — van der Vecht, 1941, Treubia 18: 104 (syn. of R. marginata jucunda (Cam.)). — Kojima and Carpenter, 1997, Am. Mus. Novit. 3199: 5 (designation of lectotype). — Kojima and van Achterberg, 1997, Zool. Meded., Leiden 71: 165 (lectotype depository). Ropalidia jucunda; Bequaert, 1932, Rés. Scient. Voyage Indes Or. Néerl. Léopold de Belgique 4 (5): 50. Ropalidia pruinosa; Bequaert, 1932, Rés. Scient. Voyage Indes Or. Néerl. Léopold de Belgique 4 (5): 51. Ropalidia marginata jucunda; van der Vecht, 1941, Treubia 18: 104 (syn: I. pruinosa Cameron), 124 (distr.); 1962, Zool. Verh., Leiden 57: 13 (specimens from the Philippines placed under jucunda in 1941 paper are to be in sundaica). — Baltazar, 1966, Pac. Insects Monogr. 8: 292 (in subgenus Anthreneida; cat.). — Richards 1978,: 60 (key), 100 (in subgenus Icariola; female, male; distr.). — Yamane and Yamane, 1979, Insecta Matsumurana, n. ser. 15: 6 (compared to R. spatulata). -- Yamane and Okazawa, 1981, Rep. Fac. Sci. Kagoshima Univ. (Earth Sci. Biol.) 14: 69, fig. 4 (larva). — Cardale, 1985, Zoolog. Cat. Australia 2, Hym.: Vesp. Sphec.: 215 (in subgenus Icariola; cat.). — Spradbery and Kojima, 1989, Jpn. J. Entomol. 57: 637 (colony population; parasite). — Spradbery, 1991, in Ross and Matthews, Soc. Biol. Wasps: 352 (colony population). — Kojima, 1999a, Entool. Sci. 2: 368. — Kojima, 2001b, Nat. Hist. Bull. Ibaraki Univ. (5): 36, 55 (taxonomy; syn.: Icaria pruinosa Cameron, Ropalidia canaria Cheesman). Ropalidia canaria Cheesman, 1952, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (12) 5: 3, 19, male – “Papua, Kokoda” (London). — Richards, 1978, Aust. J. Zool. Suppl. Ser. 61: 58 (in subgenus Icariola; list). — Kojima, 2001b, Nat. Hist. Bull. Ibaraki Univ. (5): 36, 55 (syn. of R. marginata jucunda). DISTRIBUTION: New Guinea. DISTRIBUTION: New Guinea; New Britain; Australia (Thursday Is., Queensland). marginata marginata (Lepeletier) Vespa ferruginea Fabricius, 1793, Entomol. Syst. 2: 280 -- “India orientali” (Kobenhavn). Junior primary homonym of Vespa ferruginea Gmelin, 1790, and Vespa ferruginea Olivier, 1792. Polistes ferruginea; Fabricius, 1804, Syst. Piez.: 277. Epipona marginata Lepeletier, 1836, Hist. Nat. Insectes Hym. 1: 541, male, female -- “Inde” (coll. Serville, ?Torino). -- Smith, 1852, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (2)9: 47. Icaria marginata; de Saussure, 1854, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2: 237 (taxonomy; “Indes Orientales”). -- Smith, 1857, Cat. Hym. Br. Mus. 5: 97 (cat.). -- de Saussure, 1862, Stettin. Entomol. Ztg. 23: 139. -- Gribodo, 1884, Ann. Mus. Civ. Stor. Nat. Genova (2) 1 (= 21): 355. -- Dalla Torre, 1894, Cat. Hym. 9: 119 (cat.); 1904, Genera Insectorum 19: 74 (cat.). -- Bingham, 1897, Fauna Br. India, Hym. 1: 387 (key), 388 (distr.). Icaria ferruginea; de Saussure, 1853, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2: 38 (“Indes Orientales”). -- Smith, 1857, Cat. Hym. Br. Mus. 5: 97(cat.); 1858, J. Proc. Linn. Soc. Zool. 2: 115 (distr.); 1858 (1859), J. Proc. Linn. Soc. Zool. 3: 22 (distr.); 1863 (1864), J. Proc. Linn. Soc. Zool. 7: 42 (distr.); 1863 (1864), J. Proc. Linn. Soc. Zool. 7: 138 (distr.). -- Horne, 1870, Trans. Zool. Soc. London 7: 169 (ethology) [misidentification?]. -- Smith, 1871, J. Proc. Linn. Soc. Zool. 11: 378 (distr.) [misidentification?]. -- André, 1889, Le Naturaliste: 189. [misidentification?]. -- Dalla Torre, 1894, Cat. Hym. 9: 118 (cat.) [misidentification?]. -- Bingham, 1897, Fauna Br. India, Hym. 1: 386 (key), 387 (female; distr.). -- Cameron, 1900, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (7) 6: 495 (male). -- Dalla Torre, 1904, Genera Insectorum 19: 73 (cat.) [misidentification?]. Ropalidia ferruginea; Bequaert, 1918, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. 39: 247 [misidentification?]. -- Dover and Rao, 1922, J. Asiat. Soc. Bengal (n. ser.) 18: 244 [misidentification?]. -- Salt and Bequaert, 1929, Psyche 36: 263 (record of stylopized specimen). -- Dover, 1931 (1930), J. Fed. Malay. St. Mus. 16: 257 (distr.). -- Lee, 1982, Hornets from Agric. Regions China: 83 (key), 85, pl. 5 fig. 5 (in subgenus Anthreneida); 1985, Econ. Insect Fauna China 30 Hym.: Vespoidea: 46 (key), 49 (in subgenus Anthreneida; female, distr.) [error: year of publication 1792]. Ropalidia marginata; Dover and Rao, 1922, J. Asiat. Soc. Bengal (n. ser.) 18: 244. -- Gadgil and Mahabal, 1974, Curr. Sci. 43: 482 (ethology). -- Richards, 1978, Aust. J. Zool. Suppl. Ser. 61: 58 (in subgenus Icariola; list), 64 (key), 65 (larva in key). -- Gadagkar, 1980, Curr. Sci. 49: 772 (ethology). -- Belavadi and Govindan, 1981, Colemania 1: 95 (in subgenus Icariola; ethology). -- Gadagkar et al., 1982, Proc. Symp. Ecol. Anim. Pop. Zool. Surv. India 4: 49; 1982, Proc. Indian Acad. Sci. Anim. Sci. 91: 539 (ecology). -- Gadagkar and Joshi, 1982, in Breed et al., Biol. Soc. Insects: 187 (ethology); 1983, Anim. Behav. 31: 26 (ethology). -- Gadagkar, 1985, Proc. Indian Acad. Sci. Anim. Sci. 94: 319 (ethology). -- Muralidharan et al., 1986, J. Genet. 65: 153 (ethology). -- Gadagkar et al., 1988, Proc. R. Soc. London B Biol. Sci. 233: 175 (ethology). -- Venkataraman et al., 1988, Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 23: 271 (ethology). -- Gadagkar, 1990, Proc. R. Soc. London B Biol. Sci. 329: 20 (ethology). -- Gadagkar et al., 1990, Proc. Indian Acad. Sci. Anim. Sci. 99: 141 (ethology). -- Gadagkar, 1990, in Veeresh et al., Soc. Insects Environ.: 9 (ethology). -- Venkataraman and Gadagkar, 1990, in Veeresh et al., Soc. Insects Environ.: 71 (ethology). -- Chandrashekara and Gadagkar, 1990, in Veeresh et al., Soc. Insects Environ.: 73 (ethology); 1990, in Veeresh et al., Soc. Insects Indian Perspec.: 153 (ethology). -- Chandran and Gadagkar, 1990, in Veeresh et al., Soc. Insects Environ.: 78 (ethology). -- Nair et al., 1990, in Veeresh et al., Soc. Insects Environ.: 79 (ethology). -- Chandrashekara et al., 1990, in Veeresh et al., Soc. Insects Environ.: 81 (ethology). -- Gadagkar et al., 1990, in Veeresh et al., Soc. Insects Environ.: 227 (ethology). -- Belavadi and Veeresh, 1990, in Veeresh et al., Soc. Insects Environ.: 481 (prey record). -- Gadagkar, 1990, in Veeresh et al., Soc. Insects Indian Perspec.: 129 (ethology). -- Chandrashekara and Gadagkar, 1991, Ethology 87: 269 (ethology); 1991, Insectes Soc. 38: 213 (ethology). -- Gadagkar et al., 1991, Naturwissenschaften 78: 523 (castes). -- Gadagkar et al., 1991, Entomon, 16: 167 (ethology). -- Gadagkar et al., 1991, Ecol. Entomol. 16: 435 (ethology). -- Spradbery, 1991, in Ross and Matthews, Soc. Biol. Wasps: 349, 352, 354 (colony population). -- Ross and Carpenter, 1991, in Ross and Matthews, Soc. Biol. Wasps: 459, 460, 464 (biology). -- Chandrashekara and Gadagkar, 1992, J. Insect Behav. 5: 193 (ethology). -- Venkataraman and Gadagkar, 1992, Insectes Soc. 39: 285 (ethology). -- Gadagkar et al., 1993, Experientia 49: 714 (ethology); 1993, in Keller, Queen Number Soc. Insects: 188 (ethology). -- Itô, 1993, Behav. Soc. Evol. Wasps: 51, 74, 131, 133 (ethology). -- Raghuwanshi, 1993, Ind. J. Zool. Spectrum 3 (1-2): 5 (morphology). -- Raghuwanshi and Pathak, 1993, Ind. J. Zool. Spectrum 4 (1-2): 19 (physiology). -- Gadagkar, 1994, in Agrawal, Perspect. Entomol. Res.: 263 (ethology). -- Gadagkar and Bonner, 1994, J. Biosci. 19 (2): 219 (ethology). -- Premnath et al., 1994, in Lenoir et al., Insect. Soc.: 242 (ethology). -- Gadagkar, 1995, Curr. Sci. 68: 185 (ethology); 1995, in Ramamurthi and Bali, Readings Behav.: 8 (ethology); 1995, in Ramamurthi and Bali, Readings Behav.: 135 (ethology). -- Itô, 1995, Pac. Sci. 49: 42 (ethology). -- Premnath et al., 1995, Behav. Ecol. 6 (2): 117 (ethology); 1995, in Ramamurthi and Bali, Readings Behav.: 160 (ethology). -- Shakarad and Gadagkar, 1995, Ecol. Entomol. 20 (3): 273 (ethology); 1995, in Ramamurthi and Bali, Readings Behav.: 144 (ethology). -- Arathi and Gadagkar, 1995, in Ramamurthi and Bali, Readings Behav.: 153 (ethology). -- Venkataraman and Gadagkar, 1995, Proc. Indian Natl. Sci. Acad. Part B Biol. Sci. 61 (4): 299--313 (ethology). -- Gadagkar, 1996, in Turillazzi and West-Eberhard, Nat. Hist. Evol. Paper Wasps: 248 (ethology); 1996, J. Indian Inst. Sci. 75 (3): 333 (ethology); 1996, Insectarium 33 (4): 18 (ethology). -- Strassmann et al., 1996, Mol. Ecol. 5 (3): 459 (genetics). -- Premnath et al., 1996, Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 39: 125 (ethology). Ropalidia marginata marginata; van der Vecht, 1941, Treubia 18: 109 (key), 117 (fig.; taxonomy; distr.); 1962, Zool. Verh., Leiden 57: 11 (in subgenus Anthreneida; distr.). -- Yamane and Yamane, 1979, Insecta Matsumurana, n. ser. 15: 32 (in subgenus Anthreneida; distr.). -- Das and Gupta, 1984 (1983), Orient. Insects 17: 419 (cat.; distr.); 1989, Orient. Insects Monogr. 11: 110, 118, map 15 (in marginata group of subgenus Anthreneida; key; female, male; fig.; distr.). Ropalidia marginata indica van der Vecht, 1941, Treubia 18: 121 (“holotype” from Amballa) [replacement name for Vespa ferruginea Fabricius, 1793]; 1962, Zool. Verh., Leiden 57: 5 (clarification that this is a replacement name for ferruginea Fabricius, and not to be considered as a new taxon). DISTRIBUTION: Pakistan; India; Sri Lanka. marginata rufitarsis van der Vecht Icaria guttatipennis; Bingham, 1897, Fauna Br. India, Hym. 1: 386 (key), 387 (misidentification of guttatipennis from Africa; female; distr.). -- Cameron, 1900, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (7) 6: 501 (misidentification?; compared to I. wroughtoni, n. sp.). Ropalidia marginata rufitarsis van der Vecht, 1941, Treubia 18: 122, female -- “Tenasserim: Haundraw Valley” [Myanmar] (London); also from Bhamo and Tavoy; 1962, Zool. Verh., Leiden 57: 12 (in subgenus Anthreneida; distr.). -- Das and Gupta, 1984 (1983), Orient. Insects 17: 420 (in subgenus Anthreneida; cat.); 1989, Orient. Insects Monogr. 11: 118 (key), 119, map 15 (in marginata group of subgenus Anthreneida). DISTRIBUTION: Myanmar. marginata sundaica van der Vecht ?Polistes sumatrae Fabricius, 1804, Syst. Piez.: 273 -- “Sumatra” (Kobenhavn); non Ropalidia sumatrae (Weber) [= Vespa sumatrae Weber, 1801]. ?Icaria ferruginea; Smith, 1871, J. Proc. Linn. Soc. Zool. 11: 378. -- Gribodo, 1884, Ann. Mus. Civ. Stor. Nat. Genova (2) 1 [= 21]: 356. Icaria marginata; Cameron, 1905, Tijdschr. Entomol. 48: 73. -- Fullaway, 1913, Proc. Hawaii. Entomol. Soc. 2: 283 (distr.). -- von Schulthess, 1927, Suppl. Entomol. 16: 83 (distr.); 1932, Res. Scient. Voy. ind. Or. Neerl Leopold 4, 5: 40. Ropalidia ferruginea; Dover, 1929, Bull. Raffles Mus. 2: 46; 1931, J. Fed. Malay St. Mus. 16: 257. Ropalidia marginata var. sundaica “v. d. Vecht (in lit.)” Bequaert and Yasumatsu, 1939, Tenthredo 2: 315. Nomen nudum. Ropalidia marginata sundaica Esaki, 1939, Vol. Jubilare pro Prof. S. Yoshida: 238. Nomen nudum. Ropalidia marginata var. sundaica Yasumatsu, 1940, Akitu 2: 184. Nomen nudum. Ropalidia marginata sundaica van der Vecht, 1941 Treubia 18: 122, female, male -- “Koeripan, between Batavia and Buitenzorg, W. Java” (holotype female Leiden); also from Mariana Is.; Malay Peninsula; Bangka; Borneo; Kariman Djawa Isl. -- Yasumatsu, 1945, Mushi 16: 35 (distr.). -- van der Vecht, 1962, Zool. Verh., Leiden 57: 12 (distr.; bionomics). -- Baltazar, 1966, Pac. Insects Monogr. 8: 292 (in subgenus Anthreneida; cat.). -- Iwata, 1976, Evol. Instinct: 295 (in subgenus Anthreneida; ethology). -- Richards, 1978, Aust. J. Zool. Suppl. Ser. 61: 54 (nest). -- Kojima, 1984, Kontyû, 52: 55, fig. 5 (larva); 1984, Kontyû 52: 523 (key), 526, 530, 531 (in subgenus Icariola; fig.; distr.; male genitalia;). -- Miyano, 1994, Nat. Hist. Res., spec. issue, (1): 209 (distr.); 1994, Nat. Hist. Res., spec. issue, (1): 237 (ethology; nest). -- Yamane, 1991, Proc. Jpn. Soc. Syst. Zool. 45: 55 (distr.). -- Macalintal and Starr, 1996, Mem. Ent. Soc. Washington 17: table 1 (in subgenus Icariola). -- Kusigemati et al., 1996, Occasion. Pap. Kagoshima Univ. Res. Center S. Pacif. 30: 12 (distr.). -- Kojima and van Achterberg, 1997, Zool. Meded., Leiden 71: 161 (holotype depository). Ropalidia marginata (Lepeletier); Kojima and Yamane, 1990, in Sakagami et al., Nat. Hist. Soc. Wasps Bees Eq. Sumatra: 34 (key), 35 (distr.). -- Kojima and van Achterberg, 1997, Nat. Hist. Bull. Ibaraki Univ. 1: 2 (distr.: Sulawesi). DISTRIBUTION: Malay Peninsula; Borneo; Bangka; Sumatra; Java; Kariman Djawa; Lesser Sunda Is.; Sulawesi; Talud Is.; Tukang Besi Is.; Philippine Is.; Mariana Is.; Palau Is.; Volcano Is. mathematica (Smith) “Icaria variegata var., non type!”; de Saussure, 1853, Étud. fam. Vesp. 2: 25. -- von Schulthess, 1927, Suppl. Entomol. 16: 83 (distr.). Polybia mathematica Smith, 1860 (1861), J. Proc. Linn. Soc. Zool. 5: 90, female -- “Makassar” [Sulawesi] (Oxford); 1863 (1864), J. Proc. Linn. Soc. Zool. 7: 139 (distr.); 1871, J. Proc. Linn. Soc. Zool. 11: 384 (cat). -- Dalla Torre, 1894, Cat. Hym. 9: 164 (cat.); 1904, Genera Insectorum 19: 78 (cat.). -- van der Vecht, 1966, Zool. Verh., Leiden 82: 6 (= Ropalidia mathematica). Icaria nigroplagiata Cameron, 1900, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (7) 6: 498, female -- “Khasia Hills” [India] (Oxford). -- Dalla Torre, 1904, Genera Insectorum 19: 74 (cat.). -- Aiyar, 1916, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 24: 714 (cat.). — Kojima et al., 2005, Treubia 33: 175 (taxonomy; syn. of R. mathematica). Parapolybia mathematica; von Schulthess, 1913, Mitt. Schweiz. Entomol. Ges. 12: 164 (syn. of Icaria stigma Smith, according to Meade-Waldo, in litt.). Ropalidia mathematica mathematica; van der Vecht, 1941, Treubia 18: 110 (key), 130 (in stigma group; female; distr.); 1962, Zool. Verh., Leiden 57: 18 (in subgenus Anthreneida; distr.: Celebes; Flores). -- Das and Gupta, 1984 (1983), Orient. Insects 17: 420 (in subgenus Anthreneida; cat.); 1989, Orient. Insects Monogr. 11: 111, 133 (in subgenus Anthreneida; key; distr. [record from Java probably erroneous]). Ropalidia mathematica binotata van der Vecht, 1941, Treubia 18: 131, female, male -- “W. Java, Tapos on Mt. Gedeh (800 m)” (holotype female Leiden); also from Bali; Sumatra; Bangka; 1962, Zool. Verh., Leiden 57: 19 (distr.; biology; nest). -- Iwata, 1976, Evol. Instinct: 295 (in subgenus Anthreneida; ethology). -- Richards, 1978, Aust. J. Zool. Suppl. Ser. 61: 53 (nest). -- Kojima and Yamane, 1984, Rep. Fac. Sci. Kagoshima Univ. (Earth Sci. Biol.) 17: 114, figs. 43--49 (larva). -- Kojima and van Achterberg, 1997, Zool. Meded., Leiden 71: 161 (holotype depository). — Kojima et al., 2005, Treubia 33: 175 (taxonomy; syn. of R. mathematica). Ropalidia mathematica nigroplagiata; van der Vecht, 1941, Treubia 18: 104, 132 (distr.). -- Das and Gupta, 1984 (1983), Orient. Insects 17: 421 (cat.; distr.); 1989, Orient. Insects Monogr. 11: 111, 133 (key), 134, map 19 (in stigma group of subgenus Anthreneida; female; distr.). Ropalidia mathematica sumbaensis van der Vecht, 1962, Zool. Verh., Leiden 57: 20, female, male (in subgenus Anthreneida) -- “Sumba: Langgaliru” (holotype female Basel); ? also from Timor. — Kojima et al., 2005, Treubia 33: 175 (taxonomy; syn. of R. mathematica). Ropalidia mathematica; Richards, 1978, Aust. J. Zool. Suppl. Ser. 61: 58 (in subgenus Icariola; list). Ropalidia mathematica; Kojima and Yamane, 1990, in Sakagami et al., Nat. Hist. Soc. Wasps Bees Eq. Sumatra: 34 (key), 35 (distr.). DISTRIBUTION: India (Meghalaya).Bangka; Sumatra; Java; Bali; Sumbawa; Flores; Karimon Djawa; Straits Sunda; Sulawesi; Lombok; Flores; Sumba; Timor. melania Richards Ropalidia melania Richards, 1978, Aust. J. Zool. Suppl. Ser. 61: 55 (nest), 57 (list), 65 (larva in key), 122 (key), 126, female, nest (in subgenus Polistratus) – “New Guinea: Morobe District, Wau” (London). — Macalintal and Starr, 1996, Mem. Ent. Soc. Washington 17: tables 1, 2 (in subgenus Polistratus; morphology). — Kojima, 2001b, Nat. Hist. Bull. Ibaraki Univ. 5: 49 (in R. nigra-group). DISTRIBUTION: New Guinea. mimikae (Meade-Waldo) Icaria mimikae Meade-Waldo, 1912, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (8) 9: 448 (key), 450, female (in subgenus Icariastrum) – “Mimika River” [New Guinea] (London). Ropalidia mimikae; Bequaert, 1932, Rés. Scient. Voyage Indes Or. Néerl. Léopold de Belgique 4 (5): 50. — Cheesman, 1952, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (12) 5: 2, 9 (redescription of the type). — Kojima, 2001b, Nat. Hist. Bull. Ibaraki Univ. 5: 45 (in R. maculiventris-group; holotype label data). DISTRIBUTION: New Guinea. minor (de Saussure) Icaria hova var. minor de Saussure, 1900, Abh. Senckenb. Naturforsch. Ges. 26 (2): 217 (key), 228, female -- “In Madagascar vulgaris” (Genève). Ropalidia hova var. minor; Bequaert, 1918, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. 39: 342 (cat.; distr.). -- FitzGerald, 1950, Proc. R. Entomol. Soc. London Ser. A Gen. Entomol. 25: 84 (nest). Ropalidia hova minor; Richards, 1978, Aust. J. Zool. Suppl. Ser. 61: 53 (in subgenus Icariola; nest). Ropalidia minor; Giordani Soika, 1991, Lav. Soc. Ven. Sci. Nat. 16: 88 (key), fig. 11. DISTRIBUTION: Madagascar. modesta (Smith) Icaria modesta Smith, 1858, J. Proc. Linn. Soc. Zool. 2: 115, female -- “Borneo (Sarawak)” (Oxford); 1863 (1864), J. Proc. Linn. Soc. Zool. 7: 138 (distr.); 1871, J. Proc. Linn. Soc. Zool. 11: 379 (cat.). -- Dalla Torre, 1894, Cat. Hym. 9: 119 (cat.); 1904, Genera Insectorum 19: 74 (cat.). Icaria fulvipennis Gribodo, 1892 (1891), Bull. Soc. Entomol. Ital., 23: 245, female -- “Marang (Sumatra)” (Genova). -- Dalla Torre, 1894, Cat. Hym. 9: 119 (cat.); 1904, Genera Insectorum 19: 73 (cat.). -- van der Vecht, 1941, Treubia 18: 104 (syn. of R. modesta (Smith)). Icaria ungulata Bingham, 1897, Fauna Br. India, Hym. 1: 387 (key), 391, female -- “Tenasserim” [Myanmar] (London). -- Dalla Torre, 1904, Genera Insectorum 19: 74 (cat.). -- Dover, 1931 (1930), J. Fed. Malay St. Mus. 16: 257 (distr.). -- van der Vecht, 1941, Treubia 18: 104 (syn. of R. modesta (Smith)). Ropalidia ungulata; Dover, 1931 (1930), J. Fed. Mal. St. Mus. 16: 257 (distr.). Ropalidia modesta; van der Vecht, 1941, Treubia 18: 104 (syn: I. fulvipennis Gribodo, I. ungulata Bingham), 112 (key), 187 (taxonomy; fig.; distr.); 1962, Zool. Verh., Leiden 57: 36 (in subgenus Anthreneida; ethology; distr.). -- Richards , 1978, Aust. J. Zool. Suppl. Ser. 61: 54, 57 (in subgenus Anthreneida; nest; list). -- Das and Gupta, 1984 (1983), Orient. Insects 17: 421 (in subgenus Anthreneida; cat.); 1989, Orient. Insects Monogr. 11: 112 (key), 135, map 20 (sumatraegroup of subgenus Anthreneida; female; fig.; distr.). -- Kojima and Yamane, 1990, in Sakagami et al., Nat. Hist. Soc. Wasps Bees Eq. Sumatra: 35 (key). DISTRIBUTION: Myanmar; Thailand; Malay Peninsula; Borneo; Sumatra; Java. montana Carl Icaria montana Carl, 1930, Memoires du “Globe” 49: 22. Nomen nudum. Ropalidia montana; Carl, 1934, Rev. Suisse Zool. 41: 675, figs. 1--6, 8--13, female, male, nest -- “le versant méridional des Nilgiris ... Coonoor” [India] (Genève). -- Richards and Richards, 1951, Trans. R. Entomol. Soc. London 102: 6 (nest [incorrectly as “pharagmocyrrarus”]). -- Berland and Grassé, 1951, in Grassé, Traité Zool. 10 (2): 1164. -- van der Vecht, 1962, Zool. Verh., Leiden 57: 42 (key), 70 (in subgenus Icarielia; distr.); 1968, Proc. K. Ned. Akad. Wet. Ser. C Biol. Med. Sci. 71: 418, fig. 3c (morphology). -- Iwata, 1976, Evol. Instinct: 295 (in subgenus Icarielia; ethology). -- Richards, 1978, Aust. J. Zool. Suppl. Ser. 61: 55, 59 (in subgenus Icarielia; nest; list), 128 (key). -- Yamane and Yamane, 1979, Insecta Matsumurana, n. ser. 15: 32 (in subgenus Icarielia; distr.). -- Yamane et al., 1983, Insectes Soc. 30: 416 (biology). -- Jeanne et al., 1983, Zoomorphologie 103: 155 (in subgenus Icarielia; morphology). -- Das and Gupta, 1984 (1983), Orient. Insects 17: 427 (in subgenus Icarielia; cat.; distr.); 1989, Orient. Insects Monogr. 11: 113 (key), 148, map 25 (in subgenus Icarielia; female; distr.). -- Belavadi and Veeresh, 1990, in Veeresh et al., Soc. Insects Environ.: 481 (prey record). -- Spradbery, 1991, in Ross and Matthews, Soc. Biol. Wasps: 349, 352 (colony population). -- Wenzel, 1991, in Ross and Matthews, Soc. Biol. Wasps: 497, 501, 512 (in subgenus Icarielia; nest). -- Downing, 1991, in Ross and Matthews, Soc. Biol. Wasps: 548, 551 (morphology). -- Jeanne and Hunt, 1992, J. Biosci. 17: 1--14 (biology); 1992, Entomol. Mon. Mag. 128: 139 (associates). -- Itô, 1993, Behav. Soc. Evol. Wasps: 85, 87, 88, 89, 132 (in subgenus Icarielia; ethology). -- Kojima, 1996, Zool. Meded., Leiden 70: 325, 328, figs. 9, 22. — Kojima, 2001a, Nat. Hist. Bull. Ibaraki Univ. (5): 9 (designation of lectotype). DISTRIBUTION: India (Kerala, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu). mutabilis Richards Ropalidia mutabilis mutabilis Richards, 1978, Aust. J. Zool. Suppl. Ser. 61: 53 (nest), 60 (key), 94, female, male, nest (in subgenus Icariola) -- “Northern Territory, Downs Homestead, 2 miles ENE. Victoria River, 16°24’S., 131°02’E.” [Australia] (holotype female Canberra); also from numerous other localities in Northern Territory, and Western Australia. -- Cardale, 1985, Zoolog. Cat. Australia 2, Hym.: Vesp. Sphec.: 215 (in subgenus Icariola; cat.). — Kojima, 1999a, Entomol. Sci. 2: 373 (taxonomy; syn.of R. interrupta van der Vecht); 2001a, Nat. Hist. Bull. Ibaraki Univ. (5): 8 (doubting Kojima's (1999) synonymy of R. mutabilis mutabilis under R. interrupta [= R. gregaria (de Saussure)]. Ropalidia interrupta; Kojima, 1999a, Entomol. Sci. 2: 372 (taxonomy; syn: Ropalidia mutabilis mutabilis Richards) (partly). Ropalidia mutabilis Richards: Saito and Kojima, 2005, Entomol. Sci. 8: 185 (taxonomy). DISTRIBUTION: Australia (Northern Territory, Western Australia). nigerrima van der Vecht Ropalidia nigerrima van der Vecht, 1962, Zool. Verh., Leiden 57: 38 (key), 39, female -- “Berangas, South East Borneo” (Leiden). -- Kojima and Yamane, 1990, in Sakagami et al., Nat. Hist. Soc. Wasps Bees Eq. Sumatra: 34 (key), 36 (distr.). -- Macalintal and Starr, 1996, Mem. Ent. Soc. Washington 17: tables 1, 2 (in subgenus Paraicaria; morphology). -- Kojima and van Achterberg, 1997, Zool. Meded., Leiden 71: 161 (holotype depository); 1997, Nat. Hist. Bull. Ibaraki Univ. 1: 3 (distr.: Sabah). DISTRIBUTION: Borneo; Sumatra. nigra (Smith) Icaria nigra Smith, 1859, J. Proc. Linn. Soc. Zool. 3: 167, female – “Aru” (lectotype Oxford); 1863 (1864), J. Proc. Linn. Soc. Zool. 7: 41 (distr.); 1863 (1864), J. Proc. Linn. Soc. Zool. 7: 138 (distr.); 1865, J. Proc. Linn. Soc. Zool. 8: 90 (listed); 1871, J. Proc. Linn. Soc. Zool. 11: 379 (cat.). — Dalla Torre, 1894, Cat. Hym. 9: 120 (cat); 1904, Genera Insectorum 19: 74 (cat.). — Meade-Waldo and Morley, 1914, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (8) 14: 406 (syn.: Ancistrocerus catharinae (Cam.) as var.). — Kojima and Carpenter, 1997, Am. Mus. Novit. 3199: 4 (designation of lectotype). Icaria morosa Smith, 1863 (1864), J. Proc. Linn. Soc. Zool. 7: 42, female – “Waigiou” (Oxford); 1863 (1864), J. Proc. Linn. Soc. Zool. 7: 138 (distr.); 1871, J. Proc. Linn. Soc. Zool. 11: 380 (cat.). — Dalla Torre, 1894, Cat. Hym. 9: 119, female, (cat.); 1904, Genera Insectorum 19: 74 (cat.) — Schulz, 1904, Berl. Entomol. Z. 49: 226 (distr.). — Cheesman, 1952, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (12) 5: 10 (syn. of Ropalidia nigra (Smith)). Icaria spilostoma Cameron, 1906, in Wichmann, Nova Guinea 5, Zool. 1: 62, female, male – “Manokwari” [New Guinea] (lectotype female London, no. 18873). — Meade-Waldo, 1912, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (8) 9: 448 (distr.); 1915, Br. Orn. Union Exp. N. Guinea, London sep.: 10 (as 1912). — van der Vecht, 1934, Tijdschr. Entomol. 77, Verslag: 8 (syn. of Ropalidia nigra (Smith)). — Cheesman, 1952, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (12) 5: 10 (syn. of Ropalidia nigra (Smith)). — Kojima and Carpenter, 1997, Am. Mus. Novit. 3199: 5 (designation of lectotype). Odynerus sariensis Cameron, 1906, in Wichmann, Nova Guinea 5, Zool. 1: 63, female -- “Siari” (lectotype Amsterdam). — van der Vecht, 1934, Tijdschr. Entomol. 77, Verslag: 8 (syn. of Ropalidia nigra (Smith)). — Kojima and Carpenter, 1997, Am. Mus. Novit. 3199: 5 (designation of lectotype). — Kojima and van Achterberg, 1997, Zool. Meded., Leiden 71: 166 (lectotype depository). Odynerus confraternus Cameron, 1911, Nova Guinea 9, Zool. 2 : 192, female – “Lorentz River” (lectotype Amsterdam). — van der Vecht, 1934, Tijdschr. Entomol. 77, Verslag: 8 (syn. of Ropalidia nigra (Smith)). — Kojima and Carpenter, 1997, Am. Mus. Novit. 3199: 5 (designation of lectotype). — Kojima and van Achterberg, 1997, Zool. Meded., Leiden 71: 166 (lectotype depository). Icaria confraternus; Meade-Waldo and Morley, 1914, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (8) 14: 506. Ancistrocerus catharinae Cameron, 1913, Bijdr. Dierkd. 19: 78, female – “Waigeu” (lectotype Amsterdam). — Meade-Waldo and Morley, 1914, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (8) 14: 406 (var. of Icaria nigra). — van der Vecht, 1934, Tijdschr. Entomol. 77, Verslag: 8 (syn. of Ropalidia nigra (Smith)). — Kojima and Carpenter, 1997, Am. Mus. Novit. 3199: 4 (designation of lectotype). — Kojima and van Achterberg, 1997, Zool. Meded., Leiden 71: 165 (lectotype depository). Icaria nigra var. catharinae; Meade-Waldo and Morley, 1914, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (8) 14: 406. Ropalidia confraterna; Bequaert, 1932, Rés. Scient. Voyage Indes Or. Néerl. Léopold de Belgique 4 (5): 50. Ropalidia nigra; Bequaert, 1932, Rés. Scient. Voyage Indes Or. Néerl. Léopold de Belgique 4 (5): 50. — van der Vecht, 1934, Tijdschr. Entomol. 77, Verslag: 8 (syns.: Icaria spilostoma Cameron, Odynerus sariensis Cameron, Odynerus confraternus Cameron, Ancistrocerus catharinae Cameron). — Cheesman, 1952, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (12) 5: 2, 10 (redescription of type female, description of male; syns.: Icaria morosa Smith, Icaria spilostoma Cameron; distr. [erroneously recorded from Makasar in Celebes]). — Richards, 1978, Aust. J. Zool. Suppl. Ser. 61: 57 (in subgenus Polistratus; list, syn.: spilostoma (Cameron)), 121 (key). — Kojima, 2001b, Nat. Hist. Bull. Ibaraki Univ. (5): 36, 49 (taxonomy; syn.: Icaria morosa Smith, Icaria spilostoma Cameron, Odynerus sariensis Cameron, Odynerus confraternus Cameron, Ancistrocerus catharinae Cameron, Ropalidia domestica Cheesman, R. sepicana Richards). Ropalidia spilostoma; Bequaert, 1932, Rés. Scient. Voyage Indes Or. Néerl. Léopold de Belgique 4 (5): 51. Ropalidia morosa; Bequaert, 1932, Rés. Scient. Voyage Indes Or. Néerl. Léopold de Belgique 4 (5): 51. Ropalidia domestica Cheesman, 1952, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (12) 5: 2, 12, female, male – “Papua, Kokoda” (holotype male London, no. 18.1037). — Richards, 1978, Aust. J. Zool. Suppl. Ser. 61: 54 (nest), 57 (in subgenus Polistratus; list), 122 (holotype stated to be female; redescription). — Macalintal and Starr, 1996, Mem. Ent. Soc. Washington 17: tables 1, 2 (in subgenus Polistratus; morphology). Kojima, 2001b, Nat. Hist. Bull. Ibaraki Univ. (5): 36, 49 (syn. of R. nigra). Ropalidia sepicana Richards, 1978, Aust. J. Zool. Suppl. Ser. 61: 57 (list), 122 (key), 127, figs. 22, 27, female, male (in subgenus Polistratus) – “New Guinea: Sepik district, Sepik River, Kondanggei” (holotype female Canberra); also from two other localities in New Guinea. — Kojima, 2001b, Nat. Hist. Bull. Ibaraki Univ. (5): 36, 49 (syn. of R. nigra). DISTRIBUTION: New Guinea. nigrescens Van der Vecht Ropalidia flavopicta nigrescens van der Vecht, 1962, Zool. Verh., Leiden 57: 58 (key), 59, female (in subgenus Icarielia) -- “Los Baños” [Philippines] (Gainesville). -- Baltazar, 1966, Pac. Insects Monogr. 8: 293 (in subgenus Icarielia; cat.). Ropalidia nigrescens: Kojima, 1982, Kontyû 50: 109 (key), 116 (in subgenus Icarielia; female, male; larva; distr.) -- Jeanne et al., 1983, Zoomorphologie 103: 155 (in subgenus Icarielia; morphology). -- Kojima and Jeanne, 1986, Biotropica 18: 324 (nest). -- Wenzel, 1991, in Ross and Matthews, Soc. Biol. Wasps: 497, 501 (in subgenus Icarielia; nest). -- Macalintal and Starr, 1996, Mem. Ent. Soc. Washington 17: 112, tables 1, 2 (in subgenus Icarielia; morphology). -- Kojima, 1996, Zool. Meded., Leiden 70: 326. DISTRIBUTION: Luzon. nigrior Richards Ropalidia nigrior Richards, 1978, Aust. J. Zool. Suppl. Ser. 61: 55 (nest), 59 (list), 63 (key), 113, 128 (key), fig. 45, female, nest (in subgenus Icarielia) – “Queensland Q3, Iron Range” [Australia] (Canberra); also from two other localities in Queensland; and New Guinea (probably). — Cardale, 1985, Zoolog. Cat. Australia 2, Hym.: Vesp. Sphec.: 217 (in subgenus Icarielia; cat.). — Naumann, 1993, in Naumann et al., Cape York Penin. Sci. Exp. Wet Season 1992 Rep. 2: 180 (distr.). — Kojima, 1996, Zool. Meded., Leiden 70: 328; 1999a, Entomol. Sci. 2: 376 (holotype label data). DISTRIBUTION: Australia: Queensland; ?New Guinea. nigrita Das and Gupta Ropalidia nigrita Das and Gupta, 1984 (1983), Orient. Insects 17: 421. Nomen nudum. Ropalidia nigrita Das and Gupta, 1989, Orient. Insects Monogr. 11: 111 (key), 130, figs. 24b, 24n, 25n, 26F, 26f, 26H, 26h, 27K, 27n, map 19, male, female (in stigma group of subgenus Anthreneida) -- “INDIA: Manipur: Moirang, 500 m” (holotype male Calcutta); also from another locality in Manipur. DISTRIBUTION: India: Manipur. nigrofemorata (Cameron) Icaria nigrofemorata Cameron, 1910, Wiss. Ergebn. Schwed. Zool. Exp. Kilimandjaro 2 (8), Vesp.: 170, female -- “Usambara” [Tanzania] (?Stockholm). -- von Schulthess, 1913, Ark. Zool. 8 (17): 13 (the type has lost its metasoma and cannot be identified). -- Bequaert, 1918, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. 39: 343 (citing von Schulthess, 1913). DISTRIBUTION: Tanzania. nilssoni Giordani Soika Ropalidia nilssoni Giordani Soika, 1991, Lav. Soc. Ven. Sci. Nat. 16: 79, 83, 86 (key), “male” [female] -- “MADAGASCAR: Saonierana, Ivongo Rantabade” (Uppsala). DISTRIBUTION: Madagascar. nitidula (de Saussure) Icaria nitidula de Saussure, 1890, in Grandidier, Hist. Madagascar 20, Hym. 1: 113 (key), 122, pl. 18 fig. 17, female -- “Madagascar” (?Berlin). -- Dalla Torre, 1894, Cat. Hym. 9: 120 (cat.). -- de Saussure, 1900, Abh. Senckenb. Naturforsch. Ges. 26 (2): 217, 227 (male). -- Dalla Torre, 1904, Genera Insectorum 19: 74 (cat.). Ropalidia nitidula; Bequaert, 1918, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. 39: 343 (cat.; distr.). -- Richards, 1978, Aust. J. Zool. Suppl. Ser. 61: 54, 58 (in subgenus Icariola; nest; list). -- Giordani Soika, 1991, Lav. Soc. Ven. Sci. Nat. 16: 85 (key). DISTRIBUTION: Madagascar. nobilis (Gerstaecker) Icaria nobilis Gerstaecker, 1857, Monatsber. K. Preuss. Akad. Wiss. Berlin: 464, female – “Mossambique” (?Berlin); 1862, in Peters, Reise Mossambique, Zool. V: 470, pl. 30 fig. 9 (female). — de Saussure, 1890, in Grandidier, Hist. Madagascar 20, Hym. 1: 114, 333, footnote (female). — Kohl, 1893 (1892), Jahrb. Hamburg. Wiss. Anst. 10 (2): 189. — Dalla Torre, 1894, Cat. Hym. 9: 120 (cat.). — Stadelmann, 1898, Dtsch. Ost-Afrika 4, Hym.: 33. — Dalla Torre, 1904, Genera Insectorum 19: 74 (cat.). Ropalidia nobilis; Bequaert, 1918, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. 39: 343 (cat.; probable syn. of R. guttatipennnis (de Saussure); distr.). — Schouteden, 1919, Rev. Zool. Afr. 6: 187 (Rhopalidia [!]; distinct from guttatipennnis; distr.). — Salt, 1927, Psyche 34: 185 (distr.; record of stylopized specimen). — Salt and Bequaert, 1929, Psyche 36: 263 (record of stylopized specimen). — FitzGerald, 1940, Proc. R. Entomol. Soc. London Ser. A Gen. Entomol. 15: 34 (distr.; nest). — Richards, 1978, Aust. J. Zool. Suppl. Ser. 61: 53, 58 (in subgenus Icariola; nest; list). — Giordani Soika, 1981, Boll. Soc. Entomol. Ital. 113: 173, fig. 1 (compared to R. unidentata n. sp.). — Macalintal and Starr, 1996, Mem. Ent. Soc. Washington 17: tables 1, 2 (in subgenus Icariola; morphology). — Kojima, 2001a, Nat. Hist. Bull. Ibaraki Univ. 5: 3. DISTRIBUTION: Tanzania (including Zanzibar); Mozambique. novaeguineae (von Schulthess) Parapolybia novaeguineae “de Saussure nom. mus.” von Schulthess, 1913 (April), Mitt. Schweiz. Entomol. Ges. 12: 154 (key), 162 (description based on notes received from Meade-Waldo) – “Neu-Guinea” (London). Polybia novaeguineae du Buysson, 1913 (July), Bull. Soc. Entomol. France 1913: 297, female – locality not stated, but evidently from New Guinea (Oxford, London [with a label “Polybia Novae-Guineae Sauss.” written by Smith]) [junior secondary homonym of Ropalidia novaeguineae (von Schulthess)]. — van der Vecht, 1966, Zool. Verh., Leiden 82: 6 (syn. of Ropalidia novaeguineae (von Schulthess)). Ropalidia novae guineae [!]; Cheesman, 1952, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (12) 5: 3, 23 (redescription of a type of Polybia novaeguineae du Buysson). Ropalidia novaeguineae; van der Vecht, 1966, Zool. Verh., Leiden 82: 6. — Richards, 1978, Aust. J. Zool. Suppl. Ser. 61: 59 (in subgenus Icarielia; listed as R. novaeguineae (von Schulthess)), 129 (R. novaeguineae (du Buysson); key). — Kojima, 1996, Zool. Meded., Leiden 70: 328. — Kojima, 2001b, Nat. Hist. Bull. Ibaraki Univ. (5): 36, 46 (taxonomy). DISTRIBUTION: New Guinea. novissima Giordani Soika Ropalidia novissima Giordani Soika, 1944, Atti Ist. Ven. Sci., Lett. Arti Cl. Sci. Mat. Nat. 103 (2): 176, female -- “Africa orientale: Banno” (Venezia); 1952 (1951), Riv. Biol. Colon. 11: 88 (distr.); 1973, Boll. Mus. Civ. Stor. Nat. Venezia 24: 37 (holotype in coll. Giordani Soika). DISTRIBUTION: Ethiopia. nursei van der Vecht Ropalidia rufoplagiata nursei van der Vecht, 1941, Treubia 18: 167, female -- “India: ... Bombay Pres., Matheran” (London). -- Yamane and Yamane, 1979, Insecta Matsumurana, n. ser. 15: 32 (in subgenus Anthreneida). -- Das and Gupta, 1984 (1983), Orient. Insects 17: 422 (in subgenus Anthreneida; cat.); 1989, Orient. Insects Monogr. 11: 137 (key), 138 (in sumatrae group of subgenus Anthreneida). Ropalidia nursei; Richards, 1978, Aust. J. Zool. Suppl. Ser. 61: 57 (in subgenus Anthreneida; list). DISTRIBUTION: India (Maharashtra). obscura Gusenleitner Ropalidia obscura Gusenleitner, 1996, Linz. Biol. Beitr. 28: 15, figs. 2, 4, female (in subgenus Icariellia [!]) -- “Thailand, Ching Mai, Province: Doi Suthep” (holotype San Francisco). -- Kojima, 1996, Zool. Meded., Leiden 70: 328. -- Kojima and van Achterberg, 1997, Nat. Hist. Bull. Ibaraki Univ. 1: 10, 11, figs 14-23 (female; male; distr.: Thailand, Laos). DISTRIBUTION: Thailand. obscurior Giordani Soika Ropalidia obscurior Giordani Soika, 1991, Lav. Soc. Ven. Sci. Nat. 16: 79, 87 (key), 89, female, male -- “MADAGASCAR: Rogez, dintorni” (holotype female Venezia); also from two other localities in Madagascar. DISTRIBUTION: Madagascar. ochracea van der Vecht Ropalidia flavopicta ochracea van der Vecht, 1962, Zool. Verh., Leiden 57: 49 (key), 56, female, male (in subgenus Icarielia) -- “Central Sumba, Lokojengo” (holotype female Basel); also from elsewhere on Sumba. Ropalidia ochracea; Kojima, 1996, Zool. Meded., Leiden 70: 325, 326, 336, figs. 46, 57, 78--80 (taxonomy; distr.). DISTRIBUTION: Sumba. opifex van der Vecht Ropalidia opifex van der Vecht, 1962, Zool. Verh., Leiden 57: 42 (key), 68, female (in subgenus Icarielia) -- “Malaya: Selangor ... Kuala Lumpur, Ampang” (London); also from Borneo; biology. -- Richards, 1978, Aust. J. Zool. Suppl. Ser. 61: 55, 59 (in subgenus Icarielia; nest; list), 128 (key). -- Lee, 1982, Hornets from Agric. Regions China: 83 (key), 93, pl. 3 fig. 7 (in subgenus Icarielia); 1982, Zool. Res. 3: 86 (in subgenus Icariolia [!]; distr.); 1985, Econ. Insect Fauna China 30 Hym.: Vespoidea: 46 (key), 51, pl. 3 fig. 7 (in subgenus Icarielia; female; distr.); 1987, in Forest Insects Yunnan: 1348 (in subgenus Icariolia [!]; key). -- Maschwitz et al., 1990, J. Nat. Hist. 24: 1311 (in subgenus Icarielia; nest). -- Kojima, 1996, Zool. Meded., Leiden 70: 325, 328, figs. 1, 14. -- Kojima and van Achterberg, 1997, Nat. Hist. Bull. Ibaraki Univ. 1: 4 (distr.: Sabah). DISTRIBUTION: Malay Peninsula; Borneo; China (Yunnan). opulenta (Smith) Icaria opulenta Smith, 1857, Cat. Hym. Br. Mus. 5: 99, female -- “Borneo (Sarawak)” (lectotype London); 1858, J. Proc. Linn. Soc. Zool. 2: 115 (male). -- de Saussure, 1862, Stettin. Entomol. Ztg. 23: 133. -- Smith, 1863 (1864), J. Proc. Linn. Soc. Zool. 7: 138 (distr.); 1871, J. Proc. Linn. Soc. Zool. 11: 379 (cat.). -- Dalla Torre, 1894, Cat. Hym. 9: 120 (cat.); 1904, Genera Insectorum 19: 74 (cat.). Ropalidia opulenta; van der Vecht, 1941, Treubia, 18: 113 (key), 185 (ref.; female, male; fig.; distr.); 1962, Zool. Verh., Leiden 57: 36 (in subgenus Anthreneida; designation of lectotype; distr.). -- Richards, 1978, Aust. J. Zool. Suppl. Ser. 61: 57 (in subgenus Anthreneida; list). -- Macalintal and Starr, 1996, Mem. Ent. Soc. Washington 17: tables 1, 2 (in subgenus Anthreneida; morphology). -- Kojima and van Achterberg, 1997, Nat. Hist. Bull. Ibaraki Univ. 1: 3 (distr.: Sabah). DISTRIBUTION: Borneo. ornaticeps (Cameron) Icaria ornaticeps Cameron, 1900, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (7) 6: 496, female -- “Khasia Hills” [India] (Oxford, London); also from Sarawak; 1903, J. Straits Br. R. Asiat. Soc. 39: 173. -- Dalla Torre, 1904, Genera Insectorum 19: 74 (cat.). -- Meade-Waldo, 1911, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (8) 7: 100 (syn. of Icaria flavopicta Smith). -- Aiyar, 1916, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 24: 714 (cat.). -- van der Vecht, 1962, Zool. Verh., Leiden 57: 49 (record from Sarawak is erroneous). Ropalidia flavopicta ornaticeps; van der Vecht, 1962, Zool. Verh., Leiden 57: 49 (in subgenus Icarielia; taxonomy; distr.). -- Yoshikawa, 1964, Nat. Life S. E. Asia 3: pl. 6 figs. 15, 16, pl. 7 fig. 17 (in subgenus Icariela [!]; nest). -- Iwata, 1969, Kontyû, 37: 439 (in subgenus Icarielia; nest); 1976, Evol. Instinct: 295 (in subgenus Icarielia; ethology). -- Yamane and Yamane, 1979, Insecta Matsumurana, n. ser. 15: 32 (in subgenus Icarielia; distr.). -- Das and Gupta, 1984 (1983), Orient. Insects 17: 427 (in subgenus Icarielia; cat.; distr.); 1989, Orient. Insects Monogr. 11: 150 (key), 151, map 25 (in subgenus Icarielia; female, male; fig.; distr.). Ropalidia ornaticeps; Yoshikawa et al., 1969, Nat. Life S. E. Asia 6: 167, pl. 51 (in subgenus Icarielia; nest; colony population). -- Spradbery, 1991, in Ross and Matthews, Soc. Biol. Wasps: 352 (colony population) [citing Yoshikawa et al. (1969), without nomenclatural consideration]. -- Kojima, 1996, Zool. Meded., Leiden 70: 325, 326, 336, figs. 47, 50, 53, 58, 59, 61, 81--87 (taxonomy; distr.). DISTRIBUTION: India; Myanmar; Thailand; Cambodia; Malay Peninsula; Vietnam. ornatipes (Cameron) Icaria ornatipes Cameron, 1908, Dtsch. Entomol. Z. 1908: 564, female -- “Borneo ... Kuching” (holotype London). Ropalidia ornatipes; van der Vecht, 1941, Treubia, 18: 113 (key), 180 (ref.; female; fig.; distr.); 1962, Zool. Verh., Leiden 57: 35 (in subgenus Anthreneida; distr.). -- Richards, 1978, Aust. J. Zool. Suppl. Ser. 61: 57 (in subgenus Anthreneida; list). -- Kojima and Yamane, 1990, in Sakagami et al., Nat. Hist. Soc. Wasps Bees Eq. Sumatra: 35 (key). DISTRIBUTION: Borneo; Sumatra. palawana Kojima and Tano Ropalidia palawana Kojima and Tano, 1985, Kontyû 53: 520, female -- “Palawan, Mantalingajan, Pingisan 600 m” [Philippines] (Kobenhavn). -- Kojima, 1996, Zool. Meded., Leiden 70: 326, 341 (distr.). DISTRIBUTION: Palawan. pendula (Smith) Icaria pendula Smith, 1857, Cat. Hym. Br. Mus. 5: 98, female -- “India (Bareily)” (London). -- Smith; 1871, J. Proc. Linn. Soc. Zool. 11: 378 (cat.). -- Dalla Torre, 1894, Cat. Hym. 9: 120 (cat.); 1904, Genera Insectorum 19: 74 (cat.). -- van der Vecht, 1941, Treubia 18: 104 (syn. of R. variegata (Smith)). Ropalidia pendula; Richards, 1978, Aust. J. Zool. Suppl. Ser. 61: 58 (in subgenus Icariola; list). DISTRIBUTION: India. petulans Cheesman Ropalidia fluviatilis petulans Cheesman, 1952, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (12) 5: 2 (petulaus [!]), 18, female – “Japen Is., Mt. Baduri, 1000 ft.” (London) [according to the label in the drawer, missing]. — Kojima, 2001b, Nat. Hist. Bull. Ibaraki Univ. (5): 36, 53 (holotype missing; two paratypes belonging to different species, R. catharinae and R. albobalteata). Ropalidia petulans; Richards, 1978, Aust. J. Zool. Suppl. Ser. 61: 58 (in subgenus Icariola; list). DISTRIBUTION: New Guinea. phalansterica (de Saussure) Icaria phalansterica de Saussure, 1853, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2: 35, pl. 4 fig. 3, pl. 5 fig. 1, female -- “Madagascar” (Genève, Paris). -- Smith, 1857, Cat. Hym. Br. Mus. 5: 96 (cat.). -- André, 1889, Le Naturaliste: 189 (ethology). -- de Saussure, 1890, in Grandidier, Hist. Madagascar 20, Hym. 1: 115 (key), 140 (female, male). -- Dalla Torre, 1894, Cat. Hym. 9: 120 (cat.). -- de Saussure, 1900, Abh. Senckenb. Naturforsch. Ges. 26 (2): 218, 232. -- Dalla Torre, 1904, Genera Insectorum 19: 74 (cat.). -- von Schulthess, 1907, Voeltzkow, Reise in Ostafrika 1903--1905, Wiss. Ergebn. 2 (2): 65 (ethology). Ropalidia phalansterica; Bequaert, 1918, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. 39: 343 (cat.; distr.). -- FitzGerald, 1950, Proc. R. Entomol. Soc. London Ser. A Gen. Entomol. 25: 85 (Madagasar: Perinet, Nossi-Bé Is.). -- Giordani Soika, 1991, Lav. Soc. Ven. Sci. Nat. 16: 83 (probable syn.: R. pulchella (de Saussure); distr.), 86, 87 (key), fig. 8. DISTRIBUTION: Madagascar. philippinensis (de Saussure) Icaria philippinensis de Saussure, 1854, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2: 240, female -- “Les Iles Philippines” (London). -- Smith, 1857, Cat. Hym. Br. Mus. 5: 99 (cat.); 1871, J. Proc. Linn. Soc. Zool. 11: 379 (cat.) -- Dalla Torre, 1894, Cat. Hym. 9: 120 (cat.). -- Casto de Elera, 1895, Cat. Sist. Fauna Filip. 2: 243 (listed). -- Ashmead, 1904, J. N. Y. Entomol. Soc. 12: 7 (distr.); 1904, Proc. U.S. Natl. Mus. -- Brown, 1906, Philipp. J. Sci. 1: 688 (listed from the Philippines). Ropalidia philippinensis; van der Vecht, 1941, Treubia 18: 110 (key), 163 (Philippine Is.: Mindanao, Luzon). -- Baltazar, 1966, Pac. Insects Monogr. 8: 293 (in subgenus Anthreneida; cat.). -- Kojima, 1984, Kontyû, 52: 524 (key), 527 (in subgenus Icariola). DISTRIBUTION: Luzon; Mindanao. pilosa (Smith) Icaria pilosa Smith, 1858 (1859), J. Proc. Linn. Soc. Zool. 3: 22, male -- “Celebes” (Oxford); 1863 (1864), J. Proc. Linn. Soc. Zool. 7: 138 (distr.); 1871, J. Proc. Linn. Soc. Zool. 11: 379 (cat.). -- Dalla Torre, 1894, Cat. Hym. 9: 120 (cat.); 1904, Genera Insectorum 19: 74 (cat.). -- van der Vecht, 1941, Treubia 18: 117 (designation of lectotype). Ropalidia pilosa; van der Vecht, 1941, Treubia, 18: 109 (key), 116 (ref.; female, male; fig.; distr.); 1962, Zool. Verh., Leiden 57: 9 (in subgenus Anthreneida; distr.). -- Richards, 1978, Aust. J. Zool. Suppl. Ser. 61: 57 (in subgenus Anthreneida; list). -- Kojima, 1996, Zool. Meded., Leiden 70: 350. -- Kojima and van Achterberg, 1997, Nat. Hist. Bull. Ibaraki Univ. 1: 3 (distr.: Sulawesi), 11, figs. 24-26 (morphology). DISTRIBUTION: Sulawesi. plebeiana Richards Icaria plebeja de Saussure, 1863, Mém. Soc. Phys. Hist. Nat. Genève 17: 235, female -- “Nouvelle-Hollande” (coll. Heyden and de Saussure; Genève). Primary junior homonym of Icaria plebeja de Saussure, 1862. -- Dalla Torre, 1894, Cat. Hym. 9: 120 (cat.; cites de Saussure, 1862, but distribution is in Australia); 1904, Genera Insectorum 19: 73 (cat.; as 1894). — Kojima, 2001a, Nat. Hist. Bull. Ibaraki Univ. (5): 10 (designation of lectotype; syn. of Ropalidia plebeianaRichards). Rhopalidia [!] sp.; McKeown, 1942, Australian Insects: 195 (nest). Ropalidia plebeiana Richards, 1978, Aust. J. Zool. Suppl. Ser. 61: 54 (nest), 58 (plebiana [!]; in subgenus Icariola; list; syn.: R. plebeja (de Saussure, 1863) non 1862, 62 (key), 65, (larva in key), 75, figs. 7--8, 17, female, male, intersex – “New South Wales, Nelligen” [Australia] (holotype female Canberra); also from other localities in New South Wales, and Victoria, ACT, Queensland. — Hook and Evans, 1982, J. Aust. Entomol. Soc. 21: 271 (ethology). — Itô, 1985, J. Ethol. 3: 21 (biology). -- Cardale, 1985, Zoolog. Cat. Australia 2, Hym.: Vesp. Sphec.: 216 (plebiana [!]; in subgenus Icariola; cat.). — Itô and Higashi, 1987, Appl. Entomol. Zool. 22: 519 (biology). — Kojima, 1987, J. Aust. Entomol. Soc. 26: 143, figs. 23--33 (larva); 1993, Jpn. J. Entomol. 61: 213 (ethology). — Itô et al., 1988, Res. Popul. Ecol. 30: 279 (biology). — Yamane et al., 1990, in Veeresh et al., Soc. Insects Environ.: 679 (ethology). — Yamane et al., 1991, Insectes Soc. 38: 105 (ethology). — Yamane, 1991, Insectarium 28 (5): 144 (ethology). — Spradbery, 1991, in Ross and Matthews, Soc. Biol. Wasps: 349, 352, 354 (colony population). — Wenzel, 1991, in Ross and Matthews, Soc. Biol. Wasps: 487 (nest). — Itô, 1993, Behav. Soc. Evol. Wasps: 76 (ethology). — Kojima and Spradbery, 1994, Aust. Entomol. 21: 113 (distr.; ethology). — Borsato, 1994 (1993), Boll. Soc. Entomol. Ital. 125 (3): 250 (in subgenus Icariola; distr.). — Makino et al., 1994, Insectes Soc. 41: 411 (ethology). — Kojima, 1999a, Entomol. Sci. 2: 370 (taxonomy; syn.: Ropalidia hirsuta Richards). Ropalidia hirsuta Richards, 1978, Aust. J. Zool. Suppl. Ser. 61: 62 (key), 81, female (in subgenus Icariola) – “Northern Territory, Port Darwin” [Australia] (London). — Cardale, 1985, Zoolog. Cat. Australia 2, Hym.: Vesp. Sphec.: 215 (in subgenus Icariola; cat.). — Kojima, 1999a, Entomol. Sci. 2: 370 (syn. of R. plebeiana). DISTRIBUTION: Australia (east coastal area, Canberra, ? Northern Territory). plebeja (de Saussure) Icaria plebeja de Saussure, 1862, Stettin. Entomol. Ztg. 23: 138, female -- “Gorontalo” [Sulawesi] (lectotype Leiden). -- Kojima and van Achterberg, 1997, Zool. Meded., Leiden 71: 157, 160 (designation of lectotype). Ropalidia plebeja: van der Vecht, 1941, Treubia 18: 111 (key), 169 (redescription of the type); 1962, Zool. Verh., Leiden 57: 33 (in subgenus Anthreneida; distr.). DISTRIBUTION: Sulawesi. politica (de Saussure) Icaria politica de Saussure, 1854, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2: 240 (perhaps var. of guttatipennis de Saussure), female, male – “Le Sénégal” (Paris). — Smith, 1857, Cat. Hym. Br. Mus. 5: 97 (cat.). — Dalla Torre, 1894, Cat. Hym. 9: 120 (cat.); 1904, Genera Insectorum 19: 74 (cat.). Ropalidia politica; Richards, 1978, Aust. J. Zool. Suppl. Ser. 61: 58 (in subgenus Icariola; list). — Kojima, 2001a, Nat. Hist. Bull. Ibaraki Univ. 5: 3 (stated "see later section", but the taxonon was not appeared in later section). DISTRIBUTION: Senegal. prasina (de Saussure) Icaria prasina de Saussure, 1900, Abh. Senckenb. Naturforsch. Ges. 26 (2): 215, 216 (key), 220, female -- “Madagascar, Imerina” (Genève). -- Dalla Torre, 1904, Genera Insectorum 19: 74 (cat.). Ropalidia prasina; Bequaert, 1918, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. 39: 343 (cat.; distr.). -- Giordani Soika, 1991, Lav. Soc. Ven. Sci. Nat. 16: 85, 87 (key). DISTRIBUTION: Madagascar. principalis Kojima ?Ropalidia longipetiolata; Richards, 1978, Aust. J. Zool. Suppl. Ser. 61: 58 (in subgenus Icarielia; list), 128 (key). Ropalidia principalis Kojima, 2001b, Nat. Hist. Bull. Ibaraki Univ. 5: 39, 42 (key), female, male (in R. loriana-group) – "NW New Guinea "Neth. Ind.-American/New Guinea Expedit/Bernhard Camp [3°29'S, 139°13'E] B 100 m"" (Leiden); also from Hollandia [Jayapura], Mts. Bewani, Mamberamo, Maffin Bay, and Lae. proletaria Richards Ropalidia proletaria Richards, 1978, Aust. J. Zool. Suppl. Ser. 61: 60 (key), 96, female (in subgenus Icariola) – “North Queensland” [Australia] (London); also ? from Northern Territory. — Cardale, 1985, Zoolog. Cat. Australia 2, Hym.: Vesp. Sphec.: 216 (in subgenus Icariola; cat.). — Kojima, 1999a, Entomol. Sci. 2: 370 (taxonomy). DISTRIBUTION: Australia (North Queensland, ?Northern Territory). pseudomalayana Kojima Ropalidia malayana; van der Vecht, 1941, Treubia 18: 174--176 [partim]; 1962, Zool. Verh., Leiden 57: 34 [partim]. Ropalidia pseudomalayana Kojima, 1996, Zool. Meded., Leiden 70: 349, 356, 357 (key), figs. 4, 6, 12, 13, 17, 22–25, 28, 34–40, female – “Borneo: Sarawak, Sarikei Dist., Rejang Delta” (holotype Leiden); also from two other localities in Borneo; Bangka. — Kojima and van Achterberg, 1997, Zool. Meded., Leiden 71: 161 (holotype depository). DISTRIBUTION: Borneo; Bangka. pulchella (de Saussure) Icaria pulchella de Saussure, 1900, Abh. Senckenb. Naturforsch. Ges. 26 (2): 215 (key), 223, fig. 4, female – “Nossi-Bé” (Genève). — Dalla Torre, 1904, Genera Insectorum 19: 74 (cat.). Ropalidia pulchella; Bequaert, 1918, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. 39: 343 (cat.; distr.). — Giordani Soika, 1991, Lav. Soc. Ven. Sci. Nat. 16: 83 (probable syn. of R. phalansterica (de Saussure)). DISTRIBUTION: Madagascar. radialipa Lambert and Narendran Ropalidia radialipa Lambert and Narendran, in Lambert, Narendran and Kumar, 2005, Zoos’ Print J. 20 (7): 1922,1923, male (in subgenus Anthreneida!) - “Elathur” (OZUC, Department of Zoology, University of Calicut). DISTRIBUTION: India (Bangalore). ranavali (de Saussure) Icaria ranavali de Saussure, 1890, in Grandidier, Hist. Madagascar 20, Hym. 1: 114 (key), 138, pl. 18 figs. 18, 18c, female, male – “Madagascar” (Genève, Berlin, ?Paris). -- Dalla Torre, 1894, Cat. Hym. 9: 120 (cat.). — de Saussure, 1900, Abh. Senckenb. Naturforsch. Ges. 26 (2): 218, 230. — Dalla Torre, 1904, Genera Insectorum 19: 74 (cat.). Ropalidia ranavali; Bequaert, 1918, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. 39: 344 (cat.; distr.). — Richards, 1978, Aust. J. Zool. Suppl. Ser. 61: 53, 58 (in subgenus Icariola; nest; list). — Giordani Soika, 1991, Lav. Soc. Ven. Sci. Nat. 16: 84, 86, 87, fig. 9 (distr.; probable var. of R. venustula (de Saussure); key). DISTRIBUTION: Madagascar. reactionalis (de Saussure) Icaria reactionalis de Saussure, 1853, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2: 28, female – “La Nouvelle-Guinée” (coll. Guérin-Méneville, current depository unknown). — Smith, 1857, Cat. Hym. Br. Mus. 5: 95 (cat.). — Dalla Torre, 1894, Cat. Hym. 9: 120 (cat.); 1904, Genera Insectorum 19: 74 (cat.). Ropalidia reactionalis; Bequaert, 1932, Rés. Scient. Voyage Indes Or. Néerl. Léopold de Belgique 4 (5): 51. — Cheesman, 1952, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (12) 5: 3, 22 (group of festina; female). — Kojima, 2001b, Nat. Hist. Bull. Ibaraki Univ. (5): 36, 51 (type depository unknown; ?syn. of R. lefebvrei (Le Guillou)). DISTRIBUTION: New Guinea. regina (de Saussure) Icaria regina de Saussure, 1900, Abh. Senckenb. Naturforsch. Ges. 26 (2): 215 (key), 220, female -- “Madagascar. Antananarivo” (Genève). -- Dalla Torre, 1904, Genera Insectorum 19: 74 (cat.). Ropalidia regina; Bequaert, 1918, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. 39: 344 (cat.; distr.). -- Giordani Soika, 1991, Lav. Soc. Ven. Sci. Nat. 16: 85 (key). DISTRIBUTION: Madagascar. revolutionalis (de Saussure) Icaria revolutionalis de Saussure, 1853, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2: 29, pl. 5 fig. 7, female – “La Nouvelle Hollande ou la Tasmanie” (Paris); 1863, Mém. Soc. Phys. Hist. Nat. Genève 17, 1: 235 (revolutinalis [!]). — Dalla Torre, 1894, Cat. Hym. 9: 120 (cat.); 1904, Genera Insectorum 19: 74 (cat.). — Kojima, 2001a, Nat. Hist. Bull. Ibaraki Univ. (5): 9. Ropalidia revolutionalis; Richards, 1978 Aust. J. Zool. Suppl. Ser. 61: 53, 58 (list), 60 (key), 91 (designation of lectotype, inadvertantly referring to the specimen as "holotype"), figs. 18, 24, 32, 39, 43 (in subgenus Icariola; female, male, nest; distr.; biology). — Owen, 1979, Toxicon 17: 519–523 (venom analysis [according to Cardale, 1985, Zoolog. Cat. Australia 2, Hym.: Vesp. Sphec.: 216, species identification doubtful]). — Hook and Evans, 1982, J. Aust. Entomol. Soc. 21: 271 (biology; nest). — Cardale, 1985, Zoolog. Cat. Australia 2, Hym.: Vesp. Sphec.: 216 (in subgenus Icariola; cat.). — Kojima, 1987, J. Aust. Entomol. Soc. 26: 144, figs. 34–43 (larva). — Itô, 1987, J. Ethol. 5: 115 (ethology). — Spradbery, 1991, in Ross and Matthews, Soc. Biol. Wasps: 349, 353, 374 (colony population). — Ross and Carpenter, 1991, in Ross and Matthews, Soc. Biol. Wasps: 460 (biology). — Itô, 1993, Behav. Soc. Evol. Wasps: 25, 27, 28, 29, 32, 57, 66, 71, 72, 79, 87, 105, 124, 125, 126 (in subgenus Icariola; ethology). — Borsato, 1994 (1993), Boll. Soc. Entomol. Ital. 125 (3): 251 (in subgenus Icariola; distr.). — Kojima, 1999a, Entomol. Sci. 2: 373 (taxonomy; syn.: R. eurostoma). Ropalidia eurostoma Richards, 1978, Aust. J. Zool. Suppl. Ser. 61: 60 (key), 93, female (in subgenus Icariola) – “Queensland, Mornington I.” [Australia] (Adelaide). — Cardale, 1985, Zoolog. Cat. Australia 2, Hym.: 214 (in subgenus Icariola; cat.). — Kojima, 1999a, Entomol. Sci. 2: 373 (taxonomy; syn. of R. revolutionalis (de Saussure)). DISTRIBUTION: Australia (Queensland, Mornington Is.). romandi (Le Guillou) Polistes romandi Le Guillou, 1841, Rev. Zool. 4: 325, female – “Australie Sept.” [North Australia] (Paris); 1841, Ann. Soc. Entomol. France 10: 322. ?Icaria romandi; de Saussure, 1853, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2: 41. — Smith, 1957, Cat. Hym. Br. Mus. 5: 96 (cat.). Icaria cabeti de Saussure, 1853, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2: 26, pl. 4 fig. 2, pl. 5 fig. 2, female – “La Tasmanie” (lectotype Paris). — Dalla Torre, 1894, Cat. Hym. 9: 118 (cabetii [!]; cat.); 1904, Genera Insectorum 19: 73 (cat.). — du Buysson, 1911, Abh. Senckenb. Naturforsch. Ges. 34: 229 (compared to R. lefebvrei (Le Guillou)). -- Richards 1978, Aust. J. Zool. Suppl. Ser. 61: 111 (designation of lectotype). — — Kojima, 1999a, Entomol. Sci. 2: 375 (syn. of Ropalidia romandi); Kojima, 2001a, Nat. Hist. Bull. Ibaraki Univ. (5): 4. Icaria romandi; Dalla Torre, 1894, Cat. Hym. 9: 120 (romandii [!]; cat.); 1904, Genera Insectorum 19: 74 (cat.). du Buysson, 1911, Abh. Senckenb. Naturforsch. Ges. 34: 229 (compared to R. lefebvrei (Le. Guillou)). Ropalidia cabeti; Tillyard, 1926, Ins. Aust. New Zealand: 297 (nest). -- Mackeown, 1942, Australian Insects: 190 (Rhopalidia [!]; nest). -- van der Vecht, 1968, Proc. K. Ned. Akad. Wet. Ser. C Biol. Med. Sci. 71: 418, fig. 3d (morphology). Ropalidia romandi cabeti; Richards 1978, Aust. J. Zool. Suppl. Ser. 61: 54, 59 (list), 63 (key), 65 (larva in key), 110 (in subgenus Icarielia; female, male; biology; nest). -- Smith, 1857, Cat. Hym. Br. Mus. 5: 96 (cat.). -- Cardale, 1985, Zoolog. Cat. Australia 2, Hym.: Vesp. Sphec.: 217 (in subgenus Icarielia; cat.). -- Kojima, 1987, J. Aust. Entomol. Soc. 26: 146, figs. 68--79 (larva). -- Borsato, 1994 (1993), Boll. Soc. Entomol. Ital. 125 (3): 251 (distr.). -- Yamane and Itô, 1994, Psyche 101: 145 (nest). -- Macalintal and Starr, 1996, Mem. Ent. Soc. Washington 17: table 1. Ropalidia romandi romandi; Richards, 1978, Aust. J. Zool. Suppl. Ser. 61: 59 (list), 63, 65 (key), 109 (in subgenus Icarielia; female, male), 129 (key). -- Cardale, 1985, Zoolog. Cat. Australia 2, Hym.: Vesp. Sphec.: 217 (in subgenus Icarielia; cat.). -- Borsato, 1994 (1993), Boll. Soc. Entomol. Ital. 125 (3): 251 (distr.). -- Kojima, 1996, Zool. Meded., Leiden 70: 328, figs. 10, 23. Ropalidia romandi; Jeanne, 1991, in Ross and Matthews, Soc. Biol. Wasps: 203, 212, 225 (colony population). -- Spradbery, 1991, in Ross and Matthews, Soc. Biol. Wasps: 353 (colony population). -- Kojima, 1993, New Entomol. 42: 4 (biology). -- Naumann, 1993, in Naumann et al., Cape York Penin. Sci. Exp. Wet Season 1992 Rep. 2: 179 (distr.). -- Itô, 1993, Behav. Soc. Evol. Wasps: 81, 85, 86, 87, 132 (in subgenus Icarielia; ethology). -- Kojima, 1993, Jpn. J. Entomol. 61: 835 (ethology); 1994, J. Ethol. 12: 1 (ethology); 1994, J. Aust. Entomol. Soc. 33: 45 (ethology). -- Yamane and Itô, 1996 (1994), Psyche 101: 145 (nest). -- Macalintal and Starr, 1996, Mem. Ent. Soc. Washington 17: table 2 (in subgenus Icarielia; morphology). — Kojima, 1996, Insectes Soc. 43: 411 (colony cycle). — Kojima, 1999a, Entomol. Sci. 2: 375 (taxonomy; syn.: Icaria cabeti de Saussure). DISTRIBUTION: Australia (Queensland, New South Wales, Northern Territory). rufocollaris atrata van der Vecht Ropalidia rufocollaris atrata van der Vecht, 1941, Treubia 18: 139, female, male -- “Siam, Doi Setep” (holotype female Cambridge); also from Luang Prabang. DISTRIBUTION: Thailand; Laos. rufocollaris rufocollaris (Cameron) Icaria rufocollaris Cameron, 1900, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (7) 6: 497, female -- “Khasia Hills” [India] (London, Oxford). -- Dalla Torre, 1904, Genera Insectorum 19: 74 (ruficollaris [!]; cat.). -- Aiyar, 1916, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 24: 714 (cat.). Ropalidia rufocollaris; Dover, 1925 (1924), J. Asiat. Soc. Bengal (n. ser.) 20: 301 (ruficollis [!]; var. of R. artifex). -- van der Vecht, 1941, Treubia 18: 110 (key), 137 (in stigma group; male; fig.; distr.); 1962, Zool. Verh., Leiden 57: 22 (in subgenus Anthreneida; distr.). -- Richards, 1978, Aust. J. Zool. Suppl. Ser. 61: 57 (in subgenus Anthreneida; list). -- Yamane and Yamane, 1979, Insecta Matsumurana, n. ser. 15: 32 (in subgenus Anthreneida). Ropalidia rufocollaris rufocollaris; Das and Gupta, 1984 (1983), Orient. Insects 17: 421 (in subgenus Anthreneida; cat.; distr.); 1989, Orient. Insects Monogr. 11: 111 (key), 125, map 17 (in stigma group of subgenus Anthreneida; female, male; distr.). DISTRIBUTION: India (Meghalaya, Assam, Sikkim, Tipura; Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal); Tibet; Myanmar; Thailand. rufoplagiata (Cameron) Icaria rufoplagiata Cameron, 1905, Tijdschr. Entomol. 48: 71, male, female -- “Tjandi near Semarang” (lectotype female Amsterdam) [also with a label on which are “Icaria rufoplagiata Cam. Type, Java” (in Cameron’s handwriting) and “Holotype design. by J. v.d.Vecht ’33” (in van der Vecht’s handwriting)]. -- van der Vecht, 1941, Treubia 18: 167 (designation of lectotype). -- Kojima and van Achterberg, 1997, Zool. Meded., Leiden 71: 165 (lectotype depository). Ropalidia gravelyi Dover and Rao, 1922, J. Asiat. Soc. Bengal (n. ser.) 18: 244, female -- “Kavalai, Cochin State, 1,000--3,000 ft.” [India] (Calcutta). -- Kojima et al., 2002, Spec. Diversity 7: (taxonomy; syn. of R. rufoplagiata). Ropalidia rufoplagiata; van der Vecht, 1941, Treubia 18: 111 (key), 165 (fig.; distr.). -- Kojima et al., 2002, Spec. Diversity 7: (taxonomy). Ropalidia rufoplagiata var. gravelyi; van der Vecht, 1941, Treubia 18: 104. Ropalidia rufoplagiata gravelyi; van der Vecht, 1941, Treubia 18: 168 (distr.); 1962, Zool. Verh., Leiden 57: 33 (in subgenus Anthreneida; ethology). -- Yamane and Yamane, 1979, Insecta Matsumurana, n. ser. 15: 32 (in subgenus Anthreneida; distr.). -- Das and Gupta, 1984 (1983), Orient. Insects 17: 422 (in subgenus Anthreneida; cat.; distr.); 1989, Orient. Insects Monogr. 11: 137 (key), 138, map 21 (in sumatrae group of subgenus Anthreneida; female; fig.; distr.). Ropalidia rufoplagiata rufoplagiata; van der Vecht, 1962, Zool . Verh., Leiden 57: 32 (in subgenus Anthreneida; distr.; ethology). -- Richards, 1978, Aust. J. Zool. Suppl. Ser. 61: 53, 54, 57 (in subgenus Anthreneida; nest; list). -- Das and Gupta, 1984 (1983), Orient. Insects 17: 422 (in subgenus Anthreneida; cat.); 1989, Orient. Insects Monogr. 11: 112, 137, map 21 (in sumatrae group of subgenus Anthreneida; key). DISTRIBUTION: India; Myanmar; Thailand; Malay Peninsula; Sumatra; Bangka; Java; Sumbawa. sakalava (de Saussure) Icaria sakalava de Saussure, 1900, Abh. Senckenb. Naturforsch. Ges. 26 (2): 217 (key), 228, female -- “Madagascar, Antananarivo” (Genève). -- Dalla Torre, 1904, Genera Insectorum 19: 74 (cat.). -- von Schulthess, 1907, Voeltzkow, Reise in Ostafrika 1903--1905, Wiss. Ergebn. 2 (2): 65 (male). Ropalidia sakalava; Bequaert, 1918, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. 39: 344 (cat.; distr.). -- Giordani Soika, 1991, Lav. Soc. Ven. Sci. Nat. 16: 83, fig. 4 (distr.), 85, 87 (key). DISTRIBUTION: Madagascar. santoshae Das and Gupta Ropalidia santoshae Das and Gupta, 1984 (1983), Orient. Insects 17: 422. Nomen nudum. Ropalidia santoshae Das and Gupta, 1989, Orient. Insects Monogr. 11: 111 (key), 123, figs. 24l, 25l, 26C, 26c, 27f, map 27, male, female (stigma group of subgenus Anthreneida) -- “INDIA: Meghalaya: Shillong: Mawmluh” (holotype male Calcutta); also from Sikkim, Arunachal Pradesh, West Bengal. DISTRIBUTION: India (Sikkim, Arunachal Pradesh, West Bengal, Meghalaya). saussurei Kojima Icaria dubia de Saussure; de Saussure, 1890, in Grandidier, Hist. Madagascar 20, Hym. 1: 115 (key), 141, pl. 18 fig. 19 (female) [partim]; 1900, Abh. Senckenb. Naturforsch. Ges. 26 (2): 216, 217, 229 (female) [partim]. -- ?von Schulthess, 1907, Voeltzkow, Reise in Ostafrika 1903--1905, Wiss. Ergebn. 2 (2): 65. Ropalidia dubia; FitzGerald, 1950, Proc. R. Entomol. Soc. London Ser. A Gen. Entomol. 25: 82 (nest). -- Giordani Soika, 1991, Lav. Soc. Ven. Sci. Nat. 16: 86, 88 (key), fig. 13. -- ?Richards, 1978, Aust. J. Zool. Suppl. Ser. 61: 53, 58 (in subgenus Icariola; nest; list). Ropalidia saussurei Kojima, 1998, Entomol. Sci. 1: 236, figs. 8-23, female, male -- “Perinet, E. forest b, Madagascar” (holotype female, Cambridge). DISTRIBUTION: Madagascar. sculpturata Gusenleitner Ropalidia sculpturata Gusenleitner, 2001, Linz. Biol. Beitr. 33 (2): 655, fig. 1, female - "Nepal: Annapurna, Kimal, Lumle" (Oberosterreichischen Landesmuseums Linz). DISTRIBUTION: Nepal. schulthessi (de Saussure) Icaria schulthessi de Saussure, 1890, in Grandidier, Hist. Madagascar 20, Hym. 1: 113 (key), 117, pl. 18 figs. 14, 14b, female -- “Madagascar ... dans l’Est” (Zürich). -- Dalla Torre, 1894, Cat. Hym. 9: 120 (schulthessii [!]; cat.). -- de Saussure, 1900, Abh. Senckenb. Naturforsch. Ges. 26 (2): 214. -- Dalla Torre, 1904, Genera Insectorum 19: 74 (cat.). Ropalidia schulthessi; Bequaert, 1918, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. 39: 344 (cat.; distr.). -- FitzGerald, 1950, Proc. R. Entomol. Soc. London Ser. A Gen. Entomol. 25: 85 (nest). -- Richards, 1978, Aust. J. Zool. Suppl. Ser. 61: 53 (in subgenus Icariola; nest). -- Giordani Soika, 1991, Lav. Soc. Ven. Sci. Nat. 16: 86, 87 (key), fig. 10. DISTRIBUTION: Madagascar. scitula (Bingham) Icaria scitula Bingham, 1897, Fauna Br. India, Hym. 1: 387 (key), 392, female -- “Rangit Valley, Sikhim” [India] (London). -- Dalla Torre, 1904, Genera Insectorum 19: 74 (cat.). Ropalidia scitula; van der Vecht, 1941, Treubia 18: 110 (key), 142 (male; distr.); 1962, Zool. Verh., Leiden 57: 42 (key), 47 (in subgenus Icarielia; taxonomy; distr.). -- Richards, 1978, Austr. J. Zool. Suppl Ser. 61: 58 (in subgenus Icariola; list). -- Yamane and Yamane, 1979, Insecta Matsumurana, n. ser. 15 (in subgenus Icarielia). -- Das and Gupta, 1984 (1983), Orient. Insects 17: 428 (in subgenus Icarielia; cat.); 1989, Orient. Insects Monogr. 11: 113 (key), 152, map 12 (in subgenus Icarielia). -- Kojima, 1996, Zool. Meded., Leiden 70: 325, 326, 328, figs. 7, 20. DISTRIBUTION: India (Sikkim, West Bengal, Meghalaya); Myanmar. scottiana (de Saussure) Icaria scottiana de Saussure, 1890, in Grandidier, Hist. Madagascar 20, Hym. 1: 113 (key), 124, female -- “Madagascar ... dans le Sud-Est” (Genève). -- Dalla Torre, 1894, Cat. Hym. 9: 120 (cat.). -- de Saussure, 1900, Abh. Senckenb. Naturforsch. Ges. 26 (2): 214. -- Dalla Torre, 1904, Genera Insectorum 19: 74 (cat.). Ropalidia scottiana; Bequaert, 1918, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. 39: 344 (cat.; distr.). -- Giordani Soika, 1991, Lav. Soc. Ven. Sci. Nat. 16: 86 (key). DISTRIBUTION: Madagascar. semihyalinata (Meade-Waldo) Icaria semihyalinata Meade-Waldo, 1912, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (8) 9: 449 (key), 451, female (in subgenus Icariola) – “Mimika River” [New Guinea] (London). Ropalidia semihyalinata; Bequaert, 1932, Rés. Scient. Voyage Indes Or. Néerl. Léopold de Belgique 4 (5): 51. — Cheesman, 1952, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (12) 5: 3, 24 (semihyalineata [!]; redescription). — Richards, 1978, Aust. J. Zool. Suppl. Ser. 61: 56 (in subgenus Ropalidia; list). — Kojima, 2001b, Nat. Hist. Bull. Ibaraki Univ. (5): 36, 47 (taxonomy; syn.: Ropalidia novaeguineae insolens Cheesman). Ropalidia novaeguineae insolens Cheesman, 1952, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (12) 5: 3, 24, female – “Japen, Mt. Baduri, 1000 ft.” (lectotype London); also from Humboldt Bay and Waigeo. — Kojima and Carpenter, 1997, Am. Mus. Novit. 3199: 6 (designation of lectotype). Kojima, 2001b, Nat. Hist. Bull. Ibaraki Univ. (5): 36, 47 (syn. of Ropalidia semihyalina). Ropalidia insolens; Richards, 1978, Aust. J. Zool. Suppl. Ser. 61: 58 (in subgenus Icarielia; list), 129 (key). — Kojima, 1996, Zool. Meded., Leiden 70: 328. DISTRIBUTION: New Guinea. sericea (Cameron) Icaria sericea Cameron, 1905, Tijdschr. Entomol. 48: 73, female -- “Sikkim Himalaya” [India] (London). -- Aiyar, 1916, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 24: 714 (cat.). -- van der Vecht, 1962, Zool. Verh., Leiden 57: 49 (probable syn. of Ropalidia flavopicta ornaticeps (Cameron)), 50 (locality label “Sikkim” apparently incorrect). Ropalidia sericea; Richards, 1978, Aust. J. Zool. Suppl. Ser. 61: 57 (in subgenus Anthreneida; list). -- Kojima, 1996, Zool. Meded., Leiden 70: 340 (probably in R. flavopicta group; “valid species and the locality label of the type is correct”). DISTRIBUTION: India (Sikkim). sexmaculata (Cameron) Icaria sexmaculata Cameron, 1911, Nova Guinea 9, Zool 2: 188, female -- “Bivak Island” (lectotype Amsterdam); also from another locality in New Guinea. -- Kojima and Carpenter, 1997, Am. Mus. Novit. 3199: 5 (designation of lectotype). -- Kojima and van Achterberg, 1997, Zool. Meded., Leiden 71: 166 (lectotype depository). Ropalidia sexmaculata; Bequaert, 1932, Rés. Scient. Voyage Indes Or. Néerl. Léopold de Belgique 4 (5): 51. -- van der Vecht, 1941, Ent. Med. Ned.-Indië 7: 28. DISTRIBUTION: New Guinea. shestakovi (von Schulthess) Icaria shestakovi von Schulthess, 1931, Mitt. Schweiz. Entomol. Ges. 15 (2): 51, fig. 2, male, female -- “Madagascar” (Zürich). Ropalidia shestakovi; Giordani Soika, 1991, Lav. Soc. Ven. Sci. Nat. 16: 83 (distr.), 86, 87 (key), fig. 2. DISTRIBUTION: Madagascar. socialis (de Saussure) Icaria socialis de Saussure, 1862, Stettin. Entomol. Ztg. 23: 136, female -- “Probablement l’archipel indien” (Leiden). -- Dalla Torre, 1894, Cat. Hym. 9: 120 (cat.); 1904, Genera Insectorum 19: 74 (cat.). -- van der Vecht, 1941, Treubia 18: 104 (syn. of R. mathematica unicolor (Smith)), 133. -- Kojima and van Achterberg, 1997, Zool. Meded., Leiden 71: 160 (holotype depository). Ropalidia mathematica unicolor (Smith); van der Vecht, 1941, Treubia 18: 104 (syn.; I. socialis de Saussure), 133. Ropalidia socialis socialis; van der Vecht, 1962, Zool. Verh., Leiden 57: 21 (in subgenus Anthreneida; taxonomy; distr.; “Whether R. socialis is indeed conspecific with R. unicolor cannot be determined with certainty at this moment.”). Ropalidia socialis; Kojima et al., 2005, Treubia 33: 176 (taxonomy, distr.). DISTRIBUTION: Timor. socialistica (de Saussure) Icaria socialistica de Saussure, 1853, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2: 27, pl. 4 fig. 6., female – “La Tasmanie” (lectotype Paris). — Smith, 1857, Cat. Hym. Br. Mus. 5: 96 (cat.). — Dalla Torre, 1894, Cat. Hym. 9: 121 (cat.); 1904, Genera Insectorum 19: 74 (cat.). — Richards, 1978, Aust. J. Zool. Suppl. Ser. 61: 81 (designation of lectotype; type locality probably erroneous). — Kojima, 2001a, Nat. Hist. Bull. Ibaraki Univ. (5): 10 (notes on paralectotypes). Ropalidia socialistica; Tillyard, 1926, Insects Aust. New Zealand: 297. — Richards, 1978, Aust. J. Zool. Suppl. Ser. 61: 58 (list), 62, 64 (key), 81, figs. 10, 28, 38 (in subgenus Icariola; female, male; distr.). — Hook and Evans, 1982, J. Aust. Entomol. Soc. 21: 271 (nest; biology). — Cardale, 1985, Zoolog. Cat. Australia 2, Hym.: Vesp. Sphec.: 216 (in subgenus Icariola; cat.). — Itô, 1993, Behav. Soc. Evol. Wasps: 89, 134 (in subgenus Icariola; ethology). — Kojima, 1999a, Entomol. Sci. 2: 375. DISTRIBUTION: Australia (New South Wales, Queensland, Northern Territory). spatulata van der Vecht Icaria ferruginea (Fabricius); de Saussure, 1853, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2: 38, female, fig. (misidentification of V. ferruginea Fabricius, 1793). -- Horne, 1870, Trans. Zool. Soc. London 7(3): 169 (ethology). -- André, 1889, Le Naturaliste: 189 (nest). -- Bingham, 1897, Fauna Br. India, Hym. 1: 386 (key), 387 (distr.). -- Rothney, 1903, Trans. R. Entomol. Soc. London, 1903: 107. -- Maxwell-Lefroy, 1909, Indian Insect Life (Calcutta): 215, fig. 120 (ethology). Ropalidia marginata indica van der Vecht, 1941, Treubia 18: 121 (new name for Vespa ferruginea Fabricius, 1793, non Vespa ferruginea Gmelin, 1790, non Icaria ferruginea auctt.) [partim; specimens from India: Haryana: Ambala belong here]. Ropalidia spatulata van der Vecht, 1962, Zool. Verh., Leiden 57: 9, male (in subgenus Anthreneida) -- “S. India, Kerala State, Walayar Forest, 700 ft.” (Leiden); also from Haryana, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu; and Pakistan [partim]. -- Yoshikawa, 1964, Nat. Life S. E. Asia 3: 396, pl. 3 fig. 4, pl. 4 fig. 11 (nest). -- Iwata, 1969, Kontyû, 37: 437 (in subgenus Anthreneida; nest); 1976, Evol. Instinct: 295, 297 (in subgenus Anthreneida; ethology). -- Richards, 1978, Aust. J. Zool. Suppl. Ser. 61: 53, 58 (in subgenus Icariola; nest; list). -- Yamane and Yamane, 1979, Insecta Matsumurana, n. ser. 15: 4 (key), 6, 32 (in subgenus Anthreneida; female; fig.; distr.). -- Das and Gupta, 1984 (1983), Orient. Insects 17: 422 (in subgenus Anthreneida; cat.; distr.); 1989, Orient. Insects Monogr. 11: 110 (key), 119, map 16 (in marginata group of subgenus Anthreneida; female, male; distr.). -- Byragi-Reddi and Subba Reddi, 1994, Proc. Indian Natl. Sci. Acad. Part B Biol. Sci. 60 (1): 57 (pollination of Vitex negundo (Verbenaceae). -- Macalintal and Starr, 1996, Mem. Ent. Soc. Washington 17: tables 1, 2 (in subgenus Icariola; morphology). -- Kojima and van Achterberg, 1997, Zool. Meded., Leiden 71: 161 (holotype depository). DISTRIBUTION: India (Kerala). sridharani Lambert and Narendran Ropalidia sridharani Lambert and Narendram, in Lambert Kishore, Narendran and Irish Kumar 2005, J. Curr. Sci. 7: 268-270, figs. 1-5, female -- “India; Keraka, Malappuram district, Nilambur (11°17’N 76°14’E)” (holotype Department of Zoology, University of Calicut) (subgenus Anthreneida). DISTRIBUTION: India (Kerala). stigma nigrolineata van der Vecht Ropalidia stigma nigrolineata van der Vecht, 1962, Zool. Verh., Leiden 57: 18, female, male -- “Burma ... Shan States Road, 40 km east of Taunggyi” (holotype female Stockholm); also from Taunggyi. -- Das and Gupta, 1984 (1983), Orient. Insects 17: 422 (in subgenus Anthreneida; cat.; distr.); 1989, Orient. Insects Monogr. 11: 127 (key), 129, map 18 (stigma group of subgenus Anthreneida). DISTRIBUTION: Myanmar. stigma rufa van der Vecht Ropalidia stigma rufa van der Vecht, 1941, Treubia 18: 130, female -- “N.E. Assam, Sadiya” [India] (Calcutta); also from (Dibrugarh), Maghalaya; and Hainan Is. -- Yamane and Yamane, 1979, Insecta Matsumurana, n. ser. 15: 4 (key), 7, 32 (in subgenus Anthreneida; fig., ethology; distr.). -- Das and Gupta, 1984 (1983), Orient. Insects 17: 422 (in subgenus Anthreneida; cat.; distr.); 1989, Orient. Insects Monogr. 11: 127 (key), 129, map 18 (in subgenus Anthreneida; female; distr.). DISTRIBUTION: India (Assam, Meghalaya); Nepal; China (Hainan). stigma stigma (Smith) Polybia stigma Smith, 1858, J. Proc. Linn. Soc. Zool. 2: 114, male -- “Borneo (Sarawak)” (Oxford) (“probably the male of P. decorata”); 1863 (1864), J. Proc. Linn. Soc. Zool. 7: 138 (distr.); 1871, J. Proc. Linn. Soc. Zool. 11: 384 (cat.). -- Bingham, 1897, Fauna Br. India, Hym. 1: 384 (female, distr.). -- Dalla Torre, 1894, Cat. Hym. 9: 166 (cat.); 1904, Genera Insectorum 19: 78 (cat.). -- von Schulthess, 1913, Mitt. Schweiz. Entomol. Ges. 12: 164 (according to Meade-Waldo (i. litt.), same as P. mathematica Smith and Icaria). -- van der Vecht, 1966, Zool. Verh., Leiden 82: 6 (= Ropalidia stigma (Smith)). ?Icaria bioculata (Fabricius); de Saussure, 1867, Reise Novara Zool. 2 (Hym.): 22. Icaria artifex; Smith, 1871, J. Proc. Linn. Soc. Zool. 11: 379 (? India; Java) [misidentification] . -- Bingham, 1897, Fauna Br. India, Hym. 1: 386 (key), 389 (female; distr.). -- Cameron, 1905, Tijdschr. Entomol. 48: 71 (distr.); 1907, J. Strait Br. R. Asiat. Soc. Bengal 48: 26. -- Maxwell-Lefroy, 1909, Indian Insect Life: 215, fig. 120 (nest). -- von Schulthess, 1914, Zool. Jahrb. Syst. 37: 259. Parapolybia stigma; von Schulthess, 1913, Mitt. Schweiz. Entomol. Ges. 12: 164 (incertae sedis; Icaria according to Meade-Waldo, in litt.): Icaria stigma; du Buysson, 1913, Bull. Soc. Entomol. France 1913: 296. -- von Schulthess, 1913, Mitt. Schweiz. Entomol. Ges., 12: 164. Ropalidia artifex; Bequaert, 1918, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. 39: 247. -- Dover, 1925 (1924), J. Asiat. Soc. Bengal (n. ser.) 29: 301; 1931, J. Fed. Malay St. Mus. 16: 257 (taxonomy; distr.). -- Ropalidia stigma stigma; van der Vecht, 1941, Treubia 18: 110 (key), 126 (in stigma group; fig.; distr.); 1962, Zool. Verh., Leiden 57: 16, fig. 2g (in subgenus Anthreneida; distr.; nest). -- Baltazar, 1966, Pac. Insects Monogr. 8: 293 (in subgenus Anthreneida; cat.). -- Yoshikawa et al., 1969, Nat. Life S. E. Asia 6: 166 (in subgenus Anthreneida; colony population). -- Richards, 1978, Aust. J. Zool. Suppl. Ser. 61: 53 (in subgenus Icariola; nest). -- Das and Gupta, 1984 (1983), Orient. Insects 17: 423 (in subgenus Anthreneida; cat.; distr.). -- Kojima, 1984, Kontyû, 52: 524 (key), 527 (in subgenus Icariola; fig.; distr.). -- Kojima and Yamane, 1984, Rep. Fac. Sci. Kagoshima Univ. (Earth Sci. Biol.) 17: 112, figs. 37--42 (larva). -- Kojima and Tano, 1985, Kontyû 53: 523 (distr.). -- Das and Gupta, 1989, Orient. Insects Monogr. 11: 111 (key), 127, map 18 (in subgenus Anthreneida; female, male; fig.; distr.). -- Spradbery, 1991, in Ross and Matthews, Soc. Biol. Wasps: 353 (colony population). Ropalidia stigma; Kojima and Yamane, 1990, in Sakagami et al., Nat. Hist. Soc. Wasps Bees Eq. Sumatra: 34 (key), 35 (distr.). -- Macalintal and Starr, 1996, Mem. Ent. Soc. Washington 17: tables 1, 2 (in subgenus Icariola; morphology). -- Kojima, 1997, Zool. Meded., Leiden 71: 58-60, figs. 7, 11 (compared with thailandia Gusenleitner). -- Kojima and van Achterberg, 1997, Nat. Hist. Bull. Ibaraki Univ. 1: 2 (distr.: Sabah). DISTRIBUTION: India; Sri Lanka; Myanmar; Thailand; Malay Peninsula; Vietnam; Borneo; Sumatra; Java; Bali; Philippine Is. subclavata (de Saussure) Icaria subclavata de Saussure, 1890, in Grandidier, Hist. Madagascar 20, Hym. 1: 113 (key), 134, pl. 4 figs. 6, 6b, female, male -- “Madagascar” (Genève). -- Dalla Torre, 1894, Cat. Hym. 9: 121 (cat.). -- de Saussure, 1900, Abh. Senckenb. Naturforsch. Ges. 26 (2): 218, 232. -- Dalla Torre, 1904, Genera Insectorum 19: 74 (cat.). Ropalidia subclavata; Bequaert, 1918, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. 39: 344 (cat.; distr.). -- FitzGerald, 1950, Proc. R. Entomol. Soc. London Ser. A Gen. Entomol. 25: 85 (distr.). -- Giordani Soika, 1991, Lav. Soc. Ven. Sci. Nat. 16: 84, fig. 6 (distr.), 86, 87 (key). DISTRIBUTION: Madagascar. sumatrae (Weber) Vespa sumatrae Weber, 1801, Observ. Entomol. Kiliae: 103 -- “Sumatra” (?Berlin). Vespa mutillata Illiger, 1802, Magaz. Insektenk. 1: 189 -- “Sumatra” (Berlin). -- de Saussure, 1854, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2: 241 (syn. of Icaria sumatrae (Weber)). -- Dalla Torre, 1894, Cat. Hym. 9: 121 (syn. of Anthreneida sumatrae) -- van der Vecht, 1941, Treubia 18: 104 (syn. of R. sumatrae (Weber)). Polistes pubescens Fabricius, 1804, Syst. Piez.: 279 -- “Sumatra” (Kobenhavn) (?syn.: Vespa mutillata Illig., Vespa sumatrae Web.). -- de Saussure, 1853, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2: 42 (species dubiae; ? Icaria); 1854, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2: 241 (syn. of Icaria sumatrae (Weber)). -- Dalla Torre, 1894, Cat. Hym. 9: 121 (syn. of Anthreneida sumatrae). -- van der Vecht, 1941, Treubia 18: 104 (syn. of R. sumatrae (Weber)). Eumenes formicaria Fabricius, 1804, Syst. Piez.: 288 -- “America meridionali” (female and male Kobenhavn). -- de Saussure, 1875, Smithson. Misc. Coll. 254: 379 (? Montezumia or a Polistes). -- Dalla Torre, 1894, Cat. Hym. 9: 24 (cat.; unidentified sp.); 1904, Genera Insectorum 19: 25 (cat.; unidentified sp.). -- Schulz, 1912, Berlin. Entomol. Z. 57: 88 (label on types reads “Sumatra”; syn. of Icaria speciosa de Saussure). -- van der Vecht, 1941, Treubia 18: 104 (syn. of Ropalidia sumatrae (Weber)). Anthreneida coronata White, 1841. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (1) 7: 321 male -- locality unknown (London) [metasoma missing]. -- de Saussure, 1853, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2: 246 (distr.). -- Smith, 1857, Cat. Hym. Br. Mus. 5: 100 (cat.). -- van der Vecht, 1941, Treubia 18: 104 (syn. of R. sumatrae (Weber)). Icaria sumatrae; de Saussure, 1854, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2: 241 (taxonomy; distr.). -- Smith, 1857, Cat. Hym. Br. Mus. 5: 98 (cat.; syns.: Vespa multillata Illiger, Polistes pubescens Fab.); 1871, J. Proc. Linn. Soc. Zool. 11: 379 (cat.). Icaria speciosa de Saussure, 1855, Rev. Mag. Zool. (2) 7: 374, male -- “Sumatra” (Kobenhavn). -- Smith, 1857, Cat. Hym. Br. Mus. 5: 98 (cat.); 1858, J. Proc. Linn. Soc. Zool. 2: 115 (distr.). -- de Saussure, 1862, Stettin. Entomol. Ztg. 23: 134. -- Smith, 1863 (1864), J. Proc. Linn. Soc. Zool. 7: 138 (distr.); 1871, J. Proc. Linn. Soc. Zool. 11: 379 (cat.). -- Bingham, 1897, Fauna Br. India, Hym. 1: 387 (key), 390 (fig.; distr.). -- Dalla Torre, 1894, Cat. Hym. 9: 119 (cat.); 1904, Genera Insectorum 19: 74 (cat.). -- Brown, 1906, Philipp. J. Sci. 1: 688 (erroneously listed from the Philippines). -- Schulz, 1912, Berlin. Entomol. Z. 57: 88 (syn.: Eumenes formicaria Fabricius). -- Meade-Waldo and Morley, 1914, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (8) 14: 406 (syn.: Icaria rufinoda Cam.). -- von Schulthess, 1914, Zool. Jarhb. Syst. 37: 259; 1927, Suppl. Entomol. 16: 83. -- von Schulthess, 1932, Res. Scient. Voy. Ind. Or. Néerl. Leopold 4 (5): 40. -- van der Vecht, 1941, Treubia 18: 104 (syn. of R. sumatrae (Weber)). Icharia [!] marangensis Gribodo, 1892 (1891), Boll. Soc. Entomol. Ital. 23: 243, female -- “Marang (Sumatra) ... Perak (Malacca)” (Genova). -- Dalla Torre, 1894, Cat. Hym. 9: 119 (Icaria; cat.); 1904, Genera Insectorum 19: 74 (Icaria; cat.). -- von Schulthess, 1914, Zool. Jahrb. Syst. 37: 259. -- van der Vecht, 1941, Treubia 18: 104 (Icaria; syn. of R. sumatrae (Weber)). Anthreneida sumatrae; Dalla Torre, 1894, Cat. Hym. 9: 121 (cat.; syn.: Vespa multillata Illiger, Polistes pubescens Fabricius, Anthreneida coronata White). Icaria rufinoda Cameron, 1904, J. Straits. Br. R. Asiat. Soc. 41: 121, female -- “Singapore” (London). -- Meade-Waldo and Morley, 1914, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (8) 14: 406 (syn. of Icaria speciosa) -- van der Vecht, 1941, Treubia 18: 104 (syn. of R. sumatrae (Weber)). Ropalidia speciosa; Dover, 1929, Bull. Raffles Mus. 2: 47; 1931, J. Fed. Malay St. Mus. 16: 256. -- Lee, 1982, Hornets from Agric. Regions China: 83 (key), 90, pl. 3 fig. 4 (in subgenus Anthreneida); 1982, Zool. Res. 3: 86 (Popalidia [!]; in subgenus Anthreneida; distr.); 1985, Econ. Insect Fauna China 30 Hym.: Vespoidea: 46 (key), 51, pl. 3 fig. 4 (in subgenus Anthreneida; female, male; distr.); 1987, in Forest Insects Yunnan: 1348 (in subgenus Anthreneida; key). Ropalidia sumatrae; van der Vecht, 1941, Treubia 18: 104 (syn.: Icaria marangensis Gribodo, Vespa mutillata Illiger, Polistes pubescens F., I. rufinoda Cam., Eumenes formicaria F., Anthreneida coronata White, I. speciosa de Saussure), 113 (key), 181 (taxonomy; female, male; fig.; distr.). -- Baltazar, 1966, Pac. Insects Monogr. 8: 293 (“erroneous record from the Philippines”). -- van der Vecht, 1968, Proc. K. Ned. Akad. Wet. Ser. C Biol. Med. Sci. 71: 418, fig. 3f (morphology). -- Richards, 1978, Aust. J. Zool. Suppl. Ser. 61: 57 (in subgenus Anthreneida; list; syn.: speciosa (de Saussure)). -- Kojima and Yamane, 1990, in Sakagami et al., Nat. Hist. Soc. Wasps Bees Eq. Sumatra: 35 (key), 36 (distr.). -- Itô, 1993, Behav. Soc. Evol. Wasps: 89, 134 (sumatorae [!]; in subgenus Anthreneida; ethology). -- Macalintal and Starr, 1996, Mem. Ent. Soc. Washington 17: tables 1, 2 (in subgenus Anthreneida; morphology). -- Kojima and van Achterberg, 1997, Nat. Hist. Bull. Ibaraki Univ. 1: 3 (distr.: Sumatra, Sabah). Ropalidia sumatrae sumatrae; van der Vecht, 1962, Zool. Verh., Leiden 57: 35, pls. 1 and 3 (in subgenus Anthreneida; ethology). -- Iwata, 1976, Evol. Instinct: 295 (in subgenus Anthreneida; ethology). -- Richards, 1978, Aust. J. Zool. Suppl. Ser. 61: 54 (nest). -- Kojima and Yamane, 1984, Rep. Fac. Sci. Kagoshima Univ. (Earth Sci. Biol.) 17: 107, figs. 16--22 (larva). -- Das and Gupta, 1984 (1983), Orient. Insects 17: 424 (in subgenus Anthreneida; cat.; distr.); 1989, Orient. Insects Monogr. 11: 112 (key), 136, map 20 (in sumatrae group of subgenus Anthreneida; distr.). DISTRIBUTION: Myanmar; Thailand; Vietnam; China (Yunnan); Borneo; Bangka; Sumatra. taiwana birmanica van der Vecht Ropalidia taiwana birmanica van der Vecht, 1962, Zool. Verh., Leiden 57: 23, male female (in subgenus Anthreneida) -- “North East Burma, Sadon, 1200 m” (holotype male Stockholm); also from two other localities in Myanmar. -- Das and Gupta, 1984 (1983), Orient. Insects 17: 425 (in subgenus Anthreneida; cat.); 1989, Orient. Insects Monogr. 11: 135, map 20 (in sumatrae group of subgenus Anthreneida; key). DISTRIBUTION: Myanmar. taiwana taiwana Sonan Ropalidia taiwana Sonan, 1935, Trans. Nat. Hist. Soc. Formosa 25: 199 (key), 201, female, male -- “Shinchiku” [Taiwan] (holotype female Wufeng); also from Hori, Koshun, Urai, Hassen-zan. -- van der Vecht, 1941, Treubia, 18: 111 (key), 143 (female, male; fig.). -- Tano, 1980, Hymen. Comm. (11): 17 (distr.). -- Das and Gupta, 1984 (1983), Orient. Insects 17: 425 (in subgenus Anthreneida; cat.); 1989, Orient. Insects Monogr. 11: 111, 135 (in sumatrae group of subgenus Anthreneida; key). -- Starr, 1992, Bull. Natl. Mus. Nat. Sci. 3: 116 (key; syn.: R. formosana Kuo). -- Itô, 1993, Behav. Soc. Evol. Wasps: 20 (ethology). -- Yamane and Wang, 1996, Guide Book to Insects in Taiwan (16): 103 (key), 110, 111. -- Tano, 1996, Fukui Chuho (19): 5 (ref.; distr.: Taiwan) Ropalidia taiwana taiwana; Iwata, 1976, Evol. Instinct: 295 (in subgenus Anthreneida; ethology). -- Lee, 1982, Hornets from Agric. Regions China: 83 (key), 92, pl. 2 fig. 3 (in subgenus Anthreneida); 1985, Econ. Insect Fauna China 30 Hym.: Vespoidea: 46 (key), 52, pl. 2 fig. 3 (in subgenus Anthreneida; female; distr.). Ropalidia taiwana var. koshunensis Sonan, 1935, Trans. Nat. Hist. Soc. Formosa 25: 199 (key), 202, female -- “Kuraru (Koshun)” [Taiwan] (Wufeng). Ropalidia taiwana koshunensis; Iwata, 1969, Kontyû 37: 367 (in subgenus Anthreneida; ethology); 1969, Kontyû 37: 438 (in subgenus Anthreneida; nest; biology); Iwata, 1976, Evol. Instinct: 295, 297 (ethology; in subgenus Anthreneida). -- Tano, 1980, Hymen. Comm. (11): 17 (distr.). -- Spradbery, 1991, in Ross and Matthews, Soc. Biol. Wasps: 353 (colony population). -- Itô, 1993, Behav. Soc. Evol. Wasps: 51 (koshuensis [!]; ethology). Ropalidia formosana Kuo, 1987, in Kuo and Yeh, J. Natl. Chiayi Inst. Agric. 16: 84, male, female -- “Chiai” (holotype male Wufeng). -- Starr, 1992, Bull. Natl. Mus. Nat. Sci. 3: 116 (examination of “co-type” males; syn. of R. taiwana). DISTRIBUTION: North Myanmar; South China; Taiwan. tamila Gusenleitner Ropalidia tamila Gusenleitner, 2004, Linz. Biol. Beitr. 36 (2): 1089, fig. 1, female, male - holotype female "S-India, Tamil Nadu, 11 km SE Kotagin Kunchapani, 1100, 11°24’N76°56’E" (Oberosterreichischen Landesmuseums Linz). DISTRIBUTION: Nepal. thailandia Gusenleitner Ropalidia thailandia Gusenleitner, 1994, Linz. Biol. Beitr. 26: 325--329, female (in subgenus Icarielia) -- “Thailand: Phang Nga, Takus Pa., KHAO SOK N. P.” (Linz). -- Kojima, 1997, Zool. Meded., Leiden 71: 57-61, figs. 1-2, 4, 6, 10, 14 (taxonomy; distr.: Tenasserim, Viet Nam) DISTRIBUTION: Thailand, Viet Nam. timida van der Vecht Ropalidia timida van der Vecht, 1962, 42 (key), 62, plate 6, female, male (in subgenus Icarielia) -- “Singapore” (holotype female London); also from Malaya; Borneo; Sumatra; ethology. -- Pagden, 1976, Proc. K. Ned. Akad. Wet. Ser. C Biol. Med. Sci. 79: 508 (ethology). -- Richards, 1978, Aust. J. Zool. Suppl. Ser. 61: 55 (in subgenus Icarielia; nest), 58 (in subgenus Icariola; list). -- Kojima and Yamane, 1990, in Sakagami et al., Nat. Hist. Soc. Wasps Bees Eq. Sumatra: 35 (key), 37 (distr.). -- Jeanne, 1991, in Ross and Matthews, Soc. Biol. Wasps: 212 (colony population). -- Spradbery, 1991, in Ross and Matthews, Soc. Biol. Wasps: 353 (colony population). -- Itô, 1993, Behav. Soc. Evol. Wasps: 89 (in subgenus Icarielia; ethology). -- Macalintal and Starr, 1996, Mem. Ent. Soc. Washington 17: tables 1, 2 (in subgenus Icariola; morphology). -- Kojima, 1996, Zool. Meded., Leiden 70: 325, 326, 328, figs. 8, 21. -- Kojima and van Achterberg, 1997, Nat. Hist. Bull. Ibaraki Univ. 1: 4 (distr.: Sabah). DISTRIBUTION: Malay Peninsula; Borneo; Sumatra. tomentosa (Gerstaecker) Icaria tomentosa Gerstaecker, 1857, Monatsber. K. Preuss. Akad. Wiss. Berlin: 464, female – “Mossambique” (?Berlin); 1862, in Peters, Reise Mossamb., Zool. 5: 471, pl. 30 fig. 10 (female). — Dalla Torre, 1894, Cat. Hym. 9: 121 (cat.). — von Schulthess, 1899, Bull. Soc. Vaudoise Sci. Nat. (4) 35: 269 (distr.). — Dalla Torre, 1904, Genera Insectorum 19: 74 (cat.). — du Buysson, 1914, in Voy. Alluaud et Jeannel, Afr. Or., Rés. Sci., Ins. Hym. 3: 156. — von Schulthess, 1923, in Michaelsen, Beitr. Kennt. Land- und Süsswasserfauna Deutsch-Südwestafrikas 2 (2): 135 (distr.). Ropalidia tomentosa; Bequaert, 1918, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. 39: 344 (cat.; probable syn.: R. aethiopica (du Buysson); distr.). — FitzGerald, 1940, Proc. R. Entomol. Soc. London Ser. A Gen. Entomol. 15: 34 (distr.; nest). — Richards, 1978, Aust. J. Zool. Suppl. Ser. 61: 53, 58 (in subgenus Icariola; nest; list). — Macalintal and Starr, 1996, Mem. Ent. Soc. Washington 17: tables 1, 2 (in subgenus Icariola; morphology). — Kojima, 2001a, Nat. Hist. Bull. Ibaraki Univ. 5: 3. DISTRIBUTION: Kenya; Mozambique; Namibia. travancorica Lambert and Narendran Ropalidia travancorica Lambert and Narendram, in Lambert Kishore, Narendran and Irish Kumar 2005, J. Curr. Sci. 7: 273-275, figs. 11-15, female -- “India: Keraka, Travancore, Thiruvanathapuram District, Palayam Kotta (8°29’N 76°55’E)” (holotype Department of Zoology, University of Calicut) (subgenus Icarielia). DISTRIBUTION: India (Kerala). trichophthalma Richards Ropalidia trichophthalma Richards, 1978, Aust. J. Zool. Suppl. Ser. 61: 54 (nest), 62 (key), 102, female, male (in subgenus Icariola) – “Queensland Q2, Forest road near Ingham” [Australia] (holotype female Canberra); also from numerous other localities in Queensland. — Cardale, 1985, Zoolog. Cat. Australia 2, Hym.: Vesp. Sphec.: 217 (in subgenus Icariola; cat.). — Jeanne, 1991, in Ross and Matthews, Soc. Biol. Wasps: 203, 212, 225 (colony population). — Kojima, 1993, New Entomol. 42: 4 (biology). — Naumann, 1993, in Naumann et al., Cape York Penin. Sci. Exp. Wet Season 1992 Rep. 2: 179 (distr.). — Itô, 1993, Behav. Soc. Evol. Wasps: 89, 134 (in subgenus Icariola; ethology). — Macalintal and Starr, 1996, Mem. Ent. Soc. Washington 17: tables 1, 2 (in subgenus Icariola; morphology). — Kojima, 1999a, Entomol. Sci. 2: 375 (label data of holotype; taxonomy). DISTRIBUTION: Australia (Queensland). trimaculata van der Vecht Ropalidia socialis trimaculata van der Vecht, 1962, Zool. Verh., Leiden 57: 21, female -- “Sumba, Pogobina” (Basel). Ropalidia trimaculata; Kojima et al., 2005, Treubia 33: 177 (taxonomy). DISTRIBUTION: Sumba. turneri Richards Ropalidia turneri Richards, 1978, Aust. J. Zool. Suppl. Ser. 61: 54 (nest), 62 (key), 65 (larva in key), 73, figs. 13, 21, 31, 36, female, male (in subgenus Icariola) – “Queesnland Q2, Kuranda, 1100 ft” [Australia] (holotype female Canberra); also from 6 other localities in Queensland. — Yamane and Okazawa, 1981, Rep. Fac. Sci. Kagoshima Univ. 14: 69, fig. 5 (larva from New Guinea) [probably R. cristata Kojima, according to Kojima, 1989]. — Cardale, 1985, Zoolog. Cat. Australia 2, Hym.: Vesp. Sphec.: 215 (in subgenus Icariola; cat.). — Jeanne, 1991, in Ross and Matthews, Soc. Biol. Wasps: 404 (ethology). — Kojima, 1993, New Entomol. 42: 4 (biology). — Macalintal and Starr, 1996, Mem. Ent. Soc. Washington 17: tables 1, 2 (in subgenus Icariola; morphology). — Kojima, 1999a, Entomol. Sci. 2: 368 (label data of the holotype); Kojima, 2001b, Nat. Hist. Bull. Ibaraki Univ. 5: 58 (in R. rufoplagiata-group; compared with R. cristata), figs. 61–63. DISTRIBUTION: Australia (Queensland). unicolor (Smith) Icaria unicolor Smith, 1859, J. Proc. Linn. Soc. Zool. 3: 168, female – “Key Island” [= Kei] (Oxford); 1863 (1864), J. Proc. Linn. Soc. Zool. 7: 138 (distr.); 1871, J. Proc. Linn. Soc. Zool. 11: 380 (cat.). — Dalla Torre, 1894, Cat. Hym. 9: 121 (cat.); 1904, Genera Insectorum 19: 74 (cat.). Icaria torrida Smith, 1863 (1864), J. Proc. Linn. Soc. Zool. 7: 42, female – “Ceram” (Oxford); 1863 (1864), J. Proc. Linn. Soc. Zool. 7: 138 (distr.); 1871, J. Proc. Linn. Soc. Zool. 11: 380 (cat.). — Dalla Torre, 1894, Cat. Hym. 9: 121 (cat.); 1904, Genera Insectorum 19: 74 (cat.). — von Schulthess, 1927, Suppl. Entomol. 16: 83 (distr.) [misidentification?]. — Kojima, 2001b, Nat. Hist. Bull. Ibaraki Univ. 5: 35 (designation of lactotype). — Saito and Kojima, 2005, Entomol. Sci. 8: 180 (taxonomy; syn. of R. unicolor). Ropalidia mathematica unicolor; van der Vecht, 1941, Treubia 18: 133 (distr.; specimens from Timor were placed in Ropalidia socialis socialis in his 1962 paper). Ropalidia unicolor; Bequaert, 1932, Rés. Scient. Voyage Indes Or. Néerl. Léopold de Belgique 4 (5): 51 (“probablement un Parapolybia”). — van der Vecht, 1962, Zool. Verh., Leiden 57: 21 (in subgenus Anthreneida; Kei Is.) — Richards, 1978, Aust. J. Zool. Suppl. Ser. 61: 58 (in subgenus Icariola; list). Kojima, 2001b, Nat. Hist. Bull. Ibaraki Univ. 5: 56 (in R. stigma-group). — Saito and Kojima, 2005, Entomol. Sci. 8: 180 (taxonomy). Ropalidia torrida; Bequaert, 1932, Rés. Scient. Voyage Indes Or. Néerl. Léopold de Belgique 4 (5): 51. Ropalidia mathematica torrida; van der Vecht, 1941, Treubia 18: 104, 133 (distr.); 1962, Zool. Verh., Leiden 57: 20 (in subgenus Anthreneida; distr.; “Perhaps this form will eventually prove to be closer to R. socialis or unicolor than to R. mathematica.”). — Kojima, 2001b, Nat. Hist. Bull. Ibaraki Univ. 5: 35. DISTRIBUTION: Moluccas.; Kei Is. unidentata Giordani Soika Ropalidia unidentata Giordani Soika, 1981, Boll. Soc. Entomol. Ital. 113: 172, 175, fig. 2, “male” [female] – “Tanzania: Dar Es Salaam” (München). — Kojima, 2001a, Nat. Hist. Bull. Ibaraki Univ. 5: 3. DISTRIBUTION: Tanzania. variabilis (de Saussure) Icaria variabilis de Saussure, 1890, in Grandidier, Hist. Madagascar 20, Hym. 1: 114 (key), 135, pl. 18 fig. 15, female, male -- “Madagascar” (Genève, Paris). -- Dalle Torre, 1894, Cat. Hym. 9: 121 (cat.). -- de Saussure, 1900, Abh. Senckenb. Naturforsch. Ges. 26 (2): 218, 231. -- Dalle Torre, 1904, Genera Insectorum 19: 74 (cat.). Ropalidia variabilis; Bequaert, 1918, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. 39: 344 (cat.; distr.). -- Richards, 1978, Aust. J. Zool. Suppl. Ser. 61: 53, 58 (in subgenus Icariola; nest; list). -- Giordani Soika, 1991, Lav. Soc. Ven. Sci. Nat. 16: 84 ), 86 (key), 87, fig. 7 (distr.). DISTRIBUTION: Madagascar. variegata (Smith) Epipona variegata Smith, 1852, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (2) 9: 48, female -- “Poona” [India] (London). Icaria variegata; de Saussure, 1854, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2: 237, pl. 4, fig. 3a (nest) [error: “La China”]. -- Smith, 1857, Cat. Hym. Br. Mus. 5: 97 (cat.). -- Horne, 1870, Trans. Zool. Soc. London 7: 169, pl. 20 figs. 8, 9 (ethology). -- Smith, 1871, J. Proc. Linn. Soc. London 11: 378 (in subgenus Epipona). -- André, 1889, Le Naturaliste: 189 (nest). -- Dalla Torre, 1894, Cat. Hym. 9: 121 (cat.). -- Bingham, 1897, Fauna Br. India, Hym. 1: 386 (key), 388 (distr.). -- Cameron, 1900, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (7) 6: 495 (male). -- Dalla Torre, 1904, Genera Insectorum 19: 74 (cat.; I. picta de Saussure and I. pendula Smith are placed under this species with a query.). -- Schulz, 1912, Berlin. Entomol. Z. 57: 88 (syn. of Icaria cyathiformis (Fabricius)). -- von Schulthess, 1927, Suppl. Entomol. 16: 83 (distr.) [misidentification?]. Ropalidia variegata; Bequaert, 1918, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. 39: 247. -- Dover and Rao, 1922, J. Asiat. Soc. Bengal (n. ser.) 18: 244. -- Dover, 1925 (1924), J. Asiat. Soc. Bengal (n. ser.) 20: 302; 1929, Bull. Raffles Mus. 2: 47 (distr.); 1931 (1930), J. Fed. Malay St. Mus. 26: 257 (distr.). -- van der Vecht, 1941, Treubia 18: 104 (syn.: I. pendula Smith). -- Berland and Grassé, 1951, in Grassé, Traité Zool. 10 (2): 1163, fig. 1032. -- Davis, 1966, Nature 210: 966 (ethology); 1996, Entomol. News 77: 271 (ethology). -- Richards, 1978, Aust. J. Zool. Suppl. Ser. 61: 59 (in subgenus Icariola; list) [error: author (de Saussure)]. -- Ross and Carpenter, 1991, in Ross and Matthews, Soc. Biol. Wasps: 458, 460, 463 (biology). -- Wenzel, 1991, in Ross and Matthews, Soc. Biol. Wasps: 487 (nest). -- Itô, 1993, Behav. Soc. Evol. Wasps: 20, 51, 52, 66, 105 (ethology). -- Theraulez and Bonabeau, 1995, J. Theor. Biol. 177: fig. 1a (nest). -- Macalintal and Starr, 1996, Mem. Ent. Soc. Washington 17: tables 1, 2 (in subgenus Icariola; morphology). -- Kojima and van Achterberg, 1997, Nat. Hist. Bull. Ibaraki Univ. 1: 2 (distr.: Sulawesi). Ropalidia variegata variegata; van der Vecht, 1941, Treubia 18: 112 (key), 154 (distr.); 1962, Zool. Verh., Leiden 57: 29 (in subgenus Anthreneida; taxonomy; distr.). -- Richards, 1978, Aust. J. Zool. Suppl. Ser. 61: 54 (nest). -- Yamane and Yamane, 1979, Insecta Matsumurana, n. ser. 15: 4 (key), 11, 32 (in subgenus Anthreneida; fig.; ethology; distr.). -- Das and Gupta, 1984 (1983), Orient. Insects 17: 425 (in subgenus Anthreneida; cat.; distr.). -- Das and Gupta, 1989, Orient. Insects Monogr. 11: 113 (key), 144, map 24 (in sumatrae group of subgenus Anthreneida; female, male; fig.; distr.). DISTRIBUTION: Pakistan; India (Punjab, Delhi, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, West Bengal, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu); Nepal; Myanmar; Malay Peninsula; China; Sulawesi. velutina (de Saussure) Icaria velutina de Saussure, 1890, in Grandidier, Hist. Madagascar 20, Hym. 1: 114 (key), 129, pl. 4 figs. 4, 4b, female -- “Madagascar” (Genève). -- Dalla Torre, 1894, Cat. Hym. 9: 121 (cat.). -- de Saussure, 1900, Abh. Senckenb. Naturforsch. Ges. 26 (2): 217, 227 (male). -- Dalla Torre, 1904, Genera Insectorum 19: 75 (cat.). Ropalidia velutina; Bequaert, 1918, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. 39: 345 (cat.; distr.). -- FitzGerald, 1950, Proc. R. Entomol. Soc. London Ser. A Gen. Entomol. 25: 85 (distr.). -- Giordani Soika, 1991, Lav. Soc. Ven. Sci. Nat. 16: 82 (distr.), 85 (key). DISTRIBUTION: Madagascar. venustula (de Saussure) Icaria venustula de Saussure, 1900, Abh. Senckenb. Naturforsch. Ges. 26 (2): 218, 219 (key), 231, male -- “Madagascar; Imerina” (Genève). -- Dalla Torre, 1904, Genera Insectorum 19: 75 (cat.). Ropalidia venustula; Bequaert, 1918, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. 39: 345 (cat.; distr.). -- Giordani Soika, 1991, Lav. Soc. Ven. Sci. Nat. 16: 84 (probable var. of ranavali (de Saussure); distr.), 86 (key). DISTRIBUTION: Madagascar. vietnama Gusenleitner Ropalidia vietnama Gusenleitner, 1996, Linz. Biol. Beitr. 28: 15, 17, figs. 6, 7, female, nest (in subgenus Anthreneida) -- “Vietnam, Nam Cat Tien, 11°26’N 107°26’E” (holotype Linz). DISTRIBUTION: Vietnam. vitripennis (de Saussure) Icaria vitripennis de Saussure, 1890, in Grandidier, Hist. Madagascar 20, Hym. 1: 113 (key), 130, female -- “Madagascar” (London) -- Dalla Torre, 1894, Cat. Hym. 9: 121 (cat.). -- de Saussure, 1900, Abh. Senckenb. Naturforsch. Ges. 26 (2): 217, 229 (female). -- Dalla Torre, 1904, Genera Insectorum 19: 75 (cat.). Ropalidia vitripennis; Bequaert, 1918, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. 39: 345 (cat.; distr.). -- FitzGerald, 1950, Proc. R. Entomol. Soc. London Ser. A Gen. Entomol. 25: 83 (distr.). -- Richards, 1978, Aust. J. Zool. Suppl. Ser. 61: 58 (in subgenus Icariola; list). -- Kojima, 1988, J. Kansas Entomol. Soc. 61: 300, figs. 47, 48 (larva). -- Giordani Soika, 1991, Lav. Soc. Ven. Sci. Nat. 16: 85 (key). DISTRIBUTION: Madagascar. wollastoni (Meade-Waldo) Icaria wollastoni Meade-Waldo, 1912, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist (8) 9: 448 (key), 449, female (in subgenus Icariastrum) – “Mimika River” [S. W. New Guinea] (London). — Kojima, 2001b, Nat. Hist. Bull. Ibaraki Univ. 5: 35 (dsignation of lactotype). Ropalidia wollastoni; Bequaert, 1932, Rés. Scient. Voyage Indes Or. Néerl. Léopold de Belgique 4 (5): 51. — van der Vecht, 1941, Ent. Med. Ned.-Indië 7: 28. — Cheesman, 1952, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (12) 5: 2, 6 (redescription of the type). — Kojima, 2001b, Nat. Hist. Bull. Ibaraki Univ. 5: 35 (syn.: Icaria sericea). Icaria sericea Cameron, 1911, Nova Guinea 9, Zool. 2: 188, female – “Bivak Island” (lectotype Amsterdam). Junior primary homonym of I. sericea Cameron, 1905. — Kojima and Carpenter, 1997, Am. Mus. Novit. 3199: 5 (designation of lectotype; syn. of Ropalidia wollastoni). — Kojima and van Achterberg, 1997, Zool. Meded., Leiden 71: 166 (lectotype depository). Ropalidia sericea; Bequaert, 1932, Rés. Scient. Voyage Indes Or. Néerl. Léopold de Belgique 4 (5): 51. DISTRIBUTION: New Guinea.
  11. Tentative Chechlist of the Polistine Tribe Mischocyttarini by James M. Carpenter (American Museum of Natural History) Tribe Mischocyttarini Carpenter, 1993 Genus Mischocyttarus de Saussure Mischocyttarus de Saussure, 1853, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2: 19, genus (2 species). Type species: Zethus labiatus Fabricius, 1804, by subsequent designation of Ashmead, 1902, Can. Ent. 34: 166. Mischocytharus de Saussure, 1853, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 1, Introduction: viii, footnote. Incorrect original spelling of Mischocyttarus de Saussure. Myschocytharus de Saussure, 1853, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2: 3, footnote. Incorrect spelling of Mischocyttarus de Saussure. Miscocyttarus de Saussure, 1854, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2: 256. Incorrect spelling of Mischocyttarus de Saussure. Mischocittarus de Saussure, 1857, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2: xi. Incorrect spelling of Mischocyttarus de Saussure. Myschocyttarus Schrottky, 1904, Allg. Zeitschr. Ent. 9: 345. Incorrect spelling of Mischocyttarus de Saussure. Mischocythorus Krombein, 1979, in Krombein et al., Cat. Hym. Am. N. Mex. 2: 1516. Incorrect spelling of Mischocytharus de Saussure. Subgenus Clypeopolybia Brèthes Clypeopolybia Brèthes, 1923, Rev. Fac. Nac. Agron. Univ. La Plata 15: 16, genus. Type species: Clypeopolybia duckei Brèthes, 1923 [=Polistes flavicans Fabricius, 1804], by monotypy. adjectus Zikán Polybia mexicana ?; Fox, 1898, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad.: 451 [partim]. - Bequaert, 1933, Entomologica Am. 13: 142 (probably M. alfkenii). Mischocyttarus adjectus Zikán, 1935, Arq. Inst. Biol. Veget. 1 (3): 154 (key), 188, figs. 56, 59, female - [Brazil] “Itatiaya” (Inst. Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro); 1949, Bol. Parq. Nac. Itatiaia 1: 24 (key), 122, fig. 205. - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 282 (key), 285 (in subgenus Clypeopolybia). - Carpenter and van der Vecht, 1991, Ann. Carnegie Mus. 60 (3): 218 (note on material seen by Fox). Distr.: Brazil: Rio de Janeiro. carbonarius carbonarius (de Saussure) Polybia carbonaria de Saussure, 1854, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2: 198, female (in division My) - “Le Brésil” (London?); 1855, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2.: pl. XXVI fig. 5. - Dalla Torre, 1894, Cat. Hym. 9: 162 (cat.). Megacanthopus carbonarius; Ducke, 1905, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, Pará 4: 690; 1907, Bol. Mus. Para. Emilo Goeldi 5: 190. Megacanthopus flavicans var. carbonaria; Ducke, 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 539. Mischocyttarus flavicans carbonarius; Ducke, 1918, Rev. Mus. Paul. 10: 351. Mischocyttarus carbonarius; Bequaert, 1933, Entomologica Am. 13: 114 (compared to M. flavitarsis). - Richards, 1941, Proc. R. Ent. Soc. London (B) 10: 125 (in subgenus Mischocyttarus, flavicans group). - Bequaert, 1944, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 94: 261 (list; probable syn.: M. ruficornis Cameron). - Richards, 1945, Trans. R. Ent. Soc. London 95: 311 (key), 336, figs. 23-24, pl. 4 figs. 181-182 (in subgenus Mischocyttarus, flavicans group). - Zikán, 1949, Bol. Parq. Nac. Itatiaia 1: 36 (key), 188, figs. 125, 274-275. - Silveira, 1998, Pap. Avuls. Zool., São Paulo 40 (23): 366 (morphology). Mischocyttarus carbonarius race flavonotatus Zikán, 1949, Bol. Parq. Nac. Itatiaia 1: 36 (key), 189, female - “Yungas de la Paz, (Bolivia)” (São Paulo). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 287 (syn. of M. carbonarius (de Saussure)). Mischocyttarus carbonarius carbonarius; Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 283 (key), 287 (in subgenus Clypeopolybia). - Raw, 1989, Maracá Rainfor. Proj., Invert. Limnol., Prelim. Rep.: 29 (resemblance to Stelopolybia angulata; Brazil), 36 (distr.); 1989, Maracá Rainfor. Proj., Invert. Limnol., Prelim. Rep.: 41 (habitat preference). - Almeida and Castro, 1991, Acta Biol. Par., Curitiba 20: 49 (coll. list). - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 360 (Colombia: Amazonas, Caquetá, Putumayo, Vaupés; list). Distr.: Panama; Colombia: Amazonas, Caquetá, Putumayo, Vaupés; Guyana; French Guiana; Ecuador: Morona-Santiago, Napo; Peru: Loreto; Brazil: Amazonas, Espírito Santo, Maranhão, Pará, Roraima; Bolivia: La Paz. carbonarius tibialis Richards Mischocyttarus carbonarius tibialis Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 283 (key), 287, female (in subgenus Clypeopolybia) - “COLOMBIA: Nariño, Barbacoas, 80 m” (London). Distr.: Costa Rica*; Colombia: Amazonas, Cauca, Nariño. clypeatus Zikán Mischocyttarus clypeatus Zikán, 1935, Arq. Inst. Biol. Veget. 1 (3): 154 (key), 192, figs. 63-65, pl. 2 fig. 4, female, male, nest - [Brazil] “Itatiaya” (lectotype female Inst. Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro); 1949, Bol. Parq. Nac. Itatiaia 1: 24 (key), 122, figs. 66-67, 206-207, 326. - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 282 (key), 284 (designation of lectotype; in subgenus Clypeopolybia). Distr.: Brazil: Rio de Janeiro. duckei (du Buysson) Megacanthopus Duckei du Buysson, 1908, Rev. Ent., Caen 27: 218, female - “Guyane française; Nouveau Chantier du Bas Maroni” (Paris). - Carpenter, 1999, Am. Mus. Novitat. 3259: 20 (notes on type). Mischocyttarus duckei; Richards, 1940, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (11) 5: 183 (possibly same as M. rufidens (de Saussure)); 1941, Proc. R. Ent. Soc. London (B) 10: 125 (in subgenus Mischocyttarus, flavicans group). - Bequaert, 1944, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 94: 261 (list). - Richards, 1945, Trans. R. Ent. Soc. London 95: 311 (key), 337 (in subgenus Mischocyttarus, flavicans group). - Zikán, 1949, Bol. Parq. Nac. Itatiaia 1: 36 (key), 187. - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 283 (key), 285 (in subgenus Clypeopolybia). - Overal, 1978, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.), Zool. 94: 10 (list). - Almeida and Castro, 1991, Acta Biol. Par., Curitiba 20: 49 (coll. list). Distr.: Guyana; French Guiana; Brazil: Amazonas. flavicans coroico Richards Mischocyttarus flavicans var. coroico Richards, 1945, Trans. R. Ent. Soc. London 95: 311 (key), 335, fig. 21, female (in subgenus Mischocyttarus, flavicans group) - “BOLIVIA: Coroico” (Berlin); also from Chaco; 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 283 (key), 288 (in subgenus Clypeopolybia). Distr.: Bolivia: La Paz. flavicans flavicans (Fabricius) Polistes flavicans Fabricius, 1804, Syst. Piez.: 276 - “America meridionali” (Kobenhavn). Polybia testacea; de Saussure, 1854, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2: 183, male not female (syn.: Polistes flavicans Fabricius) [misidentification]. - Zikán, 1949, Bol. Parq. Nac. Itatiaia 1: 211 (original description composite). Polybia flavicans; Dalla Torre, 1894, Cat. Hym. 9: 163 (syn.: Polistes testacea Fabricius; cat.); 1904, Gen. Ins. 19: 77 (cat.). Megacanthopus goeldii Ducke, 1905, Bol. Mus. Goeldi 4: 690, female, male, nest - [Brazil] “Barcellos nos igapós do rio Negro” (Bern, Buenos Aires); 1908, Deutsch. Ent. Z. 1908: 699 (Brazil: Pará); 1918, Rev. Mus. Paul. 10: 350 (syn. of M. flavicans (Fabricius)). - Nascimento and Overal, 1979, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.) 95: 9 (list). - Carpenter, 1999, Am. Mus. Novitat. 3259: 21 (notes on types). Mischocyttarus flavicans; Ducke, 1918, Rev. Mus. Paul. 10: 350. - Bequaert, 1944, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 94: 261 (list). - Richards, 1941, Proc. R. Ent. Soc. London (B) 10: 125 (in subgenus Mischocyttarus, flavicans group), 128 (compared to heliconius n. sp.); 1945, Trans. R. Ent. Soc. London 95: 311 (key), 333, figs. 19-20, 25-26 (in subgenus Mischocyttarus, flavicans group; syn.: Megacanthopus goeldii Ducke). - Zikán, 1949, Bol. Parq. Nac. Itatiaia 1: 36 (key), 186, figs. 124, 273. - Overal, 1978, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.), Zool. 94: 10 (list). - Silveira, 1998, Pap. Avuls. Zool., São Paulo 40 (23): 364-366, fig. 8b (compared to M. aripuanaensis n. sp.). Clypeopolybia Duckei Brèthes, 1923, Rev. Fac. Nac. Agron. Univ. La Plata 15: 16, female, male, pl. III fig. 3 - “Bolivia” (Buenos Aires) [junior secondary homonym of M. duckei (du Buysson, 1908)]. - Zikán, 1949, Bol. Parq. Nac. Itatiaia 1: 231. - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 287 (syn. of M. flavicans (Fabricius)). Mischocyttarus flavicans var. flavicans; Richards, 1945, Trans. R. Ent. Soc. London 95: 311 (key), 335 (in subgenus Mischocyttarus, flavicans group). Mischocyttarus flavicans flavicans; Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 283 (key), 288 (in subgenus Clypeopolybia). Distr.: Colombia: Meta; Guyana; Suriname; French Guiana; Ecuador; Peru: Amazonas, Huánuco, Loreto; Brazil: Amazonas, Pará; Bolivia: Cochabamba, Pando. heliconius Richards Mischocyttarus heliconius Richards, 1941, Proc. R. Ent. Soc. London (B) 10: 125 (key), 128, female (in subgenus Kappa, heliconius group) - “BRITISH GUIANA: Essequibo R., Moraballi Creek, high forest” (London); also from one other locality. - Bequaert, 1944, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 94: 262 (list). - Richards, 1945, Trans. R. Ent. Soc. London 95: 311 (key), 338, figs. 27, pl. 3 fig. 155 (in subgenus Kappa, heliconius group). Mischocyttarus heliconius var. heliconius; Richards, 1945, Trans. R. Ent. Soc. London 95: 311 (key), 339 (in subgenus Kappa, heliconius group). Mischocyttarus heliconius var. iperuae Richards, 1945, Trans. R. Ent. Soc. London 95: 311 (key), 340, female (in subgenus Kappa, heliconius group) - “British Guiana, Essequibo R., Moraballi Creek, Wallaba (Iperua spp., mimoseae) Bush” (London). Mischocyttarus heliconius morph heliconius; Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 282 (key), 284 (in subgenus Clypeopolybia). Mischocyttarus heliconius morph iperuae; Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 282 (key), 284 (in subgenus Clypeopolybia). Distr.: Guyana; Suriname. piger Richards Mischocyttarus piger Richards, 1945, Trans. R. Ent. Soc. London 95: 311 (key), 340, fig. 28, female (in subgenus Kappa, heliconius group) - “Brazil” (Berlin); 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 282 (key), 284 (in subgenus Clypeopolybia). Distr.: Brazil. richardsi Zikán Mischocyttarus richardsi Zikán, 1949, Bol. Parq. Nac. Itatiaia 1: 24 (key), 123, figs. 68-69, 208-209, 371, female, male - [Brazil] “Nova Teutônia, Sul de Santa Catarina” (lectotype female Inst. Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro); also from Curitiba. - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 282 (key), 285 (designation of lectotype; in subgenus Clypeopolybia). Distr.: Brazil: Paraná, Santa Catarina. sericeus Richards Mischocyttarus sericeus Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 282 (key), 283, female (in subgenus Clypeopolybia) - “BOLIVIA: Yungas de La Paz” (São Paulo). Distr.: Bolivia: La Paz. wygodzinskyi Zikán Mischocyttarus wygodzinskyi Zikán, 1949, Bol. Parq. Nac. Itatiaia 1: 24 (key), 120, figs. 204, 292, female - [Brazil] “Rio de Janeiro, D. F.” (Inst. Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 282 (key), 285 (in subgenus Clypeopolybia). Distr.: Brazil: Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo. woytkowskyi Richards Mischocyttarus woytkowskyi Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 283 (key), 286, male (in subgenus Clypeopolybia) - “PERU: Cuzco, Valle Cosñipata, Hacienda Maria, 400 m” (Tucumán). Distr.: Peru: Cuzco. Subgenus Haplometrobius Richards Haplometrobius Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: vi, 17, 274, 389, subgenus of Mischocyttarus de Saussure. Type species: Mischocyttarus iheringi Zikàn, 1935, by original designation. alboniger Richards Mischocyttarus alboniger Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 392 (key), 411, female (in subgenus Haplometrobius) - “SURINAM: Nassau Mts” (Leiden). - Raw, 1989, Maracá Rainfor. Proj., Invert. Limnol., Prelim. Rep.: 29 (nest; Brazil), 36 (distr.); 1989, Maracá Rainfor. Proj., Invert. Limnol., Prelim. Rep.: 41 (habitat preference). - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 361 (alboniguer [!]; Colombia: Amazonas, Caquetá, Vaupés; list). - Kojima and van Achterberg, 1997, Zool. Med., Leiden 71: 159 (list). Distr.: Colombia (?): Amazonas, Caquetá, Vaupés; Suriname; Brazil: Roraima. annulatus Richards Mischocyttarus annulatus Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 392 (key), 411, female (in subgenus Haplometrobius) - “BRAZIL: Mato Grosso, base camp, 12°50’S, 31°47’W” (London). Distr.: Brazil: Mato Grosso. artifex Ducke Mischocyttarus artifex Ducke, 1914, Zool. Jahrb. (Syst.) 36: 315, 327, fig. J, female, male - [Brazil] “Obidos am unteren Amazonas” (lectotype female São Paulo); 1918, Rev. Mus. Paul. 10: 354. - da Fonseca, 1926, Rev. Mus. Paul. 14: 183, pl. 2 figs. 1-2 (nest). - Bequaert, 1933, Entomologica Am. 13: 118 (nest). - Richards, 1941, Proc. R. Ent. Soc. London (B) 10: 128 (in subgenus Megacanthopus, artifex group); 1945, Trans. R. Ent. Soc. London 95: 321 (key), 446, figs. 105-106, 115 (in subgenus Megacanthopus, artifex group). - Zikán, 1949, Bol. Parq. Nac. Itatiaia 1: 22 (key), 102, figs. 59, 192, 306, 346. - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 395 (key), 426 (designation of lectotype, as Megacanthopus [!]; in subgenus Haplometrobius). - Overal, 1978, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.), Zool. 94: 10 (list). - Nascimento and Overal, 1979, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.) 95: 10 (list). - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 362 (Colombia; list). - Cooper, 1998, Ent. Mon. Mag. 134: 293, 296 (key), 305 (in artifex group; additional description; Brazil; Colombia), fig. 6. - Carpenter, 1999, Am. Mus. Novitat. 3259: 20 (notes on type). Distr.: Colombia: Amazonas, Putumayo, Amazonas; Brazil: Pará. bahiaensis Zikán Mischocyttarus bahiaënsis Zikán, 1949, Bol. Parq. Nac. Itatiaia 1: 20 (key), 88, female - [Brazil] “Estado da Bahia” (São Paulo). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 390 (key), 401 (in subgenus Haplometrobius). - Carpenter, 1999, Am. Mus. Novitat. 3259: 20 (notes on type). Distr.: Brazil: Bahia, São Paulo. bequaertii Richards Mischocyttarus bequaertii Richards, 1945, Trans. R. Ent. Soc. London 95: 320 (key), 428, fig. 91, male, female (in subgenus Megacanthopus, prominulus group) - “COLOMBIA: Dept. Meta, Restrepo, 500 m.” (holotype male Cambridge); 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 392 (key), 411 (in subgenus Haplometrobius). - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 361 (list). Distr.: Colombia: Meta. capichaba Zikán Mischocyttarus indeterminabilis; Zikán, 1935, Arq. Inst. Biol. Veget. 1 (3): 154 (key), 168 (compared to paraguayensis n. sp. and iheringi n. sp.). Mischocyttarus capichaba Zikán, 1949, Bol. Parq. Nac. Itatiaia 1: 19 (key), 83, fig. 43, female - “Estado do Espírito Santo, Brasil” (São Paulo). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 393 (key), 416 (in subgenus Haplometrobius). - Cooper, 1998, Ent. Mon. Mag. 134: 293 (characters). Distr.: Brazil: Espírito Santo. cerberus acheron Richards Mischocyttarus cerberus var. acheron Richards, 1940, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (11) 5: 179, female - “British Guiana: Mazaruni Settlement” (London). - Bequaert, 1944, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 94: 261. - Richards, 1945, Trans. R. Ent. Soc. London 95: 321 (key), 444, pl. 2 figs. 147-149 (in subgenus Megacanthopus, cerberus group). Mischocyttarus cerberus acheron; Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 395 (key), 425 (in subgenus Haplometrobius). - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 362 (list). Distr.: Colombia: Caquetá (?); Guyana. cerberus cerberus Ducke Polybia pallipes; Fox, 1898, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad.: 450 [partim]. Misidentification. Megacanthopus cerberus “Buyss. n. sp.” Ducke, 1910, Rev. Ent., Caen 28: 119. Nomen nudum. Mischocyttarus cerberus Ducke, 1918, Rev. Mus. Paul. 10: 371 (probably var. of M. surinamensis (de Saussure)) - [Brazil] “Maranhão: Caxias. Connu du bas Amazon” (lectotype male London). - Richards, 1940, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (11) 5: 178 (treated as species described by Ducke, 1918); 1941, Proc. R. Ent. Soc. London (B) 10: 128 (in subgenus Megacanthopus, cerberus group). - Bequaert, 1944, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 94: 261 (typical form). - Richards, 1945, Trans. R. Ent. Soc. London 95: 442, figs. 103-104.- Zikán, 1949, Bol. Parq. Nac. Itatiaia 1: 96. - Overal, 1978, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.), Zool. 94: 10 (list). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 424 (designation of lectotype, from Pará). - Nascimento and Overal, 1979, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.) 95: 9 (list). - Carpenter and van der Vecht, 1991, Ann. Carnegie Mus. 60 (3): 217 (note on material seen by Fox). - Silveira, 2004, Rev. Bras. Entomol. 48 (3): 335 (in cerberus group), 338 (key). Mischocyttarus cerberus var. cerberus; Richards, 1940, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (11) 5: 179 (female, male; Suriname); 1945, Trans. R. Ent. Soc. London 95: 321 (key), 444 (in subgenus Megacanthopus, cerberus group).. Mischocyttarus cerberus cerberus; Zikán, 1949, Bol. Parq. Nac. Itatiaia 1: 21 (key). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 395 (key), 425 (in subgenus Haplometrobius). - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 362 (Colombia: Caquetá, Putumayo; list). Distr.: Colombia (?): Caquetá, Putumayo; Suriname; Brazil: Maranhão, Mato Grosso, Pará. cerberus styx Richards Mischocyttarus cerberus var. styx Richards, 1940, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (11) 5: 180, female - “Brazil: São Paulo, Dumont” (London); 1945, Trans. R. Ent. Soc. London 95: 321 (key), 445, pl. 2 figs. 150-151 (in subgenus Megacanthopus, cerberus group). Mischocyttarus souzalopesi Zikán, 1949, Bol. Parq. Nac. Itatiaia 1: 85, female not male (Brazil: Goiás). Misidentification. Mischocyttarus varolii Zikán, 1949, Bol. Parq. Nac. Itatiaia 1: 21 (key), 95, figs. 52-53, 187-188, 361, male, female - [Brazil] “Araçatuba” (lectotype male Inst. Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro); also from two other localities in São Paulo. - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 425 (designation of lectotype; syn. of M. cerberus styx Richards). Mischocyttarus cerberus styx; Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 395 (key), 425 (syn.: M. varolii Zikán; in subgenus Haplometrobius). - Almeida and Castro, 1991, Acta Biol. Par., Curitiba 20: 49 (coll. list). - Giannotti, 1998, Rev. Bras. Ent. 41 (2-4): 217-224 (ethology); 1999, Sociobiology 33 (3): 325-338 (ethology). Distr.: Brazil: Goiás, Mato Grosso, São Paulo. chanchamayoensis Richards Mischocyttarus “chanchamayoanus Zikán nov. spec.” Weyrauch, 1943, Bol. Mus. Hist. Nat. Javier Prado 7: 68. Nomen nudum. Mischocyttarus chanchamayoensis Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 393 (key), 414, female (in subgenus Haplometrobius) - “PERU: Junín, Valle Chanchamayo, 800 m” (Tucumán). - Cooper, 1998, Ent. Mon. Mag. 134: 91 (in iheringi group; male, nest; Colombia; Ecuador; Peru: Pasco). - Colomo and Berta, 2005, Rev. Soc. Entomol. Argent. 64: 78 (list). Distr.: Colombia: Caqueta, Putumayo; Ecuador: Morona-Santiago, Napo; Peru: Junín, Pasco. chloroecus Cooper Mischocyttarus chloroecus Cooper, 1998, Ent. Mon. Mag. 134: 295 (key), 300, fig. 10, male, female, nest (in subgenus Haplometrobius, artifex species group) - “COLOMBIA: Putumayo, Mocoa, 550m” (holotype male London); also from Caquetá; and Ecuador. Distr.: Colombia: Putumayo, Caquetá; Ecuador: Morona-Santiago. claretianus Zikán Mischocyttarus claretianus Zikán, 1949, Bol. Parq. Nac. Itatiaia 1: 21 (key), 101, figs. 58, 409, female - [Brazil] “Fonte Ahu, Curitiba, Estado do Paraná” (Inst. Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 396 (key), 431 (in subgenus Haplometrobius). Distr.: Brazil: Paraná. cleomenes Richards Mischocyttarus cleomenes Richards, 1945, Trans. R. Ent. Soc. London 95: 320 (key), 432, figs. 93, 95, pl. 1 fig. 121, female, male, nest (in subgenus Megacanthopus, surinamensis group) - “MEXICO: N. Yucatán, Temax” (holotype female London); also from Panama; 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 391 (key), 406 (in subgenus Haplometrobius). - West-Eberhard et al., 1995, Hym. Costa Rica: 585 (Costa Rica). - Rodríguez-Palafox, 1996, in Llorente-Bousquets et al., Biodiv. Taxon. Biogeogr. Artrópod. México: 482 (list). Distr.: Mexico: Yucatán; Costa Rica; Panama. confusoides Zikán Mischocyttarus confusoides Zikán, 1949, Bol. Parq. Nac. Itatiaia 1: 236, sex and locality not stated (lectotype female, Inst. Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 391 (key), 408 (designation of lectotype, from Itatiaia; in subgenus Haplometrobius). Distr.: Brazil: Rio de Janeiro. confusus Zikán Mischocyttarus confusus Zikán, 1935, Arq. Inst. Biol. Veget. 1 (3): 154 (key), 195, figs. 66, 69, 73, pl. 3 fig. 10, female - [Brazil] “Itatiaya, 700 m.” (Tucumán). - Richards, 1941, Proc. R. Ent. Soc. London (B) 10: 127 (in subgenus Megacanthopus, surinamensis group); 1945, Trans. R. Ent. Soc. London 95: 320 (key), 433, fig. 96 (in subgenus Megacanthopus, surinamensis group). - Zikán, 1949, Bol. Parq. Nac. Itatiaia 1: 21 (key), 99, 236 (“host” ofconfusoides n. sp.), figs. 57, 191, 367. - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 391 (key), 404 (in subgenus Haplometrobius). - Colomo and Berta, 2005, Rev. Soc. Entomol. Argent. 64: 78 (note on type). Distr.: Brazil: Rio de Janeiro. cooperi Richards Mischocyttarus cooperi Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 418, female, male (in subgenus Haplometrobius) - “COLOMBIA: Nariño, Barbacoas” (holotype female London). - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 362 (list). - Cooper, 1998, Ent. Mon. Mag. 134: 92 (in iheringi group, close to naumanni Richards; nest), fig. 2. Distr.: Colombia: Nariño. curitybanus Zikán Mischocyttarus curitybanus Zikán, 1949, Bol. Parq. Nac. Itatiaia 1: 22 (key), 106, female - [Brazil] “Curitiba, Paraná” (lectotype Inst. Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro); also from São Paulo. - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 394 (key), 423 (designation of lectotype; in subgenus Haplometrobius). - Almeida and Castro, 1991, Acta Biol. Par., Curitiba 20: 49 (coll. list). Distr.: Brazil: Rio de Janeiro, Paraná. decimus Richards Mischocyttarus decimus Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 390 (key), 400, female (in subgenus Haplometrobius) - “BRAZIL: PA, 40 km east of Santarém, Taperinha” (London). Distr.: Peru: Loreto; Brazil: Pará; Bolivia: Beni. dimorphus Zikán Mischocyttarus “dimorphus Zikán nov. spec.” Weyrauch, 1943, Bol. Mus. Hist. Nat. Javier Prado 7: 69. Nomen nudum. Mischocyttarus dimorphus Zikán, 1949, Bol. Parq. Nac. Itatiaia 1: 19 (key), 84, fig. 44, male, female - “Valle Chanchamayo, 1.200 m, Peru” (lectotype male Inst. Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 396 (key), 432 (designation of lectotype; in subgenus Haplometrobius). - Cooper, 1998, Ent. Mon. Mag. 134: 293, 295 (key; in artifex group). - Silveira, 2004, Rev. Bras. Entomol. 48 (3): 336 (in cerberus group), 338 (key). - Colomo and Berta, 2005, Rev. Soc. Entomol. Argent. 64: 79 (note on types). Distr.: Peru: Junín. elegantulus Zikán Mischocyttarus “elegantulus Zikán nov. spec.” Weyrauch, 1943, Bol. Mus. Hist. Nat. Javier Prado 7: 68. Nomen nudum. Mischocyttarus elegantulus Zikán, 1949, Bol. Parq. Nac. Itatiaia 1: 23 (key), 114, fig. 200, female - “Tingo Maria, Rio Harallaga [Huallaga], 700 m, (Peru)” (Inst. Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 392 (key), 410 (in subgenus Haplometrobius). - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 361 (Colombia: Putumayo; list). Distr.: Colombia: Putumayo; Ecuador: Napo (?); Peru: Huánuco. filipendulus Cooper Mischocyttarus filipendulus Cooper, 1998, Ent. Mon. Mag. 134: 295, 296 (key), 301 (mimicry), 302, fig. 7, female, nest (in subgenus Haplometrobius, artifex species group) - “COLOMBIA: Amazonas, La Chorrera” (London); also from Putumayo. Distr.: Colombia: Putumayo, Amazonas. garbei Zikán Mischocyttarus garbei Zikán, 1935, Arq. Inst. Biol. Veget. 1 (3): 153 (key), 194, female - [Brazil] “Espirito Santo” (lectotype São Paulo). - Richards, 1941, Proc. R. Ent. Soc. London (B) 10: 127 (in subgenus Megacanthopus, surinamensis group); 1945, Trans. R. Ent. Soc. London 95: 320 (key), 438, fig. 98 (in subgenus Megacanthopus, surinamensis group). - Zikán, 1949, Bol. Parq. Nac. Itatiaia 1: 20 (key), 87, figs. 47, 184, 288, 344. - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 391 (key), 404 (designation of lectotype; syn.: M. flaveolus Zikán; in subgenus Haplometrobius). - Almeida and Castro, 1991, Acta Biol. Par., Curitiba 20: 49 (coll. list). Mischocyttarus garbei var. garbei; Richards, 1945, Trans. R. Ent. Soc. London 95: 320 (key), 438 (in subgenus Megacanthopus, surinamensis group). Mischocyttarus flaveolus Zikán, 1949, Bol. Parq. Nac. Itatiaia 1: 20 (key), 89, female - [Brazil] “Estado do Espírito Santo” (São Paulo). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 404 (syn. of M. garbei Zikán). Distr.: Brazil: Espírito Santo, Rio de Janeiro. giffordi Raw Mischocyttarus giffordi Raw, 1985, Rev. Bras. Ent. 29: 107, figs. 1-8, female, male - [Brazil] “Olho de água da Onça, Fazenda água Limpa...Brasília, D. F.” (holotype female Rio de Janeiro). - Cooper, 1998, Ent. Mon. Mag. 134: 293 (characters). Distr.: Brazil: D. F. hoffmanni Zikán Mischocyttarus hoffmanni Zikán, 1949, Bol. Parq. Nac. Itatiaia 1: 19 (key), 86, figs. 46, 183, female - [Brazil] “Rio Laeisse, próximo a Nova Bremen, Estado de Santa Catarina” (lectotype Inst. Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro); also from Rio Grande do Sul and São Paulo. - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 390 (key), 403 (designation of lectotype; in subgenus Haplometrobius). Distr.: Brazil: Santa Catarina, São Paulo. ignotus Zikan Mischocyttarus ignotus Zikán, 1949, Bol. Parq. Nac. Itatiaia 1: 20 (key), 91, fig. 49, female - “Franca, Estado S. Paulo, Brasil” (Inst. Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 390 (key), 403 (in subgenus Haplometrobius). - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 361 (Colombia: Valle; list). Distr.: Colombia (?): Meta, Putumayo, Valle; Brazil: Rio Grande do Sul, Rio de Janeiro (?), São Paulo. iheringi Zikán Mischocyttarus iheringi Zikán, 1935, Arq. Inst. Biol. Veget. 1 (3): 154 (key), 177, figs. 41, 43, 47, pl. 1 fig. 6, female, male, nest - [Brazil] “Südhang des Itatiaya, ...700 bis 1100 m ü. d. M.” (lectotype male Inst. Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro). - Richards, 1941, Proc. R. Ent. Soc. London (B) 10: 127 (in subgenus Megacanthopus, iheringi group); 1945, Trans. R. Ent. Soc. London 95: 321 (key), 440, fig. 102 (in subgenus Megacanthopus, artifex group). - W. Zikán and Wydodzinsky, 1948, Bol. Serv. Nac. Pesq. Agron. 4: 74 (list). - Zikán, 1949, Bol. Parq. Nac. Itatiaia 1: 22 (key), 107, 236 (“host” of iheringoides n. sp.), figs. 60-61, 363-364. - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 394 (key), 421 (designation of lectotype; syn. M. iheringoides Zikán; in subgenus Haplometrobius). - Cooper, 1998, Ent. Mon. Mag. 134: 293 (characters). - Colomo and Berta, 2005, Rev. Soc. Entomol. Argent. 64: 80 (note on types). Mischocyttarus iheringoides Zikán, 1949, Bol. Parq. Nac. Itatiaia 1: 236, locality not stated - (lectotype male Inst. Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 421 (designation of lectotype, from Itatiaia; syn. of M. iheringi Zikán). Distr.: Brazil: Rio de Janeiro. illusorius Richards Mischocyttarus illusorius Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 396 (key), 432, female (in subgenus Haplometrobius) - “PERU: Cuzco, Rio Urubamba, Santa Ana, 1100 m” (London). - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 362 (Colombia: Nariño, Putumayo; list). - Cooper, 1998, Ent. Mon. Mag. 134: 293, 295 (key; in artifex group). - Silveira, 2004, Rev. Bras. Entomol. 48 (3): 336 (in cerberus group), 338 (key). Distr.: Colombia: Nariño, Putumayo; Peru: Cuzco. interjectus Zikán Mischocyttarus interjectus Zikán, 1935, Arq. Inst. Biol. Veget. 1 (3): 154 (key), 175, figs. 39-40, pl. 3 fig. 4, female, nest - [Brazil] “Gelände der Fazenda ‘Valparaizo’ (etwa 550 m. Seehöhe)” (Inst. Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro); 1949, Bol. Parq. Nac. Itatiaia 1: 18 (key), 80, 236 (“host” of interjectoides n. sp.), figs. 42, 180, 365. - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 396 (key), 433 (syn.: M. interjectoides Zikán; in subgenus Haplometrobius). Mischocyttarus interjectoides Zikán, 1949, Bol. Parq. Nac. Itatiaia 1: 236, sex and locality not stated (lectotype male Inst. Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 433 (designation of lectotype, from Itatiaia; syn. of M. interjectus Zikán). Distr.: Brazil: Rio de Janeiro. interruptus Richards Mischocyttarus interruptus Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 395 (key), 426, female (in subgenus Haplometrobius) - “BRAZIL: probably Amazonas, Rio Autaz” (Stockholm). - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 362 (Colombia; list). - Cooper, 1998, Ent. Mon. Mag. 134: 295 (key), 301 (mimicry), 304 (in artifex group; variation; male; nest; Colombia; Peru). Distr.: Colombia: Amazona; Peru: Loreto; Brazil: Amazonas. lemoulti (du Buysson) Megacanthopus Le Moulti du Buysson, 1908, Rev. Ent., Caen 27: 217, male - “Guyane française: Nouveau chantier du Bas Maroni” (Paris). Mischocyttarus lemoulti; Bequaert, 1944, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 94: 262 (list). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 390 (key), 398 (in subgenus Haplometrobius). Distr.: Guyana; French Guiana. leucoecus Cooper Mischocyttarus leucoecus Cooper, 1998, Ent. Mon. Mag. 134: 293, 296 (key), 301, fig. 4, male, female, nest (in subgenus Haplometrobius, artifex species group) - “COLOMBIA: Putumayo, Mocoa 600m” (holotype male London); also from 500 m and another locality in Putumayo; and Ecuador. Distr.: Colombia: Putumayo; Ecuador: Pastaza. longicornis Zikán Mischocyttarus “longicornis Zikán nov. spec.” Weyrauch, 1943, Bol. Mus. Hist. Nat. Javier Prado 7: 68. Nomen nudum. Mischocyttarus longicornis Zikán, 1949, Bol. Parq. Nac. Itatiaia 1: 22 (key), 110, figs. 63, 195-196, 384, female, male - “Oxapampa, 1.700 m, Peru” (lectotype male Inst. Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 393 (key), 419 (designation of lectotype; in subgenus Haplometrobius). Distr.: Peru: Pasco. macarenae Cooper Mischocyttarus macarenae Cooper, 1998, Ent. Mon. Mag. 134: 90, female, nest (in subgenus Haplometrobius, iheringi group) - “COLOMBIA: Meta, La Macarena” (London). Distr.: Colombia: Meta. maculipennis Cooper Mischocyttarus maculipennis Cooper, 1998, Ent. Mon. Mag. 134: 295, 296 (key), 303, female (in subgenus Haplometrobius, artifex species group) - “COLOMBIA: Putumayo, Villa Garzón 400m” (London). Distr.: Colombia: Putumayo. melanoleucus Richards Mischocyttarus melanoleucus Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 392 (key), 410, female (in subgenus Haplometrobius) - “PERU: Loreto, Cordillera Azul, Previsto, 850 m” (London); also from Pucallpa. Distr.: Peru: Loreto. melanoxanthus Richards Mischocyttarus melanoxanthus Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 391 (key), 405, fig. 118, female (in subgenus Haplometrobius) - “BRAZIL: Mato Grosso, camp site 12°50’S, 51°47’W” (London). - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 361 (Colombia: Amazonas, Magdalena, Meta, Putumayo; list). Distr.: Colombia: Amazonas, Magdalena, Meta, Putumayo; Peru: Cuzco; Brazil: Goiás, Mato Grosso; Bolivia: Beni. mendax Richards Mischocyttarus mendax Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 390 (key), 398, female (in subgenus Haplometrobius) - “FRENCH GUIANA: Alicot-Oyapock” (Paris). - Cooper, 1996, Ent. Mon. Mag. 132: 24 (characters); 1996, Ent. Mon. Mag. 132: 273 (new species group), 274 (key), 279 (notes on holotype), fig. 6. Distr.: French Guiana. minifoveatus Cooper Mischocyttarus minifoveatus Cooper, 1998, Ent. Mon. Mag. 134: 89, female, nest (in subgenus Haplometrobius) - “PERU: Junin, Quebrada Mala Noche c. 10 km east of San Ramon, 1,000-1,300 m” (London); 1998, Ent. Mon. Mag. 134: 301 (mimicry). Distr.: Peru: Junin. mirificus Zikán Mischocyttarus mirificus Zikán, 1935, Arq. Inst. Biol. Veget. 1 (3): 154 (key), 169, figs. 29, 31, 36, 38, pl. 2 fig. 1, female, male, nest - [Brazil] “Südabhang des Itatiayagebirges, 700 m.” (lectotype male Inst. Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro). - W. Zikán and Wydodzinsky, 1948, Bol. Serv. Nac. Pesq. Agron. 4: 75 (list). - Zikán, 1949, Bol. Parq. Nac. Itatiaia 1: 17 (key), 68, figs. 25-27, 175, 284, 301, 339. - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 395 (key), 428 (designation of lectotype; in subgenus Haplometrobius). - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 362 (Colombia; list). - Cooper, 1998, Ent. Mon. Mag. 134: 293 (characters). - Silveira, 2004, Rev. Bras. Entomol. 48 (3): 336 (in artifex group). Distr.: Colombia: Putumayo; Peru: Loreto; Brazil: Rio de Janeiro. montivagus Cooper Mischocyttarus montivagus Cooper, 1996, Ent. Mon. Mag. 132: 273 (key), 277, fig. 4, female, male, nest (in subgenus Haplometrobius, mendax species group) - “PERU: Pasco, Villa Rica, 1,500 m” (holotype female London); also from Bolivia. Distr.: Peru: Pasco; Bolivia: La Paz. moronae Cooper Mischocyttarus moronae Cooper, 1996, Ent. Mon. Mag. 132: 273 (key), 277, figs. 10-11, female (in subgenus Haplometrobius, mendax species group) - “ECUADOR: Morona-Santiago, Cordillera de Cutucu 6 km E. of Macas, 1,100 m” (London); also from Tungurahua. Distr.: Ecuador: Morona-Santiago, Tungurahua. narinensis Cooper Mischocyttarus narinensis Cooper, 1998, Ent. Mon. Mag. 134: 293, 295 (key), 297, figs. 1-2, 8, male, female, nest (in subgenus Haplometrobius, artifex species group) - “COLOMBIA: Nariño, Barbacoas (50m)” (holotype male London). - Silveira, 2004, Rev. Bras. Entomol. 48 (3): 336 (in cerberus group), 338 (key). Distr.: Colombia: Nariño. naumanni Richards Mischocyttarus naumanni Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 393 (key), 418, female, male (in subgenus Haplometrobius) - “ECUADOR: Napo, Limoncocha, 00°24’S, 76°36’W” (holotype female London). - Cooper, 1998, Ent. Mon. Mag. 134: 90 (note on male), 92 (in iheringi group; nest; Colombia), fig. 1. Distr.: Colombia: Caqueta, Putumayo; Ecuador: Napo. nigroclavatus Zikán Mischocyttarus nigroclavatus Zikán, 1949, Bol. Parq. Nac. Itatiaia 1: 20 (key), 92, fig. 50, male, female - “San José da Costa Rica” (lectotype male Inst. Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 397 (key), 435 (designation of lectotype; in subgenus Haplometrobius). - West-Eberhard et al., 1995, Hym. Costa Rica: 585 (Costa Rica). - Cooper, 1998, Ent. Mon. Mag. 134: 296 (key), 305 (in artifex group; nest; Colombia; female from Panama recorded as synoecus by Richards, 1945, is this species). Distr.: Costa Rica; Panama; Colombia: Nariño. nigropygialis Zikán Mischocyttarus “nigropygialis Zikán nov. spec.” Weyrauch, 1943, Bol. Mus. Hist. Nat. Javier Prado 7: 68. Nomen nudum. Mischocyttarus nigropygialis Zikán, 1949, Bol. Parq. Nac. Itatiaia 1: 23 (key), 111, figs. 197, 368, female - “Oxapampa, 1.300 m, Peru” (Inst. Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 394 (key), 420 (in subgenus Haplometrobius). - Cooper, 1998, Ent. Mon. Mag. 134: 301 (nigropygidialis [!]; mimicry). Distr.: Peru: Junín, Pasco. nomurae Richards Mischocyttarus nomurae Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 396 (key), 430, female, nest (in subgenus Haplometrobius) - “BRAZIL: CE, Fortaleza” (São Paulo). - Silveira, 2004, Rev. Bras. Entomol. 48 (3): 335, figs. 1-5 (male; in cerberus group; Brazil: Bahia), 338 (key). Distr.: Brazil: Ceará, Bahia. occultus Cooper Mischocyttarus occultus Cooper, 1996, Ent. Mon. Mag. 132: 274 (key), 277, figs. 3, 9, female, male, larva, nest (in subgenus Haplometrobius, mendax species group) - “ECUADOR: Morona-Santiago, Cordillera de Cutucu 6 km E. of Macas, 1,100 m” (holotype female London). Distr.: Ecuador: Morona-Santiago. oecothrix Richards Mischocyttarus oecothrix Richards, 1940, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (11) 5: 180, female, male - “British Guiana: Potaro Valley, Kaieteur savanna” (holotype female London); also from two other localities in Guyana; 1941, Proc. R. Ent. Soc. London (B) 10: 128 (in subgenus Megacanthopus, artifex group). - Bequaert, 1944, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 94: 263 (list). - Richards, 1945, Trans. R. Ent. Soc. London 95: 321 (key), 448, figs. 107, 111, 119, pl. 2 figs. 140, 152 (in subgenus Megacanthopus, artifex group); 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 396 (key), 434 (in subgenus Haplometrobius). - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 362 (Colombia; list). - Cooper, 1998, Ent. Mon. Mag. 134: 296 (key), 306 (in artifex group). Distr.: Colombia: Nariño; Guyana; Peru: Junín (?)*; Brazil: Amazonas*. ornatus Zikán Mischocyttarus “ornatus Zikán nov. spec.” Weyrauch, 1943, Bol. Mus. Hist. Nat. Javier Prado 7: 68. Nomen nudum. Mischocyttarus ornatus Zikán, 1949, Bol. Parq. Nac. Itatiaia 1: 22 (key), 109, figs. 62, 193-194, 366, male, female - “Oreja de Capello, 1.600 m., Peru” (lectotype male Inst. Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 394 (key), 421 (designation of lectotype; in subgenus Haplometrobius). - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 362 (Colombia: Caquetá; list). - Cooper, 1998, Ent. Mon. Mag. 134: 91-92 (in iheringi group; compared to chanchamayoensis Richards; nest; Peru; Bolivia); 1998, Ent. Mon. Mag. 134: 300 (note on nest). Distr.: Colombia: Caquetá; Peru: Junín; Bolivia: La Paz. pallidus Zikán Mischocyttarus surinamensis; Zikán, 1935, Arq. Inst. Biol. Veget. 1 (3): 154 (key), 193. Mischocyttarus pallidus Zikán, 1949, Bol. Parq. Nac. Itatiaia 1: 23 (key), 116, fig. 202, female - [Brazil] “Manaus” (São Paulo). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 390 (key), 402 (in subgenus Haplometrobius). Distr.: Peru: Loreto (?); Brazil: Amazonas. paulistanus Zikán Mischocyttarus paulistanus Zikán, 1935, Arq. Inst. Biol. Veget. 1 (3): 154 (key), 176, female - [Brazil] “Villa Emma, Staat S. Paulo” (São Paulo); 1949, Bol. Parq. Nac. Itatiaia 1: 21 (key), 99, fig. 56. - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 391 (key), 407 (designation of lectotype; in subgenus Haplometrobius). - Carpenter, 1999, Am. Mus. Novitat. 3259: 22 (note on type). Mischocyttarus confusus; Richards, 1945, Trans. R. Ent. Soc. London 95: 434 [partim]. Misidentification. Distr.: Brazil: Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo. peruanus Zikán Mischocyttarus “peruanus Zikán nov. spec.” Weyrauch, 1943, Bol. Mus. Hist. Nat. Javier Prado 7: 68. Nomen nudum. Mischocyttarus peruanus Zikán, 1949, Bol. Parq. Nac. Itatiaia 1: 20 (key), 94, figs. 51, 186, male - “Santa Ana, 1.100 m, Peru” (Inst. Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 391 (key), 406 (in subgenus Haplometrobius). - Silveira, 2004, Rev. Bras. Entomol. 48 (3): 336 (in cerberus group), 338 (key; probable syn. of M. cerberus). Distr.: Peru: Cuzco. peruviensis Richards Mischocyttarus peruviensis Richards, 1945, Trans. R. Ent. Soc. London 95: 321 (key), 451, figs. 114, 117, female (in subgenus Megacanthopus, artifex group) - “PERU: Col. Perene, El Campamiento” (Cambridge); also from Bolivia: Santa Cruz; 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 396 (key), 429 (in subgenus Haplometrobius). - Cooper, 1998, Ent. Mon. Mag. 134: 295 (key), 301 (mimicry), 304 (in artifex group; additional description; male; nest; Colombia; Ecuador; Peru; Bolivia), fig. 11. Distr.: Colombia: Putumayo, Amazonas; Ecuador: Morona- Santiago; Peru: Junín, Pasco; Bolivia: Cochabamba, Santa Cruz. polymorphus Cooper Mischocyttarus polymorphus Cooper, 1998, Ent. Mon. Mag. 134: 296 (key), 299, figs. 3, 5, 9, male, female, nest (in subgenus Haplometrobius, artifex species group) - “COLOMBIA: Putumayo, Mocoa (500m)” (holotype male London); also from two other localities in Putumayo; and Caquetá; Amazonas. Distr.: Colombia: Putumayo, Caquetá, Amazonas. prominulus Richards Mischocyttarus prominulus Richards, 1941, Proc. R. Ent. Soc. London (B) 10: 127 (key), 129, female, male (in subgenus Megacanthopus, prominulus group) - “BRITISH GUIANA: Mazaruni R., Kartabo” (holotype female London); also from Bolivia. - Bequaert, 1944, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 94: 263 (list). - Richards, 1945, Trans. R. Ent. Soc. London 95: 320 (key), 425, figs. 89, 92, pl. 1 fig. 133 (in subgenus Megacanthopus, prominulus group). - Zikán, 1949, Bol. Parq. Nac. Itatiaia 1: 22 (key), 104. - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 392 (key), 412, fig. 120 (in subgenus Haplometrobius). - Raw, 1989, Maracá Rainfor. Proj., Invert. Limnol., Prelim. Rep.: 30 (Brazil), 37 (distr.); 1989, Maracá Rainfor. Proj., Invert. Limnol., Prelim. Rep.: 41 (habitat preference). Mischocyttarus prominulus var. prominulus; Richards, 1945, Trans. R. Ent. Soc. London 95: 321 (key). Distr.: Guyana; French Guiana*; Ecuador: Napo; Brazil: Amazonas, Pará, Roraima; Bolivia. reclusus Cooper Mischocyttarus reclusus Cooper, 1996, Ent. Mon. Mag. 132: 274 (key), 278, figs. 7, 14, female, larva, nest (in subgenus Haplometrobius, mendax species group) - “COLOMBIA: Caqueta, Yurayacu (73 km S.W. of Florencia), 350-500 m” (London); also from Putumayo. Distr.: Colombia: Caqueta, Putumayo. reflexicollis Zikán Mischocyttarus “reflexicollis Zikán nov. spec.” Weyrauch, 1943, Bol. Mus. Hist. Nat. Javier Prado 7: 69. Nomen nudum. Mischocyttarus reflexicollis Zikán, 1949, Bol. Parq. Nac. Itatiaia 1: 22 (key), 104, fig. 362, female - “Tingo Maria, 700 m, Rio Huallaga, Peru” (lectotype Inst. Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 393 (key), 416 (designation of lectotype; in subgenus Haplometrobius). - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 362 (Colombia: Amazonas, Putumayo; list). - Cooper, 1998, Ent. Mon. Mag. 134: 293, 296 (key), 306 (in artifexgroup; Colombia; Ecuador; Bolivia). Distr.: Colombia: Amazonas, Putumayo; Ecuador: Morona-Santiago; Peru: Huánuco; Bolivia: Cochabamba. saussurei Zikán Mischocyttarus saussurei Zikán, 1949, Bol. Parq. Nac. Itatiaia 1: 21 (key), 98, figs. 54-55, 189-190, female, male - [Brazil] “Ipiranga, São Paulo” (holotype female São Paulo). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 393 (key), 417 (in subgenus Haplometrobius). - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 362 (Colombia: Caquetá; list). - Cooper, 1998, Ent. Mon. Mag. 134: 90 (male identified by Richards as saussurei may be macarenae n. sp.). Distr.: Brazil: São Paulo. schadei Zikán Mischocyttarus schadei Zikán, 1949, Bol. Parq. Nac. Itatiaia 1: 17 (key), 70, figs. 30-31, 303, male - “Hohenau, Alto Paraná, Paraguai” (Inst. Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 395 (key), 423 (in subgenus Haplometrobius). - Garcete-Barrett, 1999, Avispas Soc. Parag.: 25 (key, fig. 9a), 27. - Silveira, 2004, Rev. Bras. Entomol. 48 (3): 336 (belongs to artifex group). Distr.: Brazil: Minas Gerais (?); Paraguay: Itapúa. silvicola Zikán Mischocyttarus “silvicola Zikán nov. spec.” Weyrauch, 1943, Bol. Mus. Hist. Nat. Javier Prado 7: 68. Nomen nudum. Mischocyttarus silvicola Zikán, 1949, Bol. Parq. Nac. Itatiaia 1: 23 (key), 115, figs. 65, 201, 290, female, male - “Valle do Chanchamayo, 800 e 1.200 m, (Peru)” (lectotype male Inst. Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 392 (key), 409, fig. 119 (designation of lectotype; in subgenus Haplometrobius). - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 361 (Colombia: Amazonas, Caquetá, Meta, Putumayo, Vaupés; list). Distr.: Colombia: Amazonas, Caquetá, Meta, Putumayo, Vaupés; Ecuador: Napo; Peru: Junín, Loreto; Bolivia: Cochabamba. souzalopesi Zikán Mischocyttarus souza-lopesi Zikán, 1949, Bol. Parq. Nac. Itatiaia 1: 19 (key), 85, figs. 45, 182, male not female - “Ilha Sêca, Estado de S. Paulo (Brasil)” (lectotype male Inst. Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro); also from Goiás [misidentification of female]. - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 392 (key), 408 (in subgenus Haplometrobius). Distr.: Brazil: São Paulo. surinamensis occidentalis Richards Mischocyttarus surinamensis var. occidentalis Richards, 1945, Trans. R. Ent. Soc. London 95: 320 (key), 435 (in subgenus Megacanthopus, surinamensis group) - “BRITISH GUIANA: R. Potaro, Kaieteur Plateau, Tukeit trail, high forest” (holotype female London); also from three other localities. Mischocyttarus surinamensis occidentalis; Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 390 (key), 402 (in subgenus Haplometrobius). Distr.: Trinidad; Guyana. surinamensis surinamensis (de Saussure) Polybia surinamensis de Saussure, 1854, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2: 200, female, male (in division My) - “Surinam, le Brésil” (Paris). - Smith, 1857, Cat. Hym. Ins. Coll. Brit. Mus. 5, Vesp.: 130. - de Saussure, 1867, Reise Novara, Zool. 2 (1), Hym.: 21 (Brazil: Rio de Janeiro). - Fox, 1898, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad.: 448 (Brazil: Amazonas, Rio de Janeiro) [partim]. - Dalla Torre, 1894, Cat. Hym. 9: 166 (cat.); 1904, Gen. Ins. 19: 78 (cat.). - Schulz, 1904 (1903), Sber. Akad. Bayer. Wiss. 33: 802 (Brazil: Amazonas). - Carpenter and van der Vecht, 1991, Ann. Carnegie Mus. 60 (3): 215 (note on material seen by Fox). - Carpenter, 1999, Am. Mus. Novitat. 3259: 23 (notes on types). Megacanthopus surinamensis; Ducke, 1904, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, Pará 4: 360 (key), 361 (Brazil); 1905, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, Pará: 654; 1906, Rev. Ent., Caen 25: 10 (Brazil); 1908, Rev. Ent., Caen 27: 86 (Brazil); 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 541. Mischocyttarus surinamensis; Ducke, 1918, Rev. Mus. Paul. 10: 354 [partim]. - da Fonseca, 1926, Rev. Mus. Paul. 14: 181 (compared to ypiranguensis n. sp.). - Vesey-Fitzgerald, 1939, Proc. R. Ent. Soc. London (A) 14: 104-105 (mimicry). - Richards, 1940, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (11) 5: 182; 1941, Proc. R. Ent. Soc. London (B) 10: 127 (in subgenus Megacanthopus, surinamensis group). - Bequaert, 1944, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 94: 263 (list). - Richards, 1945, Trans. R. Ent. Soc. London 95: 320 (key), 436, figs. 94, 97, 100, pl. 2 figs. 142-143 (in subgenus Megacanthopus, surinamensis group). - Zikán, 1949, Bol. Parq. Nac. Itatiaia 1: 20 (key), 89, figs. 48, 185, 289, 345. - Overal, 1978, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.), Zool. 94: 10 (list). - Raw, 1988, Entomologist 107: 106 (role in agriculture). Mischocyttarus surinamensis var. surinamensis; Richards, 1945, Trans. R. Ent. Soc. London 95: 320 (key), 436 (in subgenus Megacanthopus, surinamensis group). Mischocyttarus surinamensis surinamensis; Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 390 (key), 401 (in subgenus Haplometrobius). - Raw, 1989, Maracá Rainfor. Proj., Invert. Limnol., Prelim. Rep.: 37 (Brazil; distr.); 1989, Maracá Rainfor. Proj., Invert. Limnol., Prelim. Rep.: 41, 42 (habitat preference). - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 361 (Colombia: Amazonas, Arauca, Meta, Nariño, Vaupés; list). Distr.: Colombia: Amazonas, Arauca, Meta, Nariño, Vaupés; Guyana; Suriname; French Guiana; Ecuador: Napo; Peru: Junín, Loreto; Brazil: Acre, Amazonas, Ceará, Maranhão, Mato Grosso, Pará, Rio de Janeiro, Rondônia, Roraima; Bolivia (?). sylvestris Richards Mischocyttarus sylvestris Richards, 1945, Trans. R. Ent. Soc. London 95: 320 (key), 430, figs. 99, 101, pl. 1 fig. 120, female, male, nest (in subgenus Megacanthopus, surinamensis group) - “BRITISH GUIANA: Essequibo R., Moraballi Creek, dark forest” (holotype female London); 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 390 (key), 397 (in subgenus Haplometrobius). - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 361 (Colombia: Arauca; list). Distr.: Colombia: Arauca; Guyana. synoecus Richards Polybia surinamensis; Fox, 1898, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad.: 448 [partim]. Mischocyttarus synoecus Richards, 1940, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (11) 5: 181, female, male - “British Guiana: Potaro R., Amatuk” (holotype female London); also from another locality in Guyana; and Panama; Brazil; 1941, Proc. R. Ent. Soc. London (B) 10: 128 (in subgenus Megacanthopus, surinamensis group). - Bequaert, 1944, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 94: 263 (list). - Richards, 1945, Trans. R. Ent. Soc. London 95: 321 (key), 450, figs. 108, 112, 116, 118, pl. 2 figs. 144-146 (in subgenus Megacanthopus, artifex group). - Zikán, 1949, Bol. Parq. Nac. Itatiaia 1: 20 (key), 91. - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 396 (key), 435 (in subgenus Haplometrobius). - Carpenter and van der Vecht, 1991, Ann. Carnegie Mus. 60 (3): 215 (note on material seen by Fox). - Almeida and Castro, 1991, Acta Biol. Par., Curitiba 20: 50 (coll. list). - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 362 (Colombia; list). - Cooper, 1998, Ent. Mon. Mag. 134: 296 (key), 300 (note on nest), 305 (female from Panama recorded as synoecus by Richards, 1945, is nigroclavatus), 306 (in artifex group; Colombia; Peru; Bolivia). Distr.: Guyana; Colombia: Amazonas, Caquetá, Nariño, Putumayo; Ecuador: Napo (?); Peru: Loreto; Brazil: Amazonas, Pará; Bolivia: Pando, Santa Cruz. tectus Cooper Mischocyttarus tectus Cooper, 1996, Ent. Mon. Mag. 132: 274, figs. 1, 8, 12-13, female, nest (in subgenus Haplometrobius, mendax species group) - “COLOMBIA: Putumayo, Alto Afan, 7 km west of Mocoa, 600 m” (London); also from two other localities in Putumayo; and Peru. Distr.: Colombia: Putumayo; Peru: Huánuco. tenuis Richards Mischocyttarus prominulus var. tenuis Richards, 1945, Trans. R. Ent. Soc. London 95: 321 (key), 427, fig. 90, female (in subgenus Megacanthopus, prominulus group) - “PERU: Dept. Cuzco” (Berlin). Mischocyttarus tenuis; Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 392 (key), 413 (in subgenus Haplometrobius). - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 361 (Colombia: Meta, Putumayo; list). Distr.: Colombia: Meta, Putumayo; Ecuador: Napo; Peru: Cuzco, Huánuco; Brazil: Pará. tertius Richards Mischocyttarus tertius Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 396 (key), 431, female (in subgenus Haplometrobius) - “BRAZIL: Mato Grosso, base camp 12°50’S, 51°47’W” (London). - Cooper, 1998, Ent. Mon. Mag. 134: 293 (characters). Distr.: Brazil: Mato Grosso. thrypticus Richards Mischocyttarus thrypticus Richards, 1945, Trans. R. Ent. Soc. London 95: 321 (key), 451, fig. 113, female, male (in subgenus Megacanthopus, artifex group) - “PARAGUAY: Alto Parana” (holotype female Cambridge); 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 396 (key), 430 (in subgenus Haplometrobius). - Cooper, 1998, Ent. Mon. Mag. 134: 293 (characters). - Garcete-Barrett, 1999, Avispas Soc. Parag.: 25 (key, fig. 9aa), 27. Distr.: Paraguay: Alto Paraná. travassosi Zikán Mischocyttarus travassosi Zikán, 1949, Bol. Parq. Nac. Itatiaia 1: 19 (key), 82, fig. 181, female, male - [Brazil] “Rio de Janeiro, D. F.” (lectotype male Inst. Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 394 (key), 422 (designation of lectotype; in subgenus Haplometrobius). Distr.: Brazil: Rio de Janeiro. tricolor Richards Mischocyttarus garbei var. tricolor Richards, 1945, Trans. R. Ent. Soc. London 95: 320 (key), 439, female (in subgenus Megacanthopus, surinamensis group) - “BRAZIL: Matto Grosso, Maracajú” (Cambridge). - Zikán, 1949, Bol. Parq. Nac. Itatiaia 1: 218. Mischocyttarus tricolor; Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 390 (key), 400. - Garcete-Barrett, 1999, Avispas Soc. Parag.: 25 (key), 27 (? Paraguay). Distr.: Brazil: Goiás, Mato Grosso, São Paulo; ? Paraguay: Paraguarí, San Pedro, Canindeyú; Argentina: Misiones. tunari Cooper Mischocyttarus tunari Cooper, 1996, Ent. Mon. Mag. 132: 274 (key), 279, fig. 5, female, male (in subgenus Haplometrobius, mendax species group) - “BOLIVIA: Cochabamba, Villa Tunari, 400 m” (holotype female London). Distr.: Bolivia: Cochabamba. undulatus (Ducke) Megacanthopus undulatus Ducke, 1905, Rev. Ent. 24: 21, female, male - [Brazil] “du poste brésilien sur l’Oyapoc (Etat du Pará)” (lectotype male Belém); also from Amazonas (Teffé). - Overal, 1978, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.), Zool. 94: 6 (punctatus [!]; designation of lectotype), 10 (list). - Nascimento and Overal, 1979, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.) 95: 10 (list). - Carpenter, 1999, Am. Mus. Novitat. 3259: 23 (notes on type). Distr.: Colombia: Putumayo; Brazil: Amapá, Amazonas, Mato Grosso; Bolivia: Beni. vredeni Richards Mischocyttarus vredeni Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 393 (key), 417, female, male (in subgenus Haplometrobius) - “SURINAM: Santa Boma” (holotype female Leiden); also from two other localities in Suriname. - Kojima and van Achterberg, 1997, Zool. Med., Leiden 71: 159 (list). - Cooper, 1998, Ent. Mon. Mag. 134: 90 (note on male). Distr.: Suriname. weyrauchi Zikán Mischocyttarus “weyrauchi Zikán nov. spec.” Weyrauch, 1943, Bol. Mus. Hist. Nat. Javier Prado 7: 68. Nomen nudum. Mischocyttarus weyrauchi Zikán, 1949, Bol. Parq. Nac. Itatiaia 1: 23 (key), 113, figs. 64, 198-199, 369, female, male - “San Luiz, 800 m, Vale de Chanchamayo, Peru” (lectotype male Inst. Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 393 (key), 415 (designation of lectotype; in subgenus Haplometrobius). - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 362 (Colombia: Putumayo; list). - Cooper, 1998, Ent. Mon. Mag. 134: 93 (in iheringigroup; nest; Colombia; Bolivia); 1998, Ent. Mon. Mag. 134: 293 (characters). Distr.: Colombia: Putumayo; Ecuador: Napo; Peru: Huánuco, Junín; Bolivia: Beni. xanthocerus Richards Mischocyttarus garbei var. xanthocerus Richards, 1945, Trans. R. Ent. Soc. London 95: 320 (key), 439, female, male (in subgenus Megacanthopus, surinamensis group) - “Bolivia” (holotype female Berlin). - Zikán, 1949, Bol. Parq. Nac. Itatiaia 1: 219. Mischocyttarus xanthocerus; Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 391 (key), 405 (in subgenus Haplometrobius). - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 361 (list). Distr.: Panama; Colombia: Nariño, Putumayo; Peru: Huánuco; Bolivia: Beni. ypiranguensis da Fonseca Mischocyttarus ypiranguensis da Fonseca, 1926, Rev. Mus. Paul. 14: 181, pl. 1 figs. 1-2, male, female, nest - [Brazil] “Ypiranga” (lectotype male São Paulo). - Zikán, 1935, Arq. Inst. Biol. Veget. 1 (3): 154 (key), figs. 32, 34; 1949, Bol. Parq. Nac. Itatiaia 1: 17 (key), 69, figs. 28-29, 176, 285, 302, 340. - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 395 (key), 427 (designation of lectotype; in subgenus Haplometrobius). - Cooper, 1998, Ent. Mon. Mag. 134: 293 (characters).. - Silveira, 2004, Rev. Bras. Entomol. 48 (3): 336 (in artifex group). Distr.: Brazil: São Paulo. Subgenus Kappa de Saussure Kappa de Saussure, 1854, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2: 200, division V of subgenus Polybia of genus Polybia Lepeletier (8 species); at pl. 25: division of genus Polybia. Type species: Polybia injucunda de Saussure, 1854, by subsequent designation of Bequaert, 1933, Entomologica Am. 13: 112. Pseudopolybia H. von Ihering, 1896, Bull. Soc. Zool. Fr. 21: 159-162; Zool. Anz. 19: 452, genus (2 species). Junior homonym of Pseudopolybia de Saussure, 1863. Type species: “Polistes ignobilis Haliday, 1836 = Vespa atra Olivier, 1791” [= Polybia socialis de Saussure, 1854] by subsequent designation of Bequaert, 1933, Entomologica Am. 13: 112. acreanus Silveira Mischocyttarus acreanus Silveira, 2006, Zootaxa 1321: 4, 16 (key), 81, figs. 73, 75, female (in subgenus Kappa) - “Brazil, Acre, Rio Branco” (Belem). Distr.: Brazil: Acre. adolphi Zikán Megacanthopus frontalis; Ducke, 1907, Bol. Mus. Para. Emilo Goeldi 5: 189 [partim]. Mischocyttarus frontalis; Ducke, 1918, Rev. Mus. Paul. 10: 352 [partim]. Mischocyttarus duckei Zikán, 1935, Arq. Inst. Biol. Veget. 1 (3): 155 (key), 196, figs. 68, 70, 75, female - [Brazil] “Umgebung von Manáos (Rio Negro, Staat Amazonas)” (Inst. Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro). Junior secondary homonym of M. duckei (du Buysson, 1908). Mischocyttarus adolphi Zikán, 1949, Bol. Parq. Nac. Itatiaia 1: 37 (key), 192 [replacement name for duckei Zikán]. - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 289 (key), 295 (in subgenus Kappa). - Silveira, 2006, Zootaxa 1321: 3 (male), 14 (key), 53, figs. 51-53, 65 (in subgenus Kappa; Brazil). Distr.: Brazil: Amapá, Amazonas, Pará. anthracinus Richards Mischocyttarus frontalis var. anthracinus Richards, 1945, Trans. R. Ent. Soc. London 95: 312 (key), 345, fig. 41, female, male (in subgenus Kappa, ater group) - “PARAGUAY: Alto Parana, Hohenau” (holotype female Cambridge). Mischocyttarus anthracinus; Zikán, 1949, Bol. Parq. Nac. Itatiaia 1: 37 (key), 193, fig. 408. - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 290 (key), 296 (in subgenus Kappa). - Garcete-Barrett, 1999, Avispas Soc. Parag.: 26 (key, fig. 13a), 28. - Silveira, 2006, Zootaxa 1321: 14 (key), 59, figs. 56, 62-63 (in subgenus Kappa). Distr.: Paraguay: Itapúa. bertonii Ducke Polybia rufidens; Fox, 1898, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad.: 450 [partim]. Mischocyttarus injucundus bertonii Ducke, 1918, Rev. Mus. Paul. 10: 370, female, male - “Paraguay, Alto Paraná, Puerto Bertoni” (lectotype female Belém). - Overal, 1978, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.), Zool. 94: 5 (designation of lectotype). - Nascimento and Overal, 1979, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.) 95: 10 (list). Mischocyttarus metathoracicus var. picturatus Bequaert, 1938, Proc. R. Ent. Soc. London 7: 135 [partim]. Mischocyttarus injucundus var. bertonii; Richards, 1945, Trans. R. Ent. Soc. London 95: 313 (key), 351. Mischocyttarus bertonii; Zikán, 1949, Bol. Parq. Nac. Itatiaia 1: 38 (key), 194, fig. 129. - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 291 (key), 301 (in subgenus Kappa; Brazil). - Overal, 1978, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.), Zool. 94: 10 (list). - Carpenter and van der Vecht, 1991, Ann. Carnegie Mus. 60 (3): 216 (paratype of M. metathoracicus var. picturatus is this species). - Garcete-Barrett, 1999, Avispas Soc. Parag.: 26 (key, fig. 14aa), 28 (Paraguay). - Silveira, 2006, Zootaxa 1321: 17 (key), 98, figs. 81, 86 (in subgenus Kappa; Bolivia; Brazil). Distr.: Brazil: Mato Grosso do Sul, Rio Grande do Sul, São Paulo; Bolivia: Santa Cruz; Paraguay: Central, Cordillera, Paraguarí, Guairá, San Pedro, Concepción, Canindeyú, Alto Paraná. deceptus (Fox) Polybia decepta Fox, 1895, Proc. California Acad. Sci. (2) 5: 269, female - locality not stated [Mexico: Nayarit, Tepic] (San Francisco). - Dalla Torre, 1904, Gen. Ins. 19: 77 (cat.). - Bequaert, 1933, Entomologica Am. 13: 118 (syn. of M. ater (Olivier)). Mischocyttarus ater; Ducke, 1918, Rev. Mus. Paul. 10: 351, 369 [partim]. Mischocyttarus socialis; Bequaert, 1944 (1943), Ann. Ent. Soc. Am. 36: 721 [partim]. Mischocyttarus atrocyaneus Zikán, 1949, Bol. Parq. Nac. Itatiaia 1: 40 (key), 204, fig. 404, female - “San José da Costa Rica” (Inst. Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 290 (key), 297 (in subgenus Kappa). - Snelling, 1983, Pan-Pacif. Ent. 59: 275 (nest; Mexico; El Salvador; Panama). - West-Eberhard et al., 1995, Hym. Costa Rica: 585 (Costa Rica). - Rodríguez-Palafox, 1996, in Llorente-Bousquets et al., Biodiv. Taxon. Biogeogr. Artrópod. México: 482 (list). - Silveira, 2006, Zootaxa 1321: 45 (syn. of M. deceptus (Fox)). Mischocyttarus atramentarius; Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 298 [partim]. Mischocyttarus deceptus; Silveira, 2006, Zootaxa 1321: 4, 13 (key), 45 (syn.: M. atrocyaneus Zikán; in subgenus Kappa; male; Colombia; Costa Rica; Guatemala; Mexico; Panama). Distr.: Mexico: Chiapas, Guerrero, Jalisco, Nayarit, Oacaxa, Veracruz, Yucatán; Guatemala; El Salvador; Costa Rica; Panama; Colombia; Santander; Ecuador (?). efferus Silveira Polybia metathoracica; Fox, 1898, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad.: 449 (Brazil) [partim]. Mischocyttarus metathoracicus; Ducke, 1918, Rev. Mus. Paul. 10: 353 [partim]. Mischocyttarus efferus Silveira, 2006, Zootaxa 1321: 4, 16 (key), 78, figs. 70-71, 76, 78, female, male, nest (in subgenus Kappa) - “Brazil, Pará, I. do Marajó, P. de Pedras” (holotype female Belem); also from Maranhão; Rio de Janeiro; and Bolivia; Paraguay. Distr.: Paraguay; Bolivia: Cochabamba, Santa Cruz; Brazil: Maranhão, Minas Gerais, Pará, Rio de Janeiro. fidus Silveira Mischocyttarus fidus Silveira, 2006, Zootaxa 1321: 3, 14 (key), 58, figs. 57-61, male (in subgenus Kappa) - “Brazil, Pará, Bujarú” (London). Distr.: Brazil: Pará. fitzgeraldi Bequaert Mischocyttarus fitzgeraldi Bequaert, 1938, Proc. R. Ent. Soc. London 7: 134, female - “TRINIDAD” (London). - Vesey-Fitzgerald, 1939, Proc. R. Ent. Soc. London (A) 14: 105 (mimicry; nest). - Richards, 1941, Proc. R. Ent. Soc. London (B) 10: 125 (in subgenus Kappa, ater group), 128 (compared to tolensis n. sp.); 1945, Trans. R. Ent. Soc. London 95: 313 (key), 342, fig. 31 (in subgenus Kappa, ater group). - Zikán, 1949, Bol. Parq. Nac. Itatiaia 1: 38 (key), 197. - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 291 (key), 305 (in subgenus Kappa; nest; ethology). - Silveira, 2006, Zootaxa 1321: 15 (key), 64, fig. 38 (in subgenus Kappa). Distr.: Trinidad. flavoscutellatus Zikán Mischocyttarus flavoscutellatus Zikán, 1935, Arq. Inst. Biol. Veget. 1 (3): 155 (key), 198, figs. 76-77, female, nest - [Brazil:] “Itatiaya; S. Paulo” (lectotype São Paulo). - W. Zikán and Wydodzinsky, 1948, Bol. Serv. Nac. Pesq. Agron. 4: 74 (list). - Zikán, 1949, Bol. Parq. Nac. Itatiaia 1: 38 (key), 194, 236 (nest; “host” of flavoscutellatoides n. sp.), figs. 130, 279, 413. - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 292 (key), 306 (designation of lectotype; syn.: M. flavoscutellatoides Zikán; in subgenus Kappa). - Silveira, 2006, Zootaxa 1321: 15 (key) 75, figs. 69, 72 (in subgenus Kappa; Brazil). Mischocyttarus metathoracicus var. flavoscutellatus; Richards, 1945, Trans. R. Ent. Soc. London 95: 313 (key), 347, fig. 33 (in subgenus Kappa, ater group). Mischocyttarus flavoscutellatoides Zikán, 1949, Bol. Parq. Nac. Itatiaia 1: 236, sex and locality not stated (lectotype female Inst. Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 306 (designation of lectotype, from Itatiaia; syn. of M. flavoscutellatus Zikán). Distr.: Brazil: Minas Gerais, Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo. frontalis (Fox) Polybia frontalis Fox, 1898, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad.: 454, female, male - “Brazil ... Chapada” (lectotype female Pittsburgh). - Dalla Torre, 1904, Gen. Ins. 19: 77 (cat.). - Carpenter and van der Vecht, 1991, Ann. Carnegie Mus. 60 (3): 219 (designation of lectotype). Megacanthopus frontalis; Ducke, 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 540. Mischocyttarus frontalis; Ducke, 1918, Rev. Mus. Paul. 10: 352 [partim]. - Zikán, 1935, Arq. Inst. Biol. Veget. 1 (3): 155 (key). - Richards, 1941, Proc. R. Ent. Soc. London (B) 10: 125 (in subgenus Kappa, ater group); 1945, Trans. R. Ent. Soc. London 95: 312 (key), 344, fig. 32 (in subgenus Kappa, ater group) [partim, not var.]. - Zikán, 1949, Bol. Parq. Nac. Itatiaia 1: 38 (key), 195. - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 290 (key), 296 (in subgenus Kappa). - Overal, 1978, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.), Zool. 94: 10 (list). - Garcete-Barrett, 1999, Avispas Soc. Parag.: 26 (key), 28. - Silveira, 2006, Zootaxa 1321: 14 (key, fig. 13aa), 62 (in subgenus Kappa; nest; Brazil; Paraguay). Mischocyttarus frontalis var. frontalis; Richards, 1945, Trans. R. Ent. Soc. London 95: 312 (key), 345 (in subgenus Kappa, ater group) Distr.: Brazil: Goiás, Mato Grosso; Paraguay: San Pedro, Canindeyú. funerulus Zikán Mischocyttarus funerulus Zikán, 1949, Bol. Parq. Nac. Itatiaia 1: 38 (key), 197, 236 (“host” of funeruloides n. sp.), figs. 133, 402, female, male, nest - [Brazil:] “Itatiaia, 700 m” (lectotype female Inst. Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 290 (key), 299 (designation of lectotype; syn.: M. funeruloides Zikán; in subgenus Kappa). - Colomo and Berta, 2005, Rev. Soc. Entomol. Argent. 64: 80 (note on types). - Silveira, 2006, Zootaxa 1321: 18 (key), 69, figs. 40-41 (in subgenus Kappa; Brazil). Mischocyttarus funeruloides Zikán, 1949, Bol. Parq. Nac. Itatiaia 1: 236, sex and locality not stated - (lectotype female Inst. Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 299 (designation of lectotype, from Itatiaia; syn. of M. funerulus Zikán). Distr.: Brazil: Minas Gerais, Rio de Janeiro. imitator (Ducke) ? Vespa atra Olivier, 1792, Encyc. Méthod. 6 (2): 674 - [French Guiana:] “Cayenne” (type lost). Junior primary homonym of Vespa atra Gmelin, 1790. Megacanthopus imitator Ducke, 1904, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, Pará 4: 359 (key), 362, fig. a, pl. 1 fig. 5 (Polybia imitatrix [!]), female, male, nest - [Brazil:] “Belem do Pará” (lectotype female São Paulo); also from another locality; 1905, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, Pará 4: 689 (syn. of M. ater (Olivier, 1792)). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 296 (designation of lectotype). - Nascimento and Overal, 1979, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.) 95: 9 (list). - Carpenter, 1999, Am. Mus. Novitat. 3259: 21 (notes on types). Mischocyttarus ater var. uniformis Bequaert, 1938, Proc. R. Ent. Soc. London 7: 134, female - “TRINIDAD” (Cambridge). - Vesey-Fitzgerald, 1939, Proc. R. Ent. Soc. London (A) 14: 105. - Richards, 1945, Trans. R. Ent. Soc. London 95: 352, 354. - Zikán, 1949, Bol. Parq. Nac. Itatiaia 1: 206, figs. 405-406. - Silveira, 2006, Zootaxa 1321: 48 (syn. of M. imitator (Ducke)). Mischocyttarus socialis var. uniformis; Bequaert, 1944 (1943), Ann. Ent. Soc. Am. 36: 722. Mischocyttarus apicalis; Zikán, 1949, Bol. Parq. Nac. Itatiaia 1: 40 (key), 204, figs. 139, 281. Misidentification. Mischocyttarus goyanus Zikán, 1949, Bol. Parq. Nac. Itatiaia 1: 40 (key), 206, female - “Estado de Goiás, Brasil” (Inst. Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 290 (key), 297 (in subgenus Kappa). - Silveira, 2006, Zootaxa 1321: 49 (syn. of M. imitator Ducke). Mischocyttarus imitator; Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 290 (key), 296 (in subgenus Kappa). - Silveira, 2006, Zootaxa 1321: 13 (key), 48, figs. 43-47, 97 (syns.: M. ater var. undiformis Bequaert; in subgenus Kappa; Bolivia; Brazil; Peru; Venezuela). Mischocyttarus communalis Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 290 (key), 297, fig. 112, female (in subgenus Kappa) - “PERU: Junín, Col. Perene, El Campamiento” (London); also from Huánuco. - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 360 (Colombia: Arauca; list). - Silveira, 2006, Zootaxa 1321: 49 (syn. of M. imitator Ducke). Distr.: Panama; Colombia: Arauca, Nariño; Venezuela: Zulia; Trinidad; Suriname; French Guiana; Peru: Huánuco, Junín, Madre de Dios; Brazil: Amapá, Amazonas, D. F., Goiás, Maranhão, Mato Grosso, Minas Gerais, Pará, Rondônia; Bolivia: Beni, Santa Cruz. immarginatus Richards ? Mischocyttarus rufidens; Zikán, 1935, Arq. Inst. Biol. Veget. 1 (3): 155 (key). Mischocyttarus immarginatus Richards, 1940, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (11) 5: 182, male, female - “Mexico: N. Yucatan” (holotype female London); also from nine other localities in Mexico; and Nicaragua; 1941, Proc. R. Ent. Soc. London (B) 10: 125 (in subgenus Kappa, ater group); 1945, Trans. R. Ent. Soc. London 95: 312 (key), 355 (in subgenus Kappa, ater group). - Zikán, 1949, Bol. Parq. Nac. Itatiaia 1: 37 (key), 191, 236 (“host” of immarginatoides n. sp.), figs. 127, 277, 298. - Windsor, 1972, Biotropica 4: 1-3 (nesting associations; Costa Rica). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 289 (key), 293 (syn.: M. immarginatoides Zikán; in subgenus Kappa). - Gorton, 1978, Ins. Soc. 25: 197-204 (ethology; Costa Rica). - Snelling, 1983, Pan-Pacif. Ent. 59: 275 (immaginatus [!]; syn.: oaxacanus Zikán [error]). - Hunt, 1987, Chem. Biol. Soc. Ins.: 309 (larval trophallaxis); 1988, J. Ins. Behav. 1 (4): 379-386 (larval trophallaxis). - Starr, 1988, Biotropica 20: 171-173 (nesting associations). - Rodríguez-Palafox, 1988, Fol. Ent. Mex. 77: 500 (key), 506, fig. 4.2, 4.4. - Strassmann et al., 1989, Nature 342: 268-269(genetic relatedness). - Queller et al., 1992, J. Hym. Res. 1: 81-89 (genetic relatedness). - West-Eberhard et al., 1995, Hym. Costa Rica: 585 (Costa Rica). - London and Jeanne, 1996, Insect. Soc. 43 (2): 211-215 (ethology). - Rodríguez-Palafox, 1996, in Llorente-Bousquets et al., Biodiv. Taxon. Biogeogr. Artrópod. México: 482 (list). - Silveira, 2006, Zootaxa 1321: 11 (key), 20, figs. 1-3, 13, 15, 17 (in subgenus Kappa; Costa Rica; El Salvador; Honduras; Mexico). Mischocyttarus immarginatoides Zikán, 1949, Bol. Parq. Nac. Itatiaia 1: 236, figs. 352-353, locality not stated (holotype female Inst. Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 293 (syn. of M. immarginatusRichards; holotype is female, from Mexico: Yucatán, Chichenitza). Distr.: Mexico: Chiapas, Colima, Guerrero, Jalisco, Michoacán, Nayarit, Nuevo León, Oaxaca, Puebla, San Luis Potosí, Sinaloa, Sonora (?), Tamaulipas, Veracruz, Yucatán, Zacatecas; Guatemala; Honduras; El Salvador; Nicaragua; Costa Rica. injucundus (de Saussure) Polybia injucunda de Saussure, 1854, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2: 200, female (in division Kappa)- [Brazil:] “Le Para” (? lectotype Paris, syntypes Torino); 1855, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2.: pl. XXV fig. 8. - Smith, 1857, Cat. Hym. Ins. Coll. Brit. Mus. 5, Vesp.: 109. - Schulz, 1904 (1903), Sber. Akad. Bayer. Wiss. 33: 801 (male). - Dalla Torre, 1904, Gen. Ins. 19: 77 (cat.). - von Ihering, 1904, Rev. Mus. Paul. 6: 183. - Cameron, 1912, Timehri (3) 2: 208 (key), 211 (Guyana). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 302 (designation of lectotype [invalid?]); 1983, Err. Corr. Soc. Wasps Am. (correction of citation and label data in lectotype designation). - Carpenter, 1999, Am. Mus. Novitat. 3259: 21 (lectotype not found in Paris, syntypes should be in Torino). Megacanthopus injucundus; Ducke, 1904, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, Pará 4: 360 (key), 362; 1905, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, Pará 4: 689, pl. 4 fig. 22 (nest); 1907, Bol. Mus. Para. Emilo Goeldi 5: 189; 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 540. Polybia bimarginata Cameron, 1912, Timehri (3) 2: 211, female - locality not stated [Guyana] (lectotype London). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 303 (designation of lectotype). - Silveira, 2006, Zootaxa 1321: 92 (syn. of M. injucundus (de Saussure)). Mischocyttarus injucundus; Ducke, 1918, Rev. Mus. Paul. 10: 353. - Zikán, 1935, Arq. Inst. Biol. Veget. 1 (3): 155 (key), figs. 67, 71. - Vesey-Fitzgerald, 1939, Proc. R. Ent. Soc. London (A) 14: 105 (mimicry). - Richards, 1941, Proc. R. Ent. Soc. London (B) 10: 125 (in subgenus Kappa, ater group); 1945, Trans. R. Ent. Soc. London 95: 313 (key), 349, figs. 35, 42, pl. 1 figs. 134-135, pl. 4 figs. 183-184 (in subgenus Kappa, ater group). - Bequaert, 1944, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 94: 262 (typical form). - - Zikán, 1949, Bol. Parq. Nac. Itatiaia 1: 39 (key), 201, figs. 135-136, 403. - Overal, 1978, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.), Zool. 94: 10 (list). - Silveira, 2006, Zootaxa 1321: 17 (key), 92, figs. 5, 85, 87, 99-100 (syns.: M. injucundus bimarginatus (Cameron), M. injucundus tingomariae Richards, M. jucundus Richards, M. juruanus Richards; in subgenus Kappa; nest; Bolivia; Brazil; Colombia; Ecuador; Peru). Mischocyttarus injucundus bertonii; da Fonseca, 1926, Rev. Mus. Paul. 14: 175. Misidentification. Mischocyttarus “injucundus nov. var. occidentalis Zikán” Weyrauch, 1943, Bol. Mus. Hist. Nat. Javier Prado 7: 68. Nomen nudum. Mischocyttarus injucundus var. bimarginatus; Bequaert, 1944, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 94: 262. - Richards, 1945, Trans. R. Ent. Soc. London 95: 313 (key), 351, pl. 1 figs. 134-135, pl. 4, figs. 183-184 (in subgenus Kappa, ater group). Mischocyttarus injucundus var. injucundus; Richards, 1945, Trans. R. Ent. Soc. London 95: 313 (key), 350 (in subgenus Kappa, ater group) Mischocyttarus bimarginatus; Zikán, 1949, Bol. Parq. Nac. Itatiaia 1: 214. Mischocyttarus jucundus Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 291 (key), 301, female (in subgenus Kappa) - “BRAZIL: AM, Manaus” (Stockholm). - Silveira, 2006, Zootaxa 1321: 92 (syn. of M. injucundus (de Saussure)). Mischocyttarus juruanus Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 291 (key), 302, female (in subgenus Kappa) - “BRAZIL: AM, Rio Juruá” (São Paulo). - Silveira, 2006, Zootaxa 1321: 92 (syn. of M. injucundus (de Saussure)). Mischocyttarus injucundus injucundus; Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 291 (key), 303 (in subgenus Kappa). Mischocyttarus injucundus bimarginatus; Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 291 (key), 303 (in subgenus Kappa). - Raw, 1989, Maracá Rainfor. Proj., Invert. Limnol., Prelim. Rep.: 29 (nest; resemblance to Polybia rejecta; Brazil); 1989, Maracá Rainfor. Proj., Invert. Limnol., Prelim. Rep.: 41, 42 (habitat preference). Mischocyttarus injucundus tingomariae Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 291 (key), 304, female, male (in subgenus Kappa) - “PERU: Huánuco, Tingo Maria, 670 m” (holotype female London); also from other localities in Peru; and Colombia; Ecuador. - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 360 (list). - Silveira, 2006, Zootaxa 1321: 92 (syn. of M. injucundus (de Saussure)). Rhopalidia injucunda; Casolari and Casolari Moreno, 1979, Boll. Mus. Zool. Univ. Torino (4): 97 (list: syntypes in Torino). Distr.: Colombia: Amazonas, Putumayo; Ecuador: Napo; Peru: Apurimac, Huánuco, Junín, Loreto, Ucayali; Venezuela; Trinidad; Guyana; French Guiana*; Brazil: Amapá, Amazonas, Bahia (?), Maranhão, Pará, Roraima; Bolivia: Beni. latior (Fox) Polybia latior Fox, 1898, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad.: 451, female - [Brazil] “Chapada” (lectotype Pittsburgh). - Dalla Torre, 1904, Gen. Ins. 19: 77 (cat.). - von Ihering, 1904, Rev. Mus. Paul. 6: 196. - Ducke, 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 540, species dubiae. - Carpenter and van der Vecht, 1991, Ann. Carnegie Mus. 60 (3): 219 (designation of lectotype). Mischocyttarus latior; Richards, 1941, Proc. R. Ent. Soc. London (B) 10: 125 (in subgenus Kappa, ater group); 1945, Trans. R. Ent. Soc. London 95: 312 (key), 344 (in subgenus Kappa, ater group; ? syn.: M. villarricanus Zikán). - Zikán, 1949, Bol. Parq. Nac. Itatiaia 1: 213. - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 289 (key), 294 (in subgenus Kappa; nest). - Almeida and Castro, 1991, Acta Biol. Par., Curitiba 20: 49 (coll. list). - Garcete-Barrett, 2002 (2001), Bol. Mus. Nac. Hist. Nat. Parag. 13: 47 (Paraguay). - Silveira, 2006, Zootaxa 1321: 12 (key), 35, figs. 9-10, 12, 14, 19 (in subgenus Kappa; nest; Brazil). Distr.: Brazil: Goiás, Mato Grosso, Minas Gerais, São Paulo; Paraguay: Concepción; Bolivia: Cochabamba, Santa Cruz. latissimus Richards Mischocyttarus latissimus Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 289 (key), 294, female (in subgenus Kappa) - “PERU: Loreto, Iquitos” (New York). - Carpenter and Wenzel, 1988, Psyche 95: 94. - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 360 (Colombia: Amazonas; list). - Silveira, 2006, Zootaxa 1321: 3 (male), 14 (key), 56, fig. 54 (in subgenus Kappa; Bolivia; Brazil; Colombia; Peru). Distr.: Colombia: Amazonas; Peru: Loreto; Bolivia: Beni, Pando; Brazil: Amazonas. laurae Silveira Mischocyttarus laurae Silveira, 2006, Zootaxa 1321: 3, 10 (key), 19, figs. 6-8, 11, 16, female (in subgenus Kappa) - “Venezuela: Merida, Guarunes” (New York). Distr.: Venezuela: Merida. magdalensis Silveira Mischocyttarus tolensis; Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 360 (Colombia: Magdalena, Nariño; list). Mischocyttarus magdalensis Silveira, 2006, Zootaxa 1321: 3, 11 (key), 29, figs. 27, 31, female, nest (in subgenus Kappa) - “Colombia, Magdalena, N. Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, Rio Buritaca 100m” (London). Distr.: Colombia: Magdalena, Nariño. metathoracicus (de Saussure) Polybia metathoracica de Saussure, 1854, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2: 198, female (in division My) - [French Guiana:] “Cayenne” (lectotype Paris); 1855, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2.: pl. XXV fig. 1. - Smith, 1857, Cat. Hym. Ins. Coll. Brit. Mus. 5, Vesp.: 130. - Dalla Torre, 1894, Cat. Hym. 9: 164 (cat.). - Fox, 1898, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad.: 449 (Brazil) [partim]. - Dalla Torre, 1904, Gen. Ins. 19: 78 (cat.). - Schulz, 1904 (1903), Sber. Akad. Bayer. Wiss. 33: 800. - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 307 (designation of lectotype). - Carpenter and van der Vecht, 1991, Ann. Carnegie Mus. 60 (3): 216 (note on material seen by Fox). - Carpenter, 1999, Am. Mus. Novitat. 3259: 21 (note on type). Megacanthopus metathoracicus; Ducke, 1904, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, Pará 4: 360 (key), 362 (nest; Brazil); 1905, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, Pará 4: 689; 1906, Rev. Ent., Caen 25: 10 (Brazil); 1907, Bol. Mus. Para. Emilo Goeldi 5: 189 (nest); 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 540. Mischocyttarus metathoracicus; Ducke, 1918, Rev. Mus. Paul. 10: 353 [partim]. - ? Zikán, 1935, Arq. Inst. Biol. Veget. 1 (3): 155 (key), figs. 72, 74. - Bequaert, 1933, Entomologica Am. 13: 118 (nest).- Richards, 1941, Proc. R. Ent. Soc. London (B) 10: 125 (in subgenus Kappa, ater group). - Bequaert, 1944, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 94: 262 (list). - Richards, 1945, Trans. R. Ent. Soc. London 95: 312 (key), 346, figs. 34, 38-40 (in subgenus Kappa, atergroup). - Zikán, 1949, Bol. Parq. Nac. Itatiaia 1: 39 (key), 203, fig. 138. - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 292 (key), 307 (in subgenus Kappa; nest). - Overal, 1978, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.), Zool. 94: 10 (list). - Silveira, 2006, Zootaxa 1321: 15 (key), 71, figs. 66-68, 77, 79 (syns.: M. granadaenis Zikán, M. rectus Richards; Bolivia; Brazil; in subgenus Kappa; nest; Peru). Mischocyttarus metathoracicus var. metathoracicus; Richards, 1945, Trans. R. Ent. Soc. London 95: 313 (key), 346 (in subgenus Kappa, ater group) Mischocyttarus granadaënsis Zikán, 1949, Bol. Parq. Nac. Itatiaia 1: 39 (key), 202, figs. 137, 280, female - [Brazil:] “Nova Granada” (lectotype São Paulo). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 291 (key), 305 (designation of lectotype; in subgenus Kappa). - Raw, 1989, Maracá Rainfor. Proj., Invert. Limnol., Prelim. Rep.: 30 (granadensis [!]; nest; resemblance to Polybia dimorpha; Brazil); 1989, Maracá Rainfor. Proj., Invert. Limnol., Prelim. Rep.: 41, 42 (granadensis [!]; habitat preference). - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 360 (list). - Silveira, 2006, Zootaxa 1321: 71 (syn. of M. metathoracicus (de Saussure)). Mischocyttarus rectus Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 292 (key), 306, female, ? male (in subgenus Kappa) - “BOLIVIA: East” (holotype female London). - Silveira, 2006, Zootaxa 1321: 72 (syn. of M. metathoracicus (de Saussure)). Distr.: Colombia; Guyana; Suriname; French Guiana; Peru: Loreto; Brazil: Amapá, Amazonas, Mato Grosso, Pará, Rio de Janeiro, Roraima; Bolivia: Cochabamba, Santa Cruz. mirus Silveira Mischocyttarus mirus Silveira, 2006, Zootaxa 1321: 3, 11 (key), 26, fig. 18, female (in subgenus Kappa) - “Brazil, MG, Viçosa, Mata do Paraíso” (Curitiba). Distr.: Brazil: Minas Gerais. mocsaryi (Ducke) Megacanthopus Mocsáryi Ducke, 1909, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 7: 627, female, male - [Brazil:] “Obidos (Bas Amazone)” (Paris). Mischocyttarus mocsaryi; Ducke, 1918, Rev. Mus. Paul. 10: 351. - Richards, 1945, Trans. R. Ent. Soc. London 95: 341. - Zikán, 1949, Bol. Parq. Nac. Itatiaia 1: 39 (key), 198. - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 290 (key), 300 (in subgenus Kappa). - Nascimento and Overal, 1979, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.) 95: 9 (list). - Silveira, 2006, Zootaxa 1321: 15 (key), 66, figs. 35-37 (in subgenus Kappa). Distr.: Brazil: Pará. mysticus Silveira Mischocyttarus mysticus Silveira, 2006, Zootaxa 1321: 4, 17 (key), 102, figs. 82-83, female (in subgenus Kappa) - “Peru” (New York). Distr.: Peru. occiduus Silveira Mischocyttarus metathoracicus; Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 307 [nest; partim]. Mischocyttarus occiduus Silveira, 2006, Zootaxa 1321: 4, 15 (key), 77, figs. 74, 80, female (in subgenus Kappa) - “Colombia, Cauca, Llano Bajo” (London); also from Nariño. Distr.: Colombia: Cauca, Nariño. paris Silveira Mischocyttarus paris Silveira, 2006, Zootaxa 1321: 3, 12 (key), 33, figs. 20-22, 24, male (in subgenus Kappa) - “Peru, Madre de Dios, Avipas, 400m” (New York). Distr.: Peru: Madre de Dios. pertinax Silveira Mischocyttarus pertinax Silveira, 2006, Zootaxa 1321: 4, 18 (key), 103, figs. 88-89, female, nest (in subgenus Kappa) - “Brazil, Pará, Bujarú” (Belem). Distr.: Brazil: Pará. picturatus Bequaert Polybia rufidens; Fox, 1898, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad.: 450 [partim]. Mischocyttarus metathoracicus var. picturatus Bequaert, 1938, Proc. R. Ent. Soc. London 7: 135, female - “BRAZIL: Corumba, Est. Mato Grosso” (Pittsburgh); also from Chapada. - Richards, 1945, Trans. R. Ent. Soc. London 95: 313 (key), 347 (in subgenus Kappa, ater group); 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 307 (? syn. of M. metathoracicus). Mischocyttarus picturatus; Carpenter and van der Vecht, 1991, Ann. Carnegie Mus. 60 (3): 216 (holotype is from Chapada; paratype is M. bertonii; in subgenus Kappa). - Silveira, 2006, Zootaxa 1321: 16 (key), 84 (in subgenus Kappa). Distr.: Brazil: Mato Grosso. porantin Silveira Mischocyttarus porantin Silveira, 2006, Zootaxa 1321: 4, 16 (key), 85, figs. 91, 94, 96, female, male, nest (in subgenus Kappa) - “Brazil, Pará, Bujarú” (holotype female Belem). Distr.: Brazil: Pará. pseudomimeticus (Schulz) Polybia pseudomimetica Schulz, 1904 (1903), Sber. Akad. Bayer. Wiss. 33: 803, 810 (key), female - [Brazil] “Teffé” (München). Megalacanthopus [!] pseudomimeticus; Schulz, 1906, Spolia Hym. 234. - Ducke, 1907, Bol. Mus. Para. Emilo Goeldi 5: 190 (Megacanthopus; nest) [partim]; 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 541. Mischocyttarus pseudomimeticus; Ducke, 1918, Rev. Mus. Paul. 10: 350 [partim]. - Richards, 1941, Proc. R. Ent. Soc. London (B) 10: 125 (in subgenus Kappa, ater group); 1945, Trans. R. Ent. Soc. London 95: 312 (key), 348 (in subgenus Kappa, ater group); 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 290 (key), 300 (in subgenus Kappa). - Overal, 1978, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.), Zool. 94: 10 (list). - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 360 (Colombia: Meta; list). - Silveira, 2006, Zootaxa 1321: 12 (key), 38, fig. 34 (in subgenus Kappa; nest; Bolivia; Brazil; Colombia; Peru). Distr.: Colombia: Meta; Peru: Loreto; Brazil: Amazonas; Bolivia: Pando. santacruzi Raw Mischocyttarus santacruzi Raw, 2000, Rev. Bras. Ent. 17 (4): 941, female, male, nest (in subgenus Kappa) - “1.6 km south-west of the administrator’s house at Fazenda Baixão (15°09’S, 39°07’W) and 20 km from the coast in the municipality of Ilheus, eastern Bahia state, Brazil” (holotype female São Paulo). - Silveira, 2006, Zootaxa 1321: 14 (key), 63 (in subgenus Kappa). Distr.: Brazil: Bahia. schunkei Zikán Mischocyttarus “schunkei Zikán nov. spec.” Weyrauch, 1943, Bol. Mus. Hist. Nat. Javier Prado 7: 69. Nomen nudum. Mischocyttarus schunkei Zikán, 1949, Bol. Parq. Nac. Itatiaia 1: 38 (key), 196, female, male, nest - “Peru, (Vale Chanchamayo, 1.300 m)” (lectotype female Inst. Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 291 (key), 304 (designation of lectotype; in subgenus Kappa). - Silveira, 2006, Zootaxa 1321: 16 (key), 82, figs. 84, 92 (in subgenus Kappa). Distr.: Peru: Junín. socialis (de Saussure) Polybia ignobilis; de Saussure, 1854, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2.: pl. XXIV fig. 5, and footnote to explanation of plate. Polybia atra; de Saussure, 1854, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2.: explanation of pl. XXIV fig. 5, not 181 text (in division Iota); 1854, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2.: VV, footnote to revised explanation of pl. XXIV fig. 5. - von Ihering, 1904, Rev. Mus. Paul. 6: 190. Misidentification. Polybia socialis de Saussure, 1854, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2: 177 text not pl. XXIV fig. 1, female (in division Iota) - “Le Brésil” (Paris); 1854, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2.: VV, revised explanation of pl. XXIV fig. 5. - Dalla Torre, 1894, Cat. Hym. 9: 166 (cat.). - Fox, 1898, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad.: 450. - Dalla Torre, 1904, Gen. Ins. 19: 78 (cat.). - Carpenter and van der Vecht, 1991, Ann. Carnegie Mus. 60 (3): 217 (note on material seen by Fox). - Carpenter, 1999, Am. Mus. Novitat. 3259: 22 (notes on types). Megacanthopus ater; Ducke, 1905, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, Pará 4: 689 (syns.: Polybia socialis de Saussure, Polistes apicalis de Saussure, M. imitator Ducke); 1906, Rev. Ent., Caen 25: 10 (Brazil); 1907, Z. Hym. Dipt. 1907: 139; 1907, Bol. Mus. Para. Emilo Goeldi 5: 190; 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 502, 539, 540 (syn.: ignobilis sensu de Saussure). Mischocyttarus ater; Ducke, 1913, Deutsch. Ent. Zeitschr.: 332 (syns.: P. ignobilis Haliday, P. socialis de Saussure, P. nigra de Saussure, M. imitator Ducke); 1918, Rev. Mus. Paul. 10: 351 (Venezuela). - da Fonseca, 1926, Rev. Mus. Paul. 14: 175. - Bequaert, 1933, Entomologica Am. 13: 118 (syn.: P. decepta Fox). - Zikán, 1935, Arq. Inst. Biol. Veget. 1 (3): 155 (key), figs. 78, 83, pl. 2 fig. 2, pl. 3 figs. 5-6 (nest). - Richards, 1940, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (11) 5: 182 (compared to M. immarginatus n. sp.); 1941, Proc. R. Ent. Soc. London (B) 10: 125 (in subgenus Kappa, ater group); 1945, Trans. R. Ent. Soc. London 95: 312 (key), 352, figs. 29, 36-37, pl. 3 figs. 161-165 (in subgenus Kappa, ater group). - Zikán, 1949, Bol. Parq. Nac. Itatiaia 1: 40 (key), 205, figs. 405-406 [partim]. - Hamilton, 1972, Annu. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 3: 225 (ethology). - Overal, 1978, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.), Zool. 94: 10 (list). Mischocyttarus socialis; Bequaert, 1944 (1943), Ann. Ent. Soc. Am. 36: 721 [partim]; 1944, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 94: 264 (list); 1949 (1948), Bol. Ent. Venez. 7: 130 (list). - Willink, 1954 (1953), Acta Zool. Lilloana 14: 321 (key), 326. - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 290 (key), 299 (in subgenus Kappa). - Silveira, 2006, Zootaxa 1321: 13 (key), 41, figs. 48-49, 98 (syn.: M. atramentarius Zikán; in subgenus Kappa; Argentina; Brazil). Mischocyttarus atramentarius Zikán, 1949, Bol. Parq. Nac. Itatiaia 1: 40 (key), 206, figs. 140-141, 349, 396, 398, 407, 414, female, male, nest - [Brazil:] “Itatiaia (Estado do Rio de Janeiro” (lectotype female São Paulo); also from São Paulo and Minas Gerais. - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 290 (key), 298, fig. 111 (designation of lectotype; in subgenus Kappa; nest) [partim]. - Silva and Rodrigues, 1987, Univ. Fed. Juiz Fora Inst. Cienc. Biol. Geocienc. Bol. 40: 25-34 (nesting). - Silva, 1988, Univ. Fed. Juiz Fora Inst. Cienc. Biol. Geocienc. Bol. 41: 29-38 (morphometrics). - Silva and do C. Oliveira, 1989, Univ. Fed. Juiz Fora Inst. Cienc. Biol. Geocienc. Bol. 42: 25-36 (size variation). - Raposo-Filho et al., 1994, Ethol. Ecol. Evol. Spec. Issue 3: 47-52 (gland ultrastructure). - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 360 (Colombia; list). - West-Eberhard et al., 1995, Hym. Costa Rica: 585 (Costa Rica). - Rodríguez-Palafox, 1996, in Llorente-Bousquets et al., Biodiv. Taxon. Biogeogr. Artrópod. México: 482 (list). - Dejean et al., 1998, Sociobiol. 32: 483 (mimicry of Parachartergus apicalis). - Garcete-Barrett, 1999, Avispas Soc. Parag.: 8 (mimic of Parachartergus pseudapicalis), 26 (key, figs. 12, 12d), 27 (Paraguay). - Colomo and Berta, 2005, Rev. Soc. Entomol. Argent. 64: 78 (note on types). - Silveira, 2006, Zootaxa 1321: 41 (syn. of M. socialis (de Saussure)). Mischocyttarus atra; Overal, 1978, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.), Zool. 94: 10 (list). Distr.: Trinidad (?); Brazil: Minas Gerais, Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo, Santa Catarina, Paraná; Paraguay: Alto Paraná; Argentina: Misiones. tapuya (Schulz) Polybia tapuya Schulz, 1905, Hym. Stud.: 133, male - [Brazil] “In silvis propre Belem do Pará” (London). Megacanthopus tapuya; Schulz, 1906, Spolia Hym.: 234. - Ducke, 1907, Z. Hym. Dipt. 1907: 140; 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 541. Mischocyttarus tapuya; Ducke, 1918, Rev. Mus. Paul. 10: 353. - Richards, 1941, Proc. R. Ent. Soc. London (B) 10: 125 (in subgenus Kappa, ater group); 1945, Trans. R. Ent. Soc. London 95: 312 (key), 348, fig. 34 (in subgenus Kappa, ater group). - Zikán, 1949, Bol. Parq. Nac. Itatiaia 1: 23 (key), 117. - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 289 (key), 293 (in subgenus Kappa). - Silveira, 2006, Zootaxa 1321: 12 (key), 32, figs. 23, 25 (in subgenus Kappa). Distr.: Brazil: Pará. timbira Silveira Mischocyttarus timbira Silveira, 2006, Zootaxa 1321: 4, 16 (key), 88, figs. 90, 93, 95, female, male, nest (in subgenus Kappa) - “Brazil, Maranhão, Barreirinhas, Tabocas, 03º02’S 43º07’W” (holotype female Belem); also from elsewhere in Maranhão. Distr.: Brazil: Maranhão. tolensis Richards Mischocyttarus tolensis Richards, 1941, Proc. R. Ent. Soc. London (B) 10: 125 (key), 128, female (in subgenus Kappa, ater group) - “PANAMA: Tolé” (London); also from two other localities; 1945, Trans. R. Ent. Soc. London 95: 313 (key), 341, fig. 30 (in subgenus Kappa, ater group). - Zikán, 1949, Bol. Parq. Nac. Itatiaia 1: 39 (key), 201. - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 291 (key), 305 (in subgenus Kappa). - Snelling, 1983, Pan-Pacif. Ent. 59: 276 (male; Panama; Costa Rica). - West-Eberhard et al., 1995, Hym. Costa Rica: 585 (Costa Rica). - Silveira, 2006, Zootaxa 1321: 11 (key), 27, figs. 26, 28-30 (in subgenus Kappa; Costa Rica; Panama). Distr.: Costa Rica; Panama. villarricanus Zikán Mischocyttarus villarricanus Zikán, 1935, Arq. Inst. Biol. Veget. 1 (3): 155 (key), 200, figs. 79-80, pl. 3 fig. 8, female, nest - “Villaricca (Paraguay)” (lectotype Inst. Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro). - Richards, 1945, Trans. R. Ent. Soc. London 95: 344 (? syn. of M. latior (Fox)). - Zikán, 1949, Bol. Parq. Nac. Itatiaia 1: 39 (key), 199, fig. 134. - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 290 (key), 299 (designation of lectotype; in subgenus Kappa). - Garcete-Barrett, 1999, Avispas Soc. Parag.: 8 (mimic of Mischocyttarus rotundicollis), 26 (key), 28. - Silveira, 2006, Zootaxa 1321: 18 (key), 67, figs. 4, 39, 42 (in subgenus Kappa; male, nest; Paraguay). Distr.: Paraguay: Guairá, Canindeyú. zikaninus Richards Mischocyttarus pseudomimeticus; Ducke, 1918, Rev. Mus. Paul. 10: 350 [partim]. - Zikán, 1949, Bol. Parq. Nac. Itatiaia 1: 37 (key), 191, figs. 128, 278, 319. Mischocyttarus zikaninus Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 289 (key), 295, female (in subgenus Kappa) - “BRAZIL: Pará, óbidos” (São Paulo). - Silveira, 2006, Zootaxa 1321: 3, 12 (key), 37, figs. 32-33 (in subgenus Kappa; male; Brazil). Distr.: Brazil: Amazonas, Pará. Subgenus Megacanthopus Ducke Megacanthopus Ducke, 1904, Bol. Mus. Goeldi 4: 320, 358, genus (9 species). Type species: Megacanthopus collaris Ducke, 1904, by subsequent designation of Bequaert, 1933, Entomologica Am. 13: 112. Megalacanthopus Schulz, 1906, Spolia Hym. 1906: 234. Unjustified emendation. belemensis Cooper Mischocyttarus belemensis Cooper, 1997, Ent. Mon. Mag. 133: 219 (key), 221, fig. 14, male, female (in subgenus Megacanthopus) - “BRAZIL: Pará, Belém” (holotype male London). Distr.: Brazil: Pará. clavicornis Cooper Mischocyttarus clavicornis Cooper, 1997, Ent. Mon. Mag. 133: 219 (key), 220, figs. 2, 3, 6, 9, 11, male, female, nest (in subgenus Megacanthopus) - “ECUADOR: Morona-Santiago, Cord. de Cutucu 6 km east of Macas 1,100 m” (holotype male London). Distr.: Ecuador: Morona-Santiago. collarellus Richards Mischocyttarus collarellus Richards, 1940, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (11) 5: 177, female, male - “British Guiana: Mazaruni Settlement” (holotype female London); also from three other localities in Guyana; and Panama; Suriname; Brazil; 1941, Proc. R. Ent. Soc. London (B) 10: 127 (in subgenus Megacanthopus, collaris group). - Bequaert, 1944, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 94: 261 (list). - Richards, 1945, Trans. R. Ent. Soc. London 95: 319 (key), 421, figs. 76-77, 81, pl. 3 figs. 170-179 (in subgenus Megacanthopus, collaris group). - Zikán, 1949, Bol. Parq. Nac. Itatiaia 1: 18 (key), 78, figs. 41, 179. - Vesey-Fitzgerald, 1956, Ent. Mon. Mag. (4) 17: 165 (nest; Guyana). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 383 (key; morph), 385 (in subgenus Megacanthopus). - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 361 (list). - West-Eberhard et al., 1995, Hym. Costa Rica: 585 (Costa Rica). - Cooper, 1997, Ent. Mon. Mag. 133: 219 (key), 223, fig. 13. - Garcete-Barrett, 1999, Avispas Soc. Parag.: 8 (mimic of Agelaia pqllipes), 24 (key, figs. 6aa, 6bb), 27 (Paraguay). Distr.: Costa Rica; Panama; Colombia: Nariño, Valle; Trinidad; Guyana; Suriname; French Guiana; Brazil: Amapá, Amazonas, Pará, Mato Grosso; Paraguay: Paraguarí, Alto Paraná, Canindeyú, Concepción. collaris (Ducke) Megacanthopus collaris Ducke, 1904, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, Pará 4: 359 (key), 361, female, male - [Brazil] “Oyapoc” (lectotype female São Paulo); also from Belem and Óbidos. - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 384 (designation of lectotype). - Nascimento and Overal, 1979, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.) 95: 9 (list). - Carpenter, 1999, Am. Mus. Novitat. 3259: 20 (notes on types). Mischocyttarus collaris; Ducke, 1918, Rev. Mus. Paul. 10: 354. - da Fonseca, 1926, Rev. Mus. Paul. 14: 181 (compared to ypiranguensis n. sp.). - Bequaert, 1933, Entomologica Am. 13: 118 (nest), 119 (ethology).- Zikán, 1935, Arq. Inst. Biol. Veget. 1 (3): 153 (key), figs. 21, 24, 26. - Richards, 1940, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (11) 5: 177 (compared to M. collarellus and M. superus n. spp.); 1941, Proc. R. Ent. Soc. London (B) 10: 127 (in subgenus Megacanthopus, collaris group). - Bequaert, 1944, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 94: 261 (list). - Richards, 1945, Trans. R. Ent. Soc. London 95: 319 (key), 416, figs. 78-80 (in subgenus Megacanthopus, collaris group). - Zikán, 1949, Bol. Parq. Nac. Itatiaia 1: 18 (key), 76, figs. 37-38, 178, 304. - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 383 (key), 384 (in subgenus Megacanthopus). - Overal, 1978, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.), Zool. 94: 10 (list). - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 361 (list). - Cooper, 1997, Ent. Mon. Mag. 133: 219 (key), 222 (nest), figs. 4, 8, 12. Mischocyttarus collaris var. collaris; Richards, 1945, Trans. R. Ent. Soc. London 95: 319 (key), 417 (in subgenus Megacanthopus, collaris group). Distr.: Colombia: Vaupés; Guyana; Ecuador: Napo; Brazil: Amapá, Amazonas, Pará; Argentina: Misiones. inexspectatus Cooper Mischocyttarus inexspectatus Cooper, 1997, Ent. Mon. Mag. 133: 217 (key), 220, figs. 1, 5, 10, male, female, nest (in subgenus Megacanthopus) - “COLOMBIA: Nariño, Barbacoas” (holotype male London). Distr.: Colombia: Nariño. malaris Richards Mischocyttarus malaris Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 383 (key), 388, female, male (in subgenus Megacanthopus) - “PERU: Loreto, Cerro Azul near Contamana, R. Ucayali, 200 m” (holotype female London); also from French Guiana. - Cooper, 1997, Ent. Mon. Mag. 133: 217 (key), 222. Distr.: French Guiana; Peru: Loreto. melanopygus Richards Mischocyttarus collaris var. melanopygus Richards, 1945, Trans. R. Ent. Soc. London 95: 319 (key), 419, female (in subgenus Megacanthopus, collaris group) - “PERU: Valle Chanchomayo, 800 m.” [Chanchamayo] (holotype female London); also from another locality in Junín. Mischocyttarus melanopygus; Zikán, 1949, Bol. Parq. Nac. Itatiaia 1: 17 (key), 72, figs. 32-33, 177, 358, 416-417. - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 383 (key), 387 (in subgenus Megacanthopus). - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 361 (list). - Cooper, 1997, Ent. Mon. Mag. 133: 217 (key), 223; 1998, Ent. Mon. Mag. 134: 301 (mimicry). Distr.: Colombia: Amazonas, Caquetá, Putumayo; Ecuador: Morona-Santiago, Napo; Peru: Junín, Loreto; Bolivia: La Paz. parallelogrammus Zikán Polybia mexicana ?; Fox, 1898, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad.: 451 [partim]. - Bequaert, 1933, Entomologica Am. 13: 142 (probably M. alfkenii). Mischocyttarus parallelogrammus Zikán, 1935, Arq. Inst. Biol. Veget. 1 (3): 154 (key), 172, figs. 33, 35, 37, pl. 1 fig. 2, female, male, nest - [Brazil] “Südabhang des Itatiaya, 700 m.” (lectotype female São Paulo). - W. Zikán and Wydodzinsky, 1948, Bol. Serv. Nac. Pesq. Agron. 4: 75 (list). - Zikán, 1949, Bol. Parq. Nac. Itatiaia 1: 18 (key), 73, 236 (“host” of parallelogrammoides n. sp.), figs. 286, 341-342, 359, 415. - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 383 (key), 386 (designation of lectotype; in subgenus Megacanthopus). - Carpenter and van der Vecht, 1991, Ann. Carnegie Mus. 60 (3): 218 (note on material seen by Fox). - Cooper, 1997, Ent. Mon. Mag. 133: 217 (key), fig. 7. - Garcete-Barrett, 1999, Avispas Soc. Parag.: 8 (mimic of Agelaia multipicta), 24 (key, figs. 6a, 6b), 27 (Paraguay). - Carpenter, 1999, Am. Mus. Novitat. 3259: 22 (notes on types). Mischocyttarus collaris var. parallelogrammus; Richards, 1940, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (11) 5: 177 (compared to dark var. of M. collarellus n. sp.); 1945, Trans. R. Ent. Soc. London 95: 319 (key), 418, pl. 3 fig. 180 (in subgenus Megacanthopus, collaris group). Mischocyttarus parallelogrammoides Zikán, 1949, Bol. Parq. Nac. Itatiaia 1: 236, sex and locality not stated (lectotype female Inst. Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 386 (designation of lectotype, from Itatiaia; syn. of M. parallelogrammus Zikán). Distr.: Brazil: Minas Gerais, Rio de Janeiro, Santa Catarina, São Paulo; Paraguay: Paraguarí. saturatus Zikán Mischocyttarus “collaris nov. var. saturatus Zikán” Weyrauch, 1943, Bol. Mus. Hist. Nat. Javier Prado 7: 68. Nomen nudum. Mischocyttarus collaris race saturatus Zikán, 1949, Bol. Parq. Nac. Itatiaia 1: 18 (key), 77, figs. 39-40, 287, 305, 343, 360, female, male - [Peru] “Tingo Maria, Rio Huallaga, 700 m” (lectotype male Inst. Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro); also from Chanchamayo. - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 387 (designation of lectotype). Mischocyttarus saturatus; Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 383 (key), 387 (in subgenus Megacanthopus). - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 361 (Colombia: Meta; list). - Cooper, 1997, Ent. Mon. Mag. 133: 219 (key), 222, 223. Distr.: Colombia: Amazonas, Arauca, Meta, Nariño, Putumayo; Ecuador: Napo; Peru: Huánuco, Junín; Bolivia: Beni; Brazil: Amazonas. superus Richards Mischocyttarus superus Richards, 1940, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (11) 5: 178, female, male - “British Guiana: Mazaruni Settlement” (holotype female London); also from two other localities in Guyana; 1941, Proc. R. Ent. Soc. London (B) 10: 127 (in subgenus Megacanthopus, collaris group). - Bequaert, 1944, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 94: 263 (list). - Richards, 1945, Trans. R. Ent. Soc. London 95: 319 (key), 432, figs. 82-88, pl. 4 figs. 186-194 (in subgenus Megacanthopus, collaris group); 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 382 (key), 384 (in subgenus Megacanthopus). - Cooper, 1997, Ent. Mon. Mag. 133: 219 (key). Distr.: Guyana; Brazil: Pará. Subgenus Mischocyttarus de Saussure acunai Alayo Mischocyttarus acuñai Alayo, 1972, Poeyana 94: 3, 4 (key), figs. 1B-E, female, male - “Cuba ... Moa, Baracoa y Cupeyal (Yateras), ... de la provincia de Oriente” (holotype male La Habana). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 310 (key), 327 (acunai; in subgenus Monocyttarus). - Silveira, 2002, Nat. Hist. Bull. Ibaraki Univ. 6: 7, figs. 1-7 (transferred to subgenus Mischocyttarus; redescription, larva, nest). Distr.: Cuba. aripuanaensis Silveira Mischocyttarus aripuanaensis Silveira, 1998, Pap. Avuls. Zool., São Paulo 40 (23): 359, 360, figs. 1, 5, 7, 8a, 9, female (in subgenus Mischocyttarus) - “Brasil: MT, Aripuanã, Reserva Humboldt” (Belem). Distr.: Brazil: Mato Grosso. cinerasceus Zikán Mischocyttarus “cineraceus Zikán nov. spec.” Weyrauch, 1943, Bol. Mus. Hist. Nat. Javier Prado 7: 67. Nomen nudum. Mischocyttarus cinerasceus Zikán, 1949, Bol. Parq. Nac. Itatiaia 1: 13 (key), 49, fig. 158, female - [Peru] “Oxapampa, 1.300-1.500 m” (lectotype Inst. Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro); also from Oreja de Capelo and Chanchamayo. - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 275 (key), 279 (cinerascens [!]; designation of lectotype; in subgenus Mischocyttarus). - Colomo and Berta, 2005, Rev. Soc. Entomol. Argent. 64: 78 (note on types). Distr.: Peru: Junín. drewseni andinus Zikán Mischocyttarus “andinus Zikán nov. spec.” Weyrauch, 1943, Bol. Mus. Hist. Nat. Javier Prado 7: 67. Nomen nudum. Mischocyttarus drewseni race andinus Zikán, 1949, Bol. Parq. Nac. Itatiaia 1: 14 (key), 52, fig. 164 - [Peru] “Nina-bamba, 1900-2000 m” (lectotype female Inst. Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro); also from Urubamba and Abancay. - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 277 (designation of lectotype; syn. of M. drewseni andinus). Mischocyttarus litoralis race meridionalis Zikán, 1949, Bol. Parq. Nac. Itatiaia 1: 14 (key), 54, figs. 15-16, 166, female, male - “Bolivia” (lectotype female São Paulo). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 277 (designation of lectotype; syn. of M. drewseni andinus, acting as first reviser). Mischocyttarus drewseni andinus; Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 275 (key), 277 (in subgenus Mischocyttarus). - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 360 (list). - Colomo and Berta, 2005, Rev. Soc. Entomol. Argent. 64: 78 (Myschocyttarus [!]; note on types). Distr.: Colombia: Antioquia; Peru: Apurimac, Ayacucho, Cajamarca, Huánuco, Junín; Bolivia: Cochabamba, Santa Cruz. drewseni drewseni de Saussure Mischocyttarus drewseni de Saussure, 1857, Ann. Soc. Ent. France (3) 5: 317, male - “Brèsil” (type depository unknown). - Dalla Torre, 1894, Cat. Hym. 9: 117 (drewsenii [!]; cat.); 1904, Gen. Ins. 19: 85 (cat.). - Ducke, 1904, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, Pará 4: 318 (ecology), 364 (Brazil), fig. d. - Schrottky, 1904, Allg. Zeitschr. Ent. 9: 345 (Myschocyttarus [!]; Paraguay). - Ducke, 1906, Rev. Ent., Caen 25: 10 (Brazil). - Bequaert, 1933, Entomologica Am. 13: 118 (syns.: Megacanthopus atriceps Cameron, Megacanthopus rotundicollis Cameron). - Zikán, 1935, Arq. Inst. Biol. Veget. 1 (3): 153 (key), figs. 1, 7, 12, pl. 2 fig. 7. - Richards, 1941, Proc. R. Ent. Soc. London (B) 10: 124 (in subgenus Mischocyttarus, labiatus group). - Bequaert, 1944, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 94: 264 (list). - Richards, 1945, Trans. R. Ent. Soc. London 95: 310 (key), 328, figs. 6, 15 (in subgenus Mischocyttarus, labiatus group; syn.:? M. mattogrossoensis Zikán). - Bequaert, 1949 (1948), Bol. Ent. Venez. 7: 130 (list). - Zikán, 1949, Bol. Parq. Nac. Itatiaia 1: 14 (key), 52, figs. 13, 162-163. - Jeanne, 1970, Science 168: 1465-1466 (ethology); 1972, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 144: 63-150 (ethology). - West-Eberhard, 1975, Cespedesia 4 (16): 254 (drewsoni [!]; Colombia). - Overal, 1978, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.), Zool. 94: 10 (list). - Jeanne and Castellón Bermúdez, 1980, J. Kansas Entomol. Soc. 53: 271-276 (ethology). - Post and Jeanne, 1982, J. New York Entomol. Soc. 90: 8-15, figs. 1-4, 8 (male morphology). - Giannotti and Trevisoli, 1993, Insecta 2 (2): 41-52 (larva). - Theraulez and Bonabeau, 1995, J. Theor. Biol. 177: fig. 1b (nest). - Silveira, 1998, Pap. Avuls. Zool., São Paulo 40 (23): 366 (morphology). - Garcete-Barrett, 1999, Avispas Soc. Parag.: 8 (mimic of Polybia sericea), 23 (key, fig. 3aa), 27. Megacanthopus atriceps Cameron, 1912, Timehri (3) 2: 216 (key), 217, female - locality not stated [Guyana] (London). - Bequaert, 1933, Entomologica Am. 13: 118 (syn. of M. drewseni de Saussure). Mischocyttarus drewseni var. drewseni; Richards, 1945, Trans. R. Ent. Soc. London 95: 310 (key). Mischocyttarus litoralis Zikán, 1949, Bol. Parq. Nac. Itatiaia 1: 14 (key), 53, figs. 14, 165, female, male - [Brazil] “Rio de Janeiro, D. F.” (lectotype female Inst. Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 276 (designation of lectotype; syn. of M. drewseni drewseni). - Colomo and Berta, 2005, Rev. Soc. Entomol. Argent. 64: 81 (note on types). Mischocyttarus montanus Zikán, 1949, Bol. Parq. Nac. Itatiaia 1: 14 (key), 54, 236 (“host” of montanoides n. sp.), figs. 167, 397, female, male - [Brazil] “Itatiaia, desde 700 até 900 metros sôbre o nível do mar, Estado do Rio de Janeiro” (lectotype female Inst. Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro); also from Minas Gerais, São Paulo, Santa Catarina, Rio Grande do Sul, Paraná; and Paraguay. - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 276 (designation of lectotype; syn. of M. drewseni drewseni). Mischocyttarus montanus race nigrofemoratus Zikán, 1949, Bol. Parq. Nac. Itatiaia 1: 15 (key), 56, male - [Brazil] “Campos da Serra, cabeceiras do Rio M’boy Guassú, Estado de S. Paulo” (Inst. Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 276 (syn. of M. drewseni drewseni). Mischocyttarus intermedius Zikán, 1949, Bol. Parq. Nac. Itatiaia 1: 15 (key), 57, figs. 17-18, 168, 355, female, male - “Itatiaia 400 a 900 m, Estado no Rio de Janeiro, Brasil” lectotype female Inst. Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 276 (designation of lectotype; syn. of M. drewseni drewseni). - Colomo and Berta, 2005, Rev. Soc. Entomol. Argent. 64: 80 (note on types). Mischocyttarus montanoides Zikán, 1949, Bol. Parq. Nac. Itatiaia 1: 236, sex and locality not stated (lectotype female Inst. Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 277 (designation of lectotype, from Itatiaia; syn. of M. drewseni drewseni). Mischocyttarus drewseni drewseni; Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 275 (key), 276 (syns.: M. litoralis Zikán, montanus Zikán, montanus race nigrofemoratus Zikán, intermedius Zikán, montanoides Zikán; in subgenus Mischocyttarus). - Almeida and Castro, 1991, Acta Biol. Par., Curitiba 20: 49 (coll. list). - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 360 (list). Distr.: Colombia: Cauca; Venezuela: Bolívar, D. F.; Guyana; Suriname; Peru: Cuzco, Loreto, San Martin; Brazil: Amapá, Bahia, D. F., Espírito Santo, Goiás, Mato Grosso, Minas Gerais, Pará, Paraná, Rio de Janeiro, Rio Grande do Sul, Santa Catarina, São Paulo; Bolivia: Cochabamba, La Paz, Santa Cruz; Paraguay: Central, Cordillera, Paraguarí, San Pedro, Concepción, Canindeyú, Alto Paraná; Argentina: Córdoba, Entre Rios, Misiones, Tucumán (?). drewseni gigas Richards Mischocyttarus drewseni var. gigas Richards, 1945, Trans. R. Ent. Soc. London 95: 310 (key), 330, female, male - “ARGENTINA: Jujuy” (holotype female Ithaca). - Zikán, 1949, Bol. Parq. Nac. Itatiaia 1: 218. Mischocyttarus drewseni gigas; Willink, 1954 (1953), Acta Zool. Lilloana 14: 321 (key), 322, figs. 5-7. - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 275 (key), 278 (in subgenus Mischocyttarus). Distr.: Brazil: Rio Grande do Sul; Argentina: Buenos Aires, Chaco, Córdoba, Corrientes, Formosa, Jujuy, La Rioja, Misiones, Salta, Tucumán. gynandromorphus Richards Mischocyttarus gynandromorphus Richards, 1945, Trans. R. Ent. Soc. London 95: 310 (key), 332, fig. 3, female, male (in subgenus Mischocyttarus, labiatus group) - “PERU: Piches and Perene Valleys, 2000-3000 ft.” (holotype female Cambridge); also from another locality in Junín; and Brazil: Mato Grosso. - Zikán, 1949, Bol. Parq. Nac. Itatiaia 1: 217. - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 275 (key), 279 (in subgenus Mischocyttarus). Distr.: Peru: Junín; Brazil: Mato Grosso. labiatus (Fabricius) Zethus labiatus Fabricius, 1804, Syst. Piez.: 284 - “America meridionali” (lectotype female Kobenhavn). Mischocyttarus labiatus; de Saussure, 1853, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2.: 20, pl. III (female, male; French Guiana; Brazil). - Smith, 1856, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. (2) 3, Proc.: 129. - Möbius, 1856, Nester Gesell. Wespen: 34 (key). - de Saussure, 1857, Ann. Soc. Ent. France (3) 5: 317 (compared to drewseni n. sp.). - du Buysson and Marshall, 1892, Ann. Soc. Ent. France 61: 59 (Venezuela). - Dalla Torre, 1894, Cat. Hym. 9: 117 (cat.). - Fox, 1898, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad.: 445 (Brazil). - Dalla Torre, 1904, Gen. Ins. 19: 85 (cat.). - Ducke, 1904, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, Pará 4: 318 (ecology), 364 (Brazil); 1906, Rev. Ent., Caen 25: 10 (Brazil); 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 540 (syn.: P. melanaria Cameron). - Bequaert, 1933, Entomologica Am. 13: 114 (compared to M. flavitarsis), 118 (syns.: Megachanthopus violaceipennis Cameron, Megacanthopus longipetiolatus Cameron; nest). - Zikán, 1935, Arq. Inst. Biol. Veget. 1 (3): 153 (key), figs. 2, 6. - Vesey-Fitzgerald, 1939, Proc. R. Ent. Soc. London (A) 14: 105 (mimicry). - Richards, 1941, Proc. R. Ent. Soc. London (B) 10: 124 (in subgenus Mischocyttarus, labiatusgroup). - Bequaert, 1944, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 94: 262 (list; syn.: Megacanthopus atriceps Cameron). - Richards, 1945, Trans. R. Ent. Soc. London 95: 311 (key), 325, figs. 1-2, 4, 8-12, 16 (in subgenus Mischocyttarus, labiatus group). - Bequaert, 1949 (1948), Bol. Ent. Venez. 7: 130 (list). - Zikán, 1949, Bol. Parq. Nac. Itatiaia 1: 12 (key), 45, figs. 3-4, 147-150, 322, 330. - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 275 (key), 280, fig. 109 (in subgenus Mischocyttarus). - Overal, 1978, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.), Zool. 94: 10 (list). - Litte, 1981, Smithson. Contrib. Zool. 327: 1-27 (ethology). - Raw, 1989, Maracá Rainfor. Proj., Invert. Limnol., Prelim. Rep.: 28 (Brazil); 1989, Maracá Rainfor. Proj., Invert. Limnol., Prelim. Rep.: 41, 42 (habitat preference). - Carpenter and van der Vecht, 1991, Ann. Carnegie Mus. 60 (3): 213 (note on material seen by Fox). - Almeida and Castro, 1991, Acta Biol. Par., Curitiba 20: 49 (coll. list). - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 360 (list). - West-Eberhard et al., 1995, Hym. Costa Rica: 585 (Costa Rica). Distr.: Costa Rica; Panama; Colombia: Amazonas, Arauca, Boyacá, Magdalena, Meta, Nariño, Putumayo, Valle, Vaupés; Venezuela: Bolívar, D. F.; Trinidad; Guyana; Suriname; French Guiana; Ecuador: Napo; Peru: Amazonas, Junín, Loreto, Madre de Dios; Brazil: Amazonas, D. F., Goiás, Mato Grosso, Minas Gerais, Pará, Rio de Janeiro, Roraima; Bolivia: Beni, Pando, Santa Cruz. lindigi Richards Mischocyttarus lindigi Richards, 1945, Trans. R. Ent. Soc. London 95: 311 (key), 332, female (in subgenus Mischocyttarus, labiatus group) - “COLOMBIA: Bogota” (Berlin). - Zikán, 1949, Bol. Parq. Nac. Itatiaia 1: 216. - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 275 (key), 280 (in subgenus Mischocyttarus). - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 360 (list). - Silveira, 1998, Pap. Avuls. Zool., São Paulo 40 (23): 362, figs. 3-4 (redescription). Distr.: Colombia. mattogrossoensis Zikán Mischocyttarus mattogrossoensis Zikán, 1935, Arq. Inst. Biol. Veget. 1 (3): 153 (key), 156, figs. 4, 11, male - [Brazil] “Mato Grosso” (São Paulo); 1949, Bol. Parq. Nac. Itatiaia 1: 13 (key), 51, figs. 12, 161. - Richards, 1945, Trans. R. Ent. Soc. London 95: 328 (? syn. of M. drewseni de Saussure); 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 276 (syn.: M. drewseni var. steinbachi Richards; in subgenus Mischocyttarus). - Almeida and Castro, 1991, Acta Biol. Par., Curitiba 20: 49 (coll. list). - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 360 (Colombia: Casanare, Meta; list). - Garcete-Barrett, 1999, Avispas Soc. Parag.: 8 (mimic of Polybia sericea), 23 (key, fig. 3a), 27 (mattogrossensis [!]; Paraguay). Mischocyttarus drewseni var. steinbachi Richards, 1945, Trans. R. Ent. Soc. London 95: 310 (key), 329, female, male (in subgenus Mischocyttarus, labiatus group) - “BOLIVIA: Prov. Sara” [Santa Cruz] (holotype female Cambridge); also from Guyana; Peru: Cuzco. - Zikán, 1949, Bol. Parq. Nac. Itatiaia 1: 218. - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 276 (syn. of M. mattogrossoensis). Distr.: Colombia: Casanare, Meta; Guyana; Peru: Cuzco; Brazil: D. F., Mato Grosso, Minas Gerais, Pará, São Paulo; Paraguay: Cordillera, Canindeyú; Bolivia: Santa Cruz. melanarius (Cameron) Polybia melanaria Cameron, 1906, Invert. Pacif. 1: 153, female (in division Kappa) - “Belize” (London). - Ducke, 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 540 (syn. of M. labiatus (Fabricius)). Megacanthopus longipetiolatus Cameron, 1912, Timehri (3) 2: 216 (key), 218, “female” [male] - “Costa Rica” (London). - Bequaert, 1933, Entomologica Am. 13: 118 (syn. of M. labiatus (Fabricius). - Richards, 1945, Trans. R. Ent. Soc. London 95: 322 (syn. of M. melanarius (Cameron)) Mischocyttarus melanarius; Richards, 1941, Proc. R. Ent. Soc. London (B) 10: 124 (in subgenus Mischocyttarus, labiatus group); 1945, Trans. R. Ent. Soc. London 95: 311 (key), 322 (in subgenus Mischocyttarus, labiatus group; syn.: Megacanthopus longipetiolatus Cameron). - Zikán, 1949, Bol. Parq. Nac. Itatiaia 1: 13 (key), 51, figs. 10-11, 160. - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 275 (key), 280 (in subgenus Mischocyttarus; syn.: M. angustesulcatusZikán). - West-Eberhard et al., 1995, Hym. Costa Rica: 585 (Costa Rica). - Rodríguez-Palafox, 1996, in Llorente-Bousquets et al., Biodiv. Taxon. Biogeogr. Artrópod. México: 482 (list). Mischocyttarus angustesulcatus Zikán, 1949, Bol. Parq. Nac. Itatiaia 1: 12 (key), 44, figs. 145-146, female, male - “Prietas, República de Honduras” (lectotype Inst. Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 280 (designation of lectotype; syn. of M. melanarius). Distr.: Mexico: Chiapas*, Jalisco, Morelos, Tabasco, Veracruz; Belize; Guatemala; Honduras; Costa Rica; Panama. rotundicollis (Cameron) Megacanthopus rotundicollis Cameron, 1912, Timehri (3) 2: 216, “male” [female] - locality not stated [Guyana] (London). - Bequaert, 1933, Entomologica Am. 13: 118 (syn. of M. drewseni de Saussure). Mischocyttarus gracilis Zikán, 1935, Arq. Inst. Biol. Veget. 1 (3): 153 (key), 158, female, male, nest - [Brazil] “Itatiaya (700 m.)” (lectotype male Inst. Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro); also from Paraguay. - Richards, 1941, Proc. R. Ent. Soc. London (B) 10: 124 (syn. of M. rotundicollis (Cameron)). - W. Zikán and Wydodzinsky, 1948, Bol. Serv. Nac. Pesq. Agron. 4: 74 (list). - Zikán, 1949, Bol. Parq. Nac. Itatiaia 1: 13 (key), 48, 236 (“host” of graciloidesn. sp.), figs. 7-8, 153-157, 324, 331, 352. - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 281 (designation of lectotype). - Colomo and Berta, 2005, Rev. Soc. Entomol. Argent. 64: 80 (note on types). Mischocyttarus “fumigatus Zikán nov. spec.” Weyrauch, 1943, Bol. Mus. Hist. Nat. Javier Prado 7: 67. Nomen nudum. Mischocyttarus rotundicollis; Richards, 1941, Proc. R. Ent. Soc. London (B) 10: 124 (in subgenus Mischocyttarus, labiatus group; syn.: M. gracilis Zikán). - Bequaert, 1944, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 94: 263 (list). - Richards, 1945, Trans. R. Ent. Soc. London 95: 311 (key), 330, figs. 7, 13-14, pl. 1 fig. 136, pl. 2 fig. 141 (in subgenus Mischocyttarus, labiatus group). - Zikán, 1949, Bol. Parq. Nac. Itatiaia 1: 13 (key), 47. - Willink, 1954 (1953), Acta Zool. Lilloana 14: 321 (key), 324, figs. 1-4. - Vesey-Fitzgerald, 1956, Ent. Mon. Mag. (4) 17: 165 (Guyana). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 275 (key), 281, fig. 110 (syns.: M. fumigatus Zikán, fumigatoides Zikán, gracilioides Zikán; in subgenus Mischocyttarus). - Almeida and Castro, 1991, Acta Biol. Par., Curitiba 20: 49 (coll. list). - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 360 (Colombia: Chocó, Meta, Valle; list). - Garcete-Barrett, 1999, Avispas Soc. Parag.: 8 (mimic), 23 (key, figs. 2a, 2b), 27 (Paraguay). Mischocyttarus fumigatus Zikán, 1949, Bol. Parq. Nac. Itatiaia 1: 12 (key), 46, 236 (“host” of fumigatoides n. sp.), figs. 5-6, 151-152, 323, female, male - [Peru] “Satipo, 600 m, Provincia de Huancayo” (lectotype male Inst. Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro); also from Chanchamayo and Tingo Maria. - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 281 (designation of lectotype; syn. of M. rotundicollis (Cameron)). - Colomo and Berta, 2005, Rev. Soc. Entomol. Argent. 64: 79 (note on types). Mischocyttarus fumigatoides Zikán, 1949, Bol. Parq. Nac. Itatiaia 1: 236, sex and locality not stated (lectotype female Inst. Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 281 (designation of lectotype, from Peru: Satipo; syn. of M. rotundicollis (Cameron)). Mischocyttarus gracilioides Zikán, 1949, Bol. Parq. Nac. Itatiaia 1: 236, sex and locality not stated - (lectotype male Inst. Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 281 (designation of lectotype, from Brazil: Itatiaia; syn. of M. rotundicollis (Cameron)). Distr.: Colombia: Chocó, Meta, Valle; Trinidad; Guyana; French Guiana; Ecuador: Napo, Pastaza, Zamora-Chinchipe; Peru: Apurimac, Cuzco, Huánuco, Junín, Loreto, Pasco; Brazil: Amazonas, Bahia, D. F., Espírito Santo, Rio de Janeiro, Goiás, Mato Grosso, Minas Gerais, Pará, Paraná, Rio de Janeiro, Rondônia, Rio Grande do Sul, Santa Catarina, São Paulo; Bolivia: La Paz, Santa Cruz; Paraguay: Cordillera, Paraguarí, Guairá, San Pedro, Canindeyú; Uruguay; Argentina: Misiones. smithii de Saussure Mischocyttarus smithii de Saussure, 1853, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2: 21 - “Les Amazones” (holotype male London). - Dalla Torre, 1894, Cat. Hym. 9: 117 (cat.); 1904, Gen. Ins. 19: 85 (Smithi [!]; cat.). - Zikán, 1935, Arq. Inst. Biol. Veget. 1 (3): 153 (smithi [!]; key), figs. 8, 13. - Richards, 1941, Proc. R. Ent. Soc. London (B) 10: 124 (in subgenus Mischocyttarus, labiatus group). - Bequaert, 1944, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 94: 263 (list). - Richards, 1945, Trans. R. Ent. Soc. London 95: 310 (key), 327, figs. 5, 18 (in subgenus Mischocyttarus, labiatus group; syn.: Megacanthopus violaceipennis Cameron). - Zikán, 1949, Bol. Parq. Nac. Itatiaia 1: 15 (key), 58, figs. 19, 169, 300, 311 (Smithi [!]). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 275 (key), 278 (in subgenus Mischocyttarus). - Overal, 1978, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.), Zool. 94: 10 (list). - Almeida and Castro, 1991, Acta Biol. Par., Curitiba 20: 49 (coll. list). - Silveira, 1998, Pap. Avuls. Zool., São Paulo 40 (23): 363-364, fig. 2 (compared to M. lindigi Richards). Megacanthopus violaceipennis Cameron, 1912, Timehri (3) 2: 216 (key), 217, “female” [male] - locality not stated [Guyana] (holotype male London). - Bequaert, 1933, Entomologica Am. 13: 118 (syn. of M. labiatus (Fabricius). - Richards, 1945, Trans. R. Ent. Soc. London 95: 327 (syn. of M. smithii de Saussure). Distr.: Guyana; Suriname; French Guiana; Peru: Loreto; Brazil: Amapá, Amazonas. tomentosus Zikán Mischocyttarus tomentosus Zikán, 1935, Arq. Inst. Biol. Veget. 1 (3): 153 (key), 155, figs. 3, 5, female - [Brazil] “Espirito Santo” (São Paulo). - Richards, 1941, Proc. R. Ent. Soc. London (B) 10: 124 (in subgenus Mischocyttarus, labiatus group); 1945, Trans. R. Ent. Soc. London 95: 310 (key), 327, fig. 17 (in subgenus Mischocyttarus, labiatus group). - Zikán, 1949, Bol. Parq. Nac. Itatiaia 1: 13 (key), 50, figs. 9, 159. - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 275 (key), 278 (syns.: M. archidonaensis Zikán, gibbicollis Zikán; in subgenus Mischocyttarus). - Almeida and Castro, 1991, Acta Biol. Par., Curitiba 20: 49 (coll. list). - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 360 (Colombia: Amazonas, Putumayo, Vaupés; list). - Silveira, 1998, Pap. Avuls. Zool., São Paulo 40 (23): 364, figs. 6, 10 (compared to M. aripuanaensis n. sp.). Mischocyttarus “gibbicollis Zikán nov. spec.” Weyrauch, 1943, Bol. Mus. Hist. Nat. Javier Prado 7: 67. Nomen nudum. Mischocyttarus archidonaënsis Zikán, 1949, Bol. Parq. Nac. Itatiaia 1: 12 (key), 43, fig. 1, female - “Archidona, (Ecuador)” (São Paulo). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 278 (syn. of M. tomentosus). Mischocyttarus gibbicollis Zikán, 1949, Bol. Parq. Nac. Itatiaia 1: 12 (key), 43, figs. 2, 144, female, male - [Peru] “San Luiz, Vale do Chanchamayo 800 m” (lectotype female Inst. Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro); also from 1100 m, and Satipo. - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 278 (designation of lectotype; syn. of M. tomentosus). - Colomo and Berta, 2005, Rev. Soc. Entomol. Argent. 64: 80 (note on types). Distr.: Colombia: Amazonas, Putumayo, Vaupés; Ecuador: Napo; Peru: Amazonas, Huánuco, Junín, Loreto; Brazil: Acre, Amazonas, Espírito Santo, Mato Grosso, Pará, Rondônia; Bolivia: Beni, Pando. Subgenus Monogynoecus Richards Monogynoecus Richards, 1941, Proc. Ent. Soc. Lond. (B) 10: 126, subgenus of Mischocyttarus de Saussure. Type species: Megacanthopus lecointei Ducke, 1904, by original designation. carinulatus Zikán Mischocyttarus carinulatus Zikán, 1949, Bol. Parq. Nac. Itatiaia 1: 17 (key), 71, female - “Estado do Espírito Santo, Brazil” (São Paulo). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 375 (key), 379 (in subgenus Monogynoecus). - Cooper, 1996, Ent. Mon. Mag. 132: 24 (in subgenus Monogynoecus), 25 (key). Distr.: Brazil: Bahia (?), Espírito Santo, Minas Gerais, São Paulo*. foveatus Richards Mischocyttarus foveatus Richards, 1941, Proc. R. Ent. Soc. London (B) 10: 126 (key), 130, female, male (in subgenus Monogynoecus) - “BRITISH GUIANA: Essequibo R., 1st falls” (holotype female London); also from three other localities. - Bequaert, 1944, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 94: 262 (list). - Richards, 1945, Trans. R. Ent. Soc. London 95: 319 (key), 413, pl. 1 fig. 124 (in subgenus Monogynoecus). - Zikán, 1949, Bol. Parq. Nac. Itatiaia 1: 16 (key), 65. - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 375 (key), 377 (in subgenus Monogynoecus). - Almeida and Castro, 1991, Acta Biol. Par., Curitiba 20: 49 (coll. list). - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 361 (list). - Cooper, 1996, Ent. Mon. Mag. 132: 23 (in subgenus Monogynoecus; nest), 24 (key). Distr.: Colombia: Caquetá, Putumayo, Vaupés; Guyana; Suriname; Ecuador: Napo; Peru: Loreto; Brazil: Amazonas, Mato Grosso, Pará. insolitus Zikán Mischocyttarus insolitus Zikán, 1949, Bol. Parq. Nac. Itatiaia 1: 16 (key), 59, figs. 20-21, 170-171, 312-313, 356, female, male - “Yaureté no rio Caiary, afluente do rio Uaupés, Estado do Amazonas, Brasil” (lectotype male Inst. Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 375 (key), 380 (in subgenus Monogynoecus). - Carpenter and Wenzel, 1988, Psyche 95: 94. - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 361 (Colombia: Amazonas; list). - Cooper, 1996, Ent. Mon. Mag. 132: 23 (in subgenus Monogynoecus; nest), 24 (key), 28 (Colombia: Caquetá). Distr.: Colombia: Amazonas, Caquetá; Brazil: Amazonas. lecointei guianensis Richards Mischocyttarus lecointei var. guianensis Richards, 1945, Trans. R. Ent. Soc. London 95: 319 (key), 409, figs. 74-75, pl. 1 figs. 125-126, male, female, nest (in subgenus Monogynoecus) - “BRITISH GUIANA: north bank Essequibo R., Moraballi Creek, Wallaba (Iperua) bush” (holotype female London). - Zikán, 1949, Bol. Parq. Nac. Itatiaia 1: 218. Mischocyttarus lecointei guianensis; Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 376 (key), 382 (in subgenus Monogynoecus). - Cooper, 1996, Ent. Mon. Mag. 132: 24, 25 (key). Distr.: Guyana. lecointei lecointei (Ducke) Polybia surinamensis; Fox, 1898, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad.: 448 [partim]. Megacanthopus lecointei Ducke, 1904, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, Pará 4: 359 (key), 361, female, male, nest - [Brazil] “Oyapoc” (lectotype male London); also from Óbidos and Camahipy. - Richards, 1945, Trans. R. Ent. Soc. London 95: 408 (designation of lectotype); 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 381 (lectotype “here designated”). - Nascimento and Overal, 1979, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.) 95: 9 (list). - Carpenter, 1999, Am. Mus. Novitat. 3259: 21 (notes on types). Polybia ostenta du Buysson, 1908, Rev. Ent., Caen 27: 217, female - “Guyane française: Nouveau Chantier du Bas Maroni” (Paris). - Ducke, 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 541 (syn. of M. lecointei Ducke). - Richards, 1945, Trans. R. Ent. Soc. London 95: 406 (? syn. of M. lecointei Ducke). Mischocyttarus lecointei; Ducke, 1918, Rev. Mus. Paul. 10: 354. - da Fonseca, 1926, Rev. Mus. Paul. 14: 181 (compared to ypiranguensis n. sp.). - Zikán, 1935, Arq. Inst. Biol. Veget. 1 (3): 153 (key), figs. 15, 20. - Richards, 1940, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (11) 5: 181 (compared to M. metoecus n. sp.); 1941, Proc. R. Ent. Soc. London (B) 10: 126 (type of new subgenus Monogynoecus). - Bequaert, 1944, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 94: 262 (list). - Richards, 1945, Trans. R. Ent. Soc. London 95: 319 (key), 406, pl. 3 figs. 156-160 (in subgenus Monogynoecus; ? syn.: Polybia ostenta du Buysson). - Zikán, 1949, Bol. Parq. Nac. Itatiaia 1: 16 (key), 62, figs. 22, 172. - Overal, 1978, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.), Zool. 94: 10 (list). - Carpenter and van der Vecht, 1991, Ann. Carnegie Mus. 60 (3): 215 (note on material seen by Fox). - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 361 (Colombia; list). Mischocyttarus lecointei var. lecointei; Richards, 1945, Trans. R. Ent. Soc. London 95: 319 (key), 407 (in subgenus Monogynoecus). Mischocyttarus lecointei lecointei; Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 376 (key), 381 (in subgenus Monogynoecus). - Cooper, 1996, Ent. Mon. Mag. 132: 23 (in subgenus Monogynoecus; nest), 24, 25 (key), 28 (Colombia; Ecuador; Peru), fig. 5. Distr.: Colombia: Amazonas, Caquetá, Putumayo; Guyana; Suriname; French Guiana; Ecuador: Napo; Peru: Loreto; Brazil: Amapá, Amazonas, Pará; Bolivia: Beni. melanops Cooper Mischocyttarus melanops Cooper, 1996, Ent. Mon. Mag. 132: 23, 25 (key), 26, figs. 1-2, 4, 8, 10-14, male, female, nest - “COLOMBIA: Pututmayo, Mocoa (550 m)” (holotype male London); also from one other locality in Putumayo. metoecus Richards Mischocyttarus metoecus Richards, 1940, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (11) 5: 181, female, male - “British Guiana: Mazaruni Settlement” (holotype female London); also from another locality in Guyana; and Suriname; Brazil; 1941, Proc. R. Ent. Soc. London (B) 10: 126 (in subgenus Monogynoecus). - Bequaert, 1944, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 94: 263 (list). - Richards, 1945, Trans. R. Ent. Soc. London 95: 319 (key), 411, pl. 1 figs. 137-139, pl. 3 figs. 166-169 (in subgenus Monogynoecus). - Zikán, 1949, Bol. Parq. Nac. Itatiaia 1: 16 (key), 64. - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 375 (key), 380 (in subgenus Monogynoecus). - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 361 (Colombia: Putumayo; list). - Cooper, 1996, Ent. Mon. Mag. 132: 23 (in subgenus Monogynoecus; nest), 24 (characters; key), 28 (Colombia; Bolvia: Beni), figs. 3-6. Distr.: Colombia: Putumayo; Guyana; Suriname; Brazil: Amazonas, Pará; Bolvia: Beni. montei Zikán Mischocyttarus montei Zikán, 1949, Bol. Parq. Nac. Itatiaia 1: 16 (key), 65, figs. 173-174, 357, female, male - “Araçatuba, Estado de S. Paulo, Brasil” (lectotype male Inst. Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro); also from Franca. - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 375 (key), 377 (in subgenus Monogynoecus). - Almeida and Castro, 1991, Acta Biol. Par., Curitiba 20: 49 (coll. list). - Cooper, 1996, Ent. Mon. Mag. 132: 23 (in subgenus Monogynoecus; nest), 24 (key). Distr.: Brazil: São Paulo. onorei Cooper Mischocyttarus onorei Cooper, 1996, Ent. Mon. Mag. 132: 23, 24 (key), 25, figs. 6-7, 9, 15, female, male, nest - “ECUADOR: Morona-Santiago, Taisha (500 m)” (holotype female London); also from Napo. Subgenus Omega de Saussure Omega de Saussure, 1854, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2: 206, division of subgenus Polybia of genus Polybia Lepeletier. Type species: Polybia filiformis de Saussure, 1854, by monotypy. Monacanthocnemis Ducke, 1905, Revue Ent. 24: 6, 8, 21, genus. Type species: Polybia filiformis de Saussure, 1854, by monotypy. buyssoni (Ducke) Monacanthocnemis Buyssoni Ducke, 1906, Rev. Ent. 25: 9, female, nest - [Brazil] “Rio de Janeiro” (lectotype London); 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 521. - Bequaert, 1933, Entomologica Am. 13: 114 (typical Mischocyttarus). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 373 (designation of lectotype). - Nascimento and Overal, 1979, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.) 95: 10 (list). - Carpenter, 1999, Am. Mus. Novitat. 3259: 20 (notes on types). Monacanthocnemis buyssoni; Ducke, 1907, Bol. Mus. Para. Emilo Goeldi 5: 183, pl. 3, fig. 8. Mischocyttarus buyssoni; Ducke, 1918, Rev. Mus. Paul. 10: 355. - Zikán, 1935, Arq. Inst. Biol. Veget. 1 (3): 155 (key), 201 (in subgenus Monacanthocnemis). - Richards, 1941, Proc. R. Ent. Soc. London (B) 10: 126 (in subgenus Omega); 1945, Trans. R. Ent. Soc. London 95: 318 (key), 403, fig. 71 (in subgenus Omega). - Zikán, 1949, Bol. Parq. Nac. Itatiaia 1: 40 (key), 208. - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 369 (key), 373 (designation of lectotype; syns.: M. cristatus Zikán, M. cristatoides Zikán; in subgenus Monacanthocnemis). - Overal, 1978, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.), Zool. 94: 10 (list). - Almeida and Castro, 1991, Acta Biol. Par., Curitiba 20: 49 (coll. list). Mischocyttarus cristatus Zikán, 1935, Arq. Inst. Biol. Veget. 1 (3): 155 (key), 201, figs. 81-82, 84-85, pl. 2 fig. 5, female, male, nest (in subgenus Monacanthocnemis) - [Brazil] “Südhang des Itatiaya in 700 m Seehöhe” (lectotype female São Paulo). - Richards, 1941, Proc. R. Ent. Soc. London (B) 10: 126 (in subgenus Omega); 1945, Trans. R. Ent. Soc. London 95: 318 (key), 401 (in subgenus Omega). - W. Zikán and Wydodzinsky, 1948, Bol. Serv. Nac. Pesq. Agron. 4: 74 (list). - Zikán, 1949, Bol. Parq. Nac. Itatiaia 1: 209, 236 (“host” of cristatoides n. sp.), figs. 142-143, 282-283, 310, 328-329, 411. - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 373 (designation of lectotype; syn. of M. buyssoni (Ducke)). - Colomo and Berta, 2005, Rev. Soc. Entomol. Argent. 64: 79 (note on types). Mischocyttarus cristatoides Zikán, 1949, Bol. Parq. Nac. Itatiaia 1: 236 - Brazil: Itatiaia (lectotype male Inst. Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 373 (designation of lectotype; syn. of M. buyssoni(Ducke)). Distr.: Brazil: Minas Gerais, Rio de Janeiro. chalucas Snelling Mischocyttarus chalucas Snelling, 1983, Pan-Pacif. Ent. 59: 277, figs. 8-11, female, male - “Tuxtla Gutierrez, Chiapas, MEXICO” (holotype female New York). - Rodríguez-Palafox, 1996, in Llorente-Bousquets et al., Biodiv. Taxon. Biogeogr. Artrópod. México: 482 (list). Distr.: Mexico: Chiapas. filiformis (de Saussure) Polybia filiformis de Saussure, 1854, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2: 206, male [female] (in division Omega) - “Le Brésil” (holotype female London); 1855, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2: pl. XXVI fig. 8. - Dalla Torre, 1894, Cat. Hym. 9: 163 (cat.); 1904, Gen. Ins. 19: 77 (cat.). - Zavattari, 1906, Boll. Mus. Zool. Anat. Comp. R. Univ. Torino 21 (529): 17. Megacanthopus filiformis; Ducke, 1904, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, Pará 4: 359 (key), 360 (nest; Brazil). Monacanthocnemis filiformis; Ducke, 1905, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, Pará 4: 687; 1906, Rev. Ent., Caen 25: 10 (compared to Monacanthocnemis buyssoni n. sp.); 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 540. Mischocyttarus filiformes [!]; Ducke, 1918, Rev. Mus. Paul. 10: 355. - Bequaert, 1933, Entomologica Am. 13: 114 (filiformis; typical Mischocyttarus). - Zikán, 1935, Arq. Inst. Biol. Veget. 1 (3): 155 (key; in subgenus Monacanthocnemis). - Richards, 1941, Proc. R. Ent. Soc. London (B) 10: 126 (filiformis; in subgenus Omega); 1945, Trans. R. Ent. Soc. London 95: 318 (key), 402, fig. 70 (filiformis; in subgenus Omega). - Zikán, 1949, Bol. Parq. Nac. Itatiaia 1: 207. - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 369 (key), 370 (in subgenus Monacanthocnemis). - Overal, 1978, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.), Zool. 94: 10 (filiformis; list). Distr.: Ecuador: Napo (?); Brazil: Pará; Bolivia: Beni (?). napoensis Richards Mischocyttarus napoensis Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 369 (key), 373, female (in subgenus Monacanthocnemis) - “ECUADOR: Napo, 500 m” (London). Distr.: Ecuador: Napo. omicron Richards Mischocyttarus omicron Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 369 (key), 372, female (in subgenus Monacanthocnemis) - “BRAZIL: Mato Grosso, base camp, 12°50’S, 51°47’W” (London); also from another locality in Mato Grosso; and Bolivia. Distr.: Brazil: Mato Grosso; Bolivia: Beni. punctatus (Ducke) Megacanthopus punctatus Ducke, 1904, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, Pará 4: 360 (key), 363, female, nest - [Brazil] “Alcantara, Estado do Maranhão” (Belém); 1907, Bol. Mus. Para. Emilo Goeldi 5: 189, pl. 3 fig. 9. - Overal, 1978, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.), Zool. 94: 6 (designation of holotype as “lectotype”). - Nascimento and Overal, 1979, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.) 95: 10 (list). - Carpenter, 1999, Am. Mus. Novitat. 3259: 22 (notes on type). Mischocyttarus punctatus; Ducke, 1918, Rev. Mus. Paul. 10: 353, 370. - da Fonseca, 1926, Rev. Mus. Paul. 14: 183, pl. 1 fig. 3 (nest). - Vesey-Fitzgerald, 1939, Proc. R. Ent. Soc. London (A) 14: 105 (mimicry; nest). - Richards, 1941, Proc. R. Ent. Soc. London (B) 10: 126 (in subgenus Omega); 1945, Trans. R. Ent. Soc. London 95: 318 (key), 404, figs. 72-73 (in subgenus Omega). - Zikán, 1949, Bol. Parq. Nac. Itatiaia 1: 118. - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 369 (key), 370 (in subgenus Monacanthocnemis). - Overal, 1978, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.), Zool. 94: 10 (list). - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 361 (Colombia; list). - Rodríguez-Palafox, 1996, inLlorente-Bousquets et al., Biodiv. Taxon. Biogeogr. Artrópod. México: 482 (list). - Garcete-Barrett, 1999, Avispas Soc. Parag.: 24 (key, figs. 7a, 7b), 27 (Paraguay). Distr.: Mexico (?); Colombia: Meta, Putumayo, Valle, Vaupés; French Guiana*; Trinidad; Suriname; Brazil: Maranhão, Pará, Rio Grande do Sul (?); Paraguay: Concepción. vaqueroi Zikán Mischocyttarus vaqueroi Weyrauch, 1943, Bol. Mus. Hist. Nat. Javier Prado 7: 69. Nomen nudum. Mischocyttarus vaqueroi Zikán, 1949, Bol. Parq. Nac. Itatiaia 1: 119, figs. 203, 291, female - “Pozuso, Peru” (Inst. Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 369 (key), 371 (in subgenus Monacanthocnemis). - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 361 (list). - West-Eberhard et al., 1995, Hym. Costa Rica: 585 (Costa Rica). Distr.: Costa Rica; Colombia: Magdalena, Meta, Nariño, Putumayo, Valle; Ecuador: Napo; Peru: Huánuco, Loreto; Brazil: Pará. Subgenus Phi de Saussure Phi de Saussure, 1854, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2: 183, division III of subgenus Polybia of genus Polybia Lepeletier (10 species); at plates 23 and 24: division of genus Polybia. Type species: Vespa phthisica Fabricius, 1793, by subsequent designation of Bequaert, 1944, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 94: 292. Monocyttarus Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: vi; 18, 273, 307, subgenus of Mischocyttarus de Saussure. Type species: Polybia flavitarsis de Saussure, 1854, by original designation. alfkenii alfkenii (Ducke) Megacanthopus alfkenii Ducke, 1904, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, Pará 4: 360 (key), 362, female, male, nest - [Brazil] “nas mattas dos rios Villanova e Camahipy (muncipio de Mazagão)” (lectotype female São Paulo); also from Oyapoc and Óbidos; 1905, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, Pará 4: 688, pl. 4, figs. 24a-b; 1907, Bol. Mus. Para. Emilo Goeldi 5: 188. - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 343 (designation of lectotype). - Nascimento and Overal, 1979, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.) 95: 9 (list). - Carpenter, 1999, Am. Mus. Novitat. 3259: 19 (notes on types). Mischocyttarus phthisicus var. alfkeni [!]; Ducke, 1913, Deutsch. Ent. Zeitschr.: 331. Mischocyttarus alfkenii; Bequaert, 1933, Entomologica Am. 13: 116 (this species was misidentified as M. indeterminabilis and M. bistriatus; compared to M. cubensis). - Zikán, 1935, Arq. Inst. Biol. Veget. 1 (3): 153 (alfkeni [!]; key), figs. 22, 27; 1949, Bol. Parq. Nac. Itatiaia 1: 160. - Richards, 1941, Proc. R. Ent. Soc. London (B) 10: 126 (in subgenus Kappa, cubensis group); 1945, Trans. R. Ent. Soc. London 95: 317 (key), 395, figs. 66, 68 (in subgenus Kappa, cubensis group).. Mischocyttarus alfkenii var. alfkenii; Richards, 1945, Trans. R. Ent. Soc. London 95: 318 (key), 395 (in subgenus Kappa, cubensis group). Mischocyttarus japuraënsis Zikán, 1949, Bol. Parq. Nac. Itatiaia 1: 29 (key), 147, female - “Rio Japurá, Estado do Amazonas, Brasil” (São Paulo). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 344 (syn. of M. alfkenii alfkenii (Ducke)). - Carpenter, 1999, Am. Mus. Novitat. 3259: 21 (note on type). Mischocyttarus alfkenii alfkenii; Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 313 (key), 344 (syn.: M. japuraensis Zikán; in subgenus Monocyttarus). Distr.: Brazil: Amapá, Amazonas, Pará. alfkenii excrucians Richards Mischocyttarus alfkenii; Bequaert, 1944, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 94: 264 (list). Mischocyttarus alfkenii var. excrucians Richards, 1945, Trans. R. Ent. Soc. London 95: 318 (key), 396, pl. 1 fig. 131, female, male, nest (in subgenus Kappa, cubensis group) - “COLOMBIA: Dept. Meta, Restrepo, 500 m.” (holotype female Cambridge); also from Suriname. Mischocyttarus alfkenii excrucians; Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 313 (key), 344 (in subgenus Monocyttarus). - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 361 (list). Distr.: Colombia: Meta, Putumayo; Venezuela: Aragua; Guyana; Suriname; Brazil: Acre. alfkenii trinitatis Richards Mischocyttarus basimacula; Martorell, 1939, J. Agric. Univ. Puerto Rico 23: 230 (Venezuela: Aragua). Misidentification. Mischocyttarus alfkenii var. trinitatis Richards, 1945, Trans. R. Ent. Soc. London 95: 318 (key), 397, pl. 1 fig. 130, female, male, nest (in subgenus Kappa, cubensis group) - “TRINIDAD: Quare R. valley” (holotype female London); also from another locality in Trinidad; and Venezuela; Guyana; Colombia. - Bequaert, 1949 (1948), Bol. Ent. Venez. 7: 130 (record of basimacula from La Providencia by Martorell was no doubt this taxon). Mischocyttarus alfkenii trinitatis; Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 313 (key), 344 (in subgenus Monocyttarus). - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 361 (list). Distr.: Colombia: Atlantico, Putumayo, Valle; Venezuela: Aragua, Delta Amacuro, D. F.; Trinidad; Guyana. alternatus Zikán Mischocyttarus alternatus Zikán, 1949, Bol. Parq. Nac. Itatiaia 1: 130, male, female - “1.100 m, ... sul da Serra do Itatiaia, Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil” (lectotype female Inst. Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro); also from 800 m. - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 313 (key), 349 (designation of lectotype; in subgenus Monocyttarus). Distr.: Brazil: Rio de Janeiro. angulatus angulatus Richards Polybia indeterminabilis; Cheesman, 1929, Trans. Ent. Soc. London 77: 145. Misidentification. Mischocyttarus angulatus Richards, 1945, Trans. R. Ent. Soc. London 95: 317 (key), 386, figs. 63, pl. 1 fig. 132 (in subgenus Kappa, cubensis group). - Itô, 1984, J. Ethol. 2: 17-29 (ethology). - Starr, 1988, Biotropica 20: 171 (Costa Rica). - West-Eberhard et al., 1995, Hym. Costa Rica: 585 (Costa Rica). Mischocyttarus angulatus var. angulatus; Richards, 1945, Trans. R. Ent. Soc. London 95: 317 (key), 387, female, male (in subgenus Kappa, cubensis group) - “PANAMA: Taboga Is.” (holotype female London). Mischocyttarus angulatus var. ictericus Richards, 1945, Trans. R. Ent. Soc. London 95: 317 (key), 389, female, male (in subgenus Kappa, cubensis group) - “COSTA RICA: Ocloro” (holotype female Cambridge). Mischocyttarus nevermanni Zikán, 1949, Bol. Parq. Nac. Itatiaia 1: 157, fig. 95, female - “San José da Costa Rica” (lectotype Inst. Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 328 (designation of lectotype; syn. of M. angulatus angulatus Richards). Mischocyttarus flaviventris Zikán, 1949, Bol. Parq. Nac. Itatiaia 1: 164, figs. 245, 246, female, male - “San José da Costa Rica” (lectotype male Inst. Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 328 (designation of lectotype; syn. of M. angulatus angulatus Richards). - Colomo and Berta, 2005, Rev. Soc. Entomol. Argent. 64: 79 (note on types). Mischocyttarus angulatus angulatus morph ictericus; Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 310 (key). Mischocyttarus angulatus angulatus morph angulatus; Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 310 (key). Mischocyttarus angulatus angulatus; Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 310 (key), 328 (syns.: M. nevermanni Zikán, M. flaviventris Zikán; in subgenus Monocyttarus). - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 361 (Colombia: Magdalena, Santander del Norte; list). - Rodríguez-Palafox, 1996, in Llorente-Bousquets et al., Biodiv. Taxon. Biogeogr. Artrópod. México: 482 (list). - Hunt et al., 1999, Biotropica 31 (1): 194 (migration). Distr.: Mexico: Guerrero; El Salvador; Honduras; Costa Rica; Panama; Colombia: Magdalena, Santander del Norte; adventive in Martinique. angulatus colombianus Richards Mischocyttarus angulatus var. colombianus Richards, 1945, Trans. R. Ent. Soc. London 95: 317 (key), 388, female, male (in subgenus Kappa, cubensis group) - “COLOMBIA: Dept. Cundinamarca, La Esperanza, 1700 m.” (holotype female Cambridge); also from several other localities in Colombia; and ? from French Guiana; Bolivia. Mischocyttarus angulatus colombianus; West-Eberhard, 1975, Cespedesia 4 (16): 254 (Colombia: Cauca). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 310 (key), 329 (in subgenus Monocyttarus). - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 361 (list). Distr.: Colombia: Antioquia, Boyacá, Cauca, Cundinamarca, Huila, Magdalena, Meta, Valle; French Guiana (?); Bolivia (?). aracatubaensis Zikán Mischocyttarus araçatubaënsis Zikán, 1949, Bol. Parq. Nac. Itatiaia 1: 32 (key), 162, fig. 412, female - “Araçatuba, Estado de São Paulo, Brasil” (Inst. Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 313 (key), 345 (in subgenus Monocyttarus). Distr.: Brazil: São Paulo. araujoi Zikán Mischocyttarus araujoi Zikán, 1949, Bol. Parq. Nac. Itatiaia 1: 173, figs. 255-256, 391, female, male - [Brazil] “Brumado, Muncípio de Amparo, Estado de S. Paulo” (lectotype male Inst. Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro). - Willink, 1954 (1953), Acta Zool. Lilloana 14: 322 (key), 330, figs. 16-17 (Argentina: Entre Rios, Misiones). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 314 (key), 355 (designation of lectotype; in subgenus Monocyttarus). - Garcete-Barrett, 1999, Avispas Soc. Parag.: 8 (mimic of Agelaia multipicta), 26 (key), 28 (Paraguay). - Colomo and Berta, 2005, Rev. Soc. Entomol. Argent. 64: 78 (note on types). Distr.: Brazil: Rio de Janeiro, Santa Catarina, São Paulo; Paraguay: Alto Paraná, Argentina: Entre Rios, Misiones. bahiae Richards Mischocyttarus alfkenii var. bahiae Richards, 1945, Trans. R. Ent. Soc. London 95: 318 (key), 398, female, male (in subgenus Kappa, cubensis group) - “Brazil” (holotype female London); also from Bahia; Rio de Janeiro; Pernambuco; and Paraguay. Mischocyttarus bahiae; Zikán, 1949, Bol. Parq. Nac. Itatiaia 1: 161, figs. 99-100, 242, 400. - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 313 (key), 345 (in subgenus Monocyttarus). Distr.: Brazil: Bahia, Pernambuco (?). barbatulus Richards Mischocyttarus barbatulus Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 309 (key), 325, female, male (in subgenus Monocyttarus) - “PERU: Huánuco, Chinchao, 1800 m” (holotype male London). Distr.: Ecuador: Tungurahua; Peru: Huánuco. barbatus Richards Mischocyttarus barbatus Richards, 1945, Trans. R. Ent. Soc. London 95: 315 (key), 373, figs. 51, 59-60 (in subgenus Kappa, flavitarsis group); 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 312 (key), 337 (in subgenus Monocyttarus). - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 361 (list). Mischocyttarus barbatus var. barbatus Richards, 1945, Trans. R. Ent. Soc. London 95: 315 (key), 374, figs. 51, 59-60, female, male (in subgenus Kappa, flavitarsis group) - “COLOMBIA: cordillera Occidental, Rio Aguacatal, 2000 m.” (holotype female Berlin); also from two other localities; 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 312 (key), 337 (in subgenus Monocyttarus). - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 361 (list). Mischocyttarus barbatus var. cisandinus Richards, 1945, Trans. R. Ent. Soc. London 95: 315 (key), 374, fig. 52, female (in subgenus Kappa, flavitarsis group) - “ COLOMBIA: Bogota” (Berlin). Distr.: Colombia: Cauca, Huila, Valle; Ecuador: Morona-Santiago; Bolivia: Cochabamba. basimacula basimacula (Cameron) Polybia basimacula Cameron, 1906, Invert. Pacif. 1: 150, female - “Belize” (lectotype London). Megacanthopus indeterminabilis var. basimacula; Ducke, 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 523, 539. Mischocyttarus phthisicus var. basimacula; Ducke, 1913, Deutsch. Ent. Zeitschr.: 331. Mischocyttarus basimacula; Bequaert, 1933, Entomologica Am. 13: 117 (Guatemala; Honduras; Costa Rica; Panama; compared to M. cubensis), 118 (nest). - Richards, 1941, Proc. R. Ent. Soc. London (B) 10: 126 (in subgenus Kappa,cubensis group); 1945, Trans. R. Ent. Soc. London 95: 317 (key), 391, 392 (designation of lectotype), figs. 65, 67, pl. 1 figs. 127-129 (in subgenus Kappa, cubensis group). - Zikán, 1949, Bol. Parq. Nac. Itatiaia 1: 158, figs. 96-97, 239-240. - Itô, 1984, J. Ethol. 2: 17-29 (ethology). - Young, 1991, Brenesia 34: 51-61 (51, basimaculatus [!]; ecology). - Queller et al., 1992, J. Hym. Res. 1: 81-89 (genetic relatedness). - West-Eberhard et al., 1995, Hym. Costa Rica: 585 (Costa Rica). - Carpenter, 1999, Am. Mus. Novitat. 3259: 20 (notes on types). Mischocyttarus basimacula var. basimacula; Richards, 1945, Trans. R. Ent. Soc. London 95: 318 (key), 391 (in subgenus Kappa, cubensis group). Mischocyttarus basimacula var. guatamalensis Richards, 1945, Trans. R. Ent. Soc. London 95: 318 (key), 393, female, male (in subgenus Kappa, cubensis group) - “GUATEMALA: Dept. Solola, Olas be Moka” (holotype female Cambridge). Mischocyttarus basimacula from [form] guatamalensis; Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 313 (key). Mischocyttarus basimacula basimacula; Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 313 (key), 342 (in subgenus Monocyttarus). - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 361 (list). - Rodríguez-Palafox, 1996, in Llorente-Bousquets et al., Biodiv. Taxon. Biogeogr. Artrópod. México: 482 (list). - Hunt et al., 1999, Biotropica 31 (1): 194 (migration). Distr.: Mexico: San Luis Potosí, Tabasco, Veracruz, Yucatán; Belize; Guatemala; El Salvador; Honduras; Nicaragua; Costa Rica; Panama; Colombia: Nariño, Valle. basimacula superpictus Richards Mischocyttarus basimacula var. superpictus Richards, 1945, Trans. R. Ent. Soc. London 95: 318 (key), 393, female, male (in subgenus Kappa, cubensis group) - “COLOMBIA: Cauca, Rio Porce, nr. Porcecito” (holotype female Cambridge); also from Boyacá. Mischocyttarus basimacula superpictus; West-Eberhard, 1975, Cespedesia 4 (16): 254 (superpectus [!]). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 313 (key), 343 (in subgenus Monocyttarus). - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 361 (list). Distr.: Colombia: Boyacá, Cauca, Valle. brackmanni Zikán Mischocyttarus brackmanni Zikán, 1949, Bol. Parq. Nac. Itatiaia 1: 129, 236 (“host” of brackmannoides n. sp.), figs. 76, 374, male - [Brazil] “Muri, 1.100 m, Estado do Rio de Janeiro” (lectotype Inst. Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 312 (key), 335 (designation of lectotype; syn.: M. brackmannoides Zikán; in subgenus Monocyttarus). Mischocyttarus brackmannoides Zikán, 1949, Bol. Parq. Nac. Itatiaia 1: 236, sex and locality not stated (lectotype male Inst. Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 312 (key), 335 (designation of lectotype; syn. of M. brackmanni Zikán). Distr.: Brazil: Rio de Janeiro. bruneri Bequaert and Salt Mischocyttarus bruneri Bequaert and Salt, 1931, Ann. Ent. Soc. Am. 24: 790, female - “CUBA. Sierra Maestra, at 4,500 ft.” (Washington). - Bequaert, 1933, Entomologica Am. 13: 116 (key). - Richards, 1941, Proc. R. Ent. Soc. London (B) 10: 126 (in subgenus Kappa, flavitarsis group); 1945, Trans. R. Ent. Soc. London 95: 314 (key), 367, fig. 47 (in subgenus Kappa, flavitarsis group). - Zikán, 1949, Bol. Parq. Nac. Itatiaia 1: 190. - Alayo, 1972, Poeyana 94: 2, fig. 1A. - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 309 (key), 320 (in subgenus Monocyttarus). Distr.: Cuba. cabauna Zikán Mischocyttarus cabaúna Zikán, 1949, Bol. Parq. Nac. Itatiaia 1: 139, fig. 224, female - “800 metros sôbre o nivel do mar, no Parque Nacional do Itatiaia, Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil” (lectotype Inst. Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 313 (key), 348 (designation of lectotype; in subgenus Monocyttarus). Distr.: Brazil: Rio de Janeiro. campestris Raw Mischocyttarus campestris Raw, 1985, Rev. Bras. Ent. 29: 107, 108, figs. 9, 11, 13, 15, 17 and 19, 110, female, male - [Brazil:] “Serra do Roncador...Brasília, D. F.” (holotype female Rio de Janeiro). - Garcete-Barrett, 1999, Avispas Soc. Parag.: 28 (compared to M. marginatus (Fox)). Distr.: Brazil: D. F. cassununga (R. von Ihering) Polybia cassununga R. von Ihering, 1903, Ann. Soc. Ent. France 72: 146, female, male, nest - [Brazil] “São João Climaco, à deux lieues de S. Paulo ... Sao Bernardo “ (lectotype female São Paulo); 1904, Rev. Mus. Paul. 6: 207, pl. 3 figs. 12, 12a. - Dalla Torre, 1904, Gen. Ins. 19: 77 (cat.). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 363 (designation of lectotype). - Carpenter, 1999, Am. Mus. Novitat. 3259: 20 (notes on types). Megacanthopus cassununga; Ducke, 1906, Rev. Ent., Caen 25: 9 (compared to Monacanthocnemis buyssoni n. sp.), 10 (Brazil); 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 521, 539. Mischocyttarus cassununga; Ducke, 1918, Rev. Mus. Paul. 10: 352. - Bequaert, 1933, Entomologica Am. 13: 118 (nest). - Zikán, 1935, Arq. Inst. Biol. Veget. 1 (3): 154 (key), 182, figs. 48-49, 54-55, pl. 1 fig. 5. - Richards, 1941, Proc. R. Ent. Soc. London (B) 10: 126 (in subgenus Kappa, flavitarsis group); 1945, Trans. R. Ent. Soc. London 95: 315 (key), 376, figs. 54, 62 (in subgenus Kappa, flavitarsis group; syn.: M. imitator Zikán). - Zikán, 1949, Bol. Parq. Nac. Itatiaia 1: 131, 236 (“host” of cassunungoides n. sp.), figs. 77-80, 216-219, 307-308, 321, 332-333, 375, 379, 394, 399. - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 315 (key), 363 (syns.: M. pirassununga Zikán, M. curupira Zikán, M. cassunungoides Zikán; in subgenus Monocyttarus). - Overal, 1978, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.), Zool. 94: 10 (list). - Gobbi and Simôes, 1988, An. Soc. Ent. Brasil 17 (2): 421-436 (ethology). - Almeida and Castro, 1991, Acta Biol. Par., Curitiba 20: 49 (coll. list). - Giannotti and Fieri, 1991, Rev. Bras. Ent. 35 (2): 263-267 (development). - Giannotti and Vieira da Silva, 1993, Rev. Bras. Ent. 37: 309-312 (larva). - Raw, 1996, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (Sér. Zool.) 12 (1): 7 (compared to mamirauae n. sp.). - Garcete-Barrett, 1999, Avispas Soc. Parag.: 26 (key), 29 (Paraguay). Mischocyttarus imitator Zikán, 1935, Arq. Inst. Biol. Veget. 1 (3): 154 (key), 180, figs. 42, 44-46, pl. 1 fig. 1, female, male, nest - [Brazil] “Südabhang des Itatiaya in 700 m. ü. d. M.” (lectotype female Inst. Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro) [junior primary homonym of Mischocyttarus imitator (Ducke, 1904)]. - Richards, 1945, Trans. R. Ent. Soc. London 95: 376 (syn. of M. cassununga (von Ihering)). - W. Zikán and Wydodzinsky, 1948, Bol. Serv. Nac. Pesq. Agron. 4: 74 (list). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 363 (designation of lectotype). Mischocyttarus pirassununga Zikán, 1949, Bol. Parq. Nac. Itatiaia 1: 133, figs. 81, 220, female, male - [Brazil] “Pirassununga, Estado de S. Paulo” (lectotype male Inst. Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro); also from Minas Gerais. - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 363 (designation of lectotype; syn. of M. cassununga (R. von Ihering)). Mischocyttarus curupira Zikán, 1949, Bol. Parq. Nac. Itatiaia 1: 133, 236 (“host” of curupiroides n. sp.), fig. 376, male, female - [Brazil] “Soledade do Chiador, Estado de Minas Gerais” (lectotype male Inst. Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 363 (designation of lectotype; syn. of M. cassununga (R. von Ihering)). Mischocyttarus cassunungoides Zikán, 1949, Bol. Parq. Nac. Itatiaia 1: 236, sex and locality not stated (lectotype male Inst. Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 363 (designation of lectotype; syn. of M. cassununga (R. von Ihering)). Mischocyttarus curupiroides Zikán, 1949, Bol. Parq. Nac. Itatiaia 1: 236, sex and locality not stated (lectotype male Inst. Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 363 (designation of lectotype). Distr.: Brazil: Bahia, Espírito Santo, Minas Gerais, Rio de Janeiro, Santa Catarina, São Paulo; Paraguay: Canindeyú, Alto Paraná, Itapúa; Argentina: Misiones. catharinaensis Zikán Mischocyttarus catharinaënsis Zikán, 1949, Bol. Parq. Nac. Itatiaia 1: 33 (key), 175, fig. 348, female - “Nova Teutônia, sul de Santa Catarina, Brasil” (Inst. Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 314 (key), 358 (in subgenus Monocyttarus). Distr.: Brazil: Santa Catarina. cearensis Richards Mischocyttarus confirmatus var. cearensis Richards, 1945, Trans. R. Ent. Soc. London 95: 315 (key), 375, figs. 53, 61, female, male (in subgenus Kappa, flavitarsis group) - “BRAZIL: Ceará, Serra de Baturité, 600 m.” (holotype female London); also from Fortaleza. Mischocyttarus cearensis; Zikán, 1949, Bol. Parq. Nac. Itatiaia 1: 138, figs. 85, 223, 309. - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 315 (key), 362 (in subgenus Monocyttarus). Distr.: Brazil: Ceará. chapadae (Fox) Polybia chapadae Fox, 1898, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad.: 453, female - “Brazil ,,, Chapada” (lectotype Pittsburgh). - Schulz, 1904 (1903), Sber. Akad. Bayer. Wiss. 33: 802. - Dalla Torre, 1904, Gen. Ins. 19: 77 (cat.). - Ducke, 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 539 (? Megacanthopus). - Carpenter and van der Vecht, 1991, Ann. Carnegie Mus. 60 (3): 219 (designation of lectotype). Mischocyttarus chapadae; Richards, 1941, Proc. R. Ent. Soc. London (B) 10: 126 (in subgenus Kappa, flavitarsis group); 1945, Trans. R. Ent. Soc. London 95: 315 (key), 369 (in subgenus Kappa, flavitarsis group). - Zikán, 1949, Bol. Parq. Nac. Itatiaia 1: 214. - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 310 (key), 331 (in subgenus Monocyttarus). Distr.: Brazil: Mato Grosso. commixtus Richards Mischocyttarus “spadiceus Zikán nov. spec.” Weyrauch, 1943, Bol. Mus. Hist. Nat. Javier Prado 7: 68. Nomen nudum. Mischocyttarus commixtus Richards, 1945, Trans. R. Ent. Soc. London 95: 313 (key), 371, female (in subgenus Kappa, flavitarsis group) - “PERU: Cam. del Pichis, Dos de Mayo to El Porvenir” (Ithaca); Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 309 (key), 319 (syn.: M. spadiceus Zikán; in subgenus Monogynoecus). Mischocyttarus spadiceus Zikán, 1949, Bol. Parq. Nac. Itatiaia 1: 153, fig. 236, female - “Oreja de Capello, 1.600 m, (Peru)” (Inst. Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 319 (designation of lectotype; syn. of M. commixtus Richards). Distr.: Peru: Junín, Loreto. confirmatus Zikán Mischocyttarus confirmatus Zikán, 1935, Arq. Inst. Biol. Veget. 1 (3): 154 (key), 164, male, nest - [Brazil] “Itatiaya 900m” (lectotype Inst. Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro). - Richards, 1941, Proc. R. Ent. Soc. London (B) 10: 126 (in subgenus Kappa, flavitarsis group); 1945, Trans. R. Ent. Soc. London 95: 315 (key), 375 (in subgenus Kappa, flavitarsis group). - W. Zikán and Wydodzinsky, 1948, Bol. Serv. Nac. Pesq. Agron. 4: 74 (list). - Zikán, 1949, Bol. Parq. Nac. Itatiaia 1: 128, 236 (“host” of confirmatoides n. sp.), figs. 75, 214-215, 293, 377. - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 313 (key), 350 (designation of lectotype; syn.: M. confirmatoides Zikán; in subgenus Monocyttarus). - Colomo and Berta, 2005, Rev. Soc. Entomol. Argent. 64: 79 (note on types). Mischocyttarus confirmatus var. confirmatus; Richards, 1945, Trans. R. Ent. Soc. London 95: 315 (key), 376 (in subgenus Kappa, flavitarsis group). Mischocyttarus confirmatoides Zikán, 1949, Bol. Parq. Nac. Itatiaia 1: 236, sex and locality not stated (lectotype male Inst. Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 350 (designation of lectotype; syn. of M. confirmatus Zikán). Distr.: Brazil: Rio de Janeiro. consimilis Zikán Mischocyttarus paraguayensis; Richards, 1941, Proc. R. Ent. Soc. London (B) 10: 126 (in subgenus Kappa, flavitarsis group); 1945, Trans. R. Ent. Soc. London 95: 315 (key), 379, fig. 55 (in subgenus Kappa, flavitarsis group). Misidentification. Mischocyttarus consimilis Zikán, 1949, Bol. Parq. Nac. Itatiaia 1: 29 (key), 148, 236 (“host” of consimiloides n. sp.), figs. 90-91, 230-231, 393, female, male - “Mbovevo, Paraguai” (lectotype male São Paulo). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 314 (key), 351 (designation of lectotype; syn.: M. consimiloides Zikán; in subgenus Monocyttarus). - Garcete-Barrett, 1999, Avispas Soc. Parag.: 26 (key), 28 (Paraguay). - Colomo and Berta, 2005, Rev. Soc. Entomol. Argent. 64: 79 (note on types). ? Mischocyttarus schrottkyi Zikán, 1949, Bol. Parq. Nac. Itatiaia 1: 159, figs. 98, 241, female - “Puerto Bertoni, (Paraguai)” (São Paulo). Mischocyttarus consimiloides Zikán, 1949, Bol. Parq. Nac. Itatiaia 1: 236, sex and locality not stated (lectotype female Inst. Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 351 (designation of lectotype; syn. of M. consimilis Zikán). ? Mischocyttarus alfkeni [!] bahiae; Willink, 1954 (1953), Acta Zool. Lilloana 14: 322 (key), 336 (Argentina: Misiones). Distr.: Brazil: Mato Grosso*; Paraguay: Boquerón, Alto Paraguay, Presidente Hayes, Concepción, San Pedro, Candindeyú, Caaguazú, Alto Paraná, Cordillera, Guairá, Paraguarí; Argentina: Misiones. costalimai Zikán Mischocyttarus costa-limai Zikán, 1949, Bol. Parq. Nac. Itatiaia 1: 180, figs. 117-118, 265-266, 401, female, male - “Itatiaia, 700 m. Estado doRio de Janeiro, Brasil” (lectotype male Inst. Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 314 (key), 354 (designation of lectotype; in subgenus Monocyttarus). - Colomo and Berta, 2005, Rev. Soc. Entomol. Argent. 64: 79 (note on types). Distr.: Brazil: Rio de Janeiro. costaricensis Richards Mischocyttarus costaricensis Richards, 1945, Trans. R. Ent. Soc. London 95: 316 (key), 390, fig. 64, female, male (in subgenus Kappa, cubensis group) - “COSTA RICA: Cache” (holotype female London); 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 310 (key), 330 (in subgenus Monocyttarus). - West-Eberhard et al., 1995, Hym. Costa Rica: 585 (Costa Rica). Distr.: Guatemala; Costa Rica; Panama. crypticus Zikán Mischocyttarus crypticus Zikán, 1949, Bol. Parq. Nac. Itatiaia 1: 141, 236 (“host” of crypticoides n. sp.), figs. 86, 226-227, 370, 385, female, male - “Itatiaia, 700 m, Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil” (lectotype male Inst. Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 315 (key), 366 (designation of lectotype; syn.: M. crypticoides Zikán; in subgenus Monocyttarus). Mischocyttarus crypticoides Zikán, 1949, Bol. Parq. Nac. Itatiaia 1: 236, sex and locality not stated (lectotype male Inst. Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 366 (designation of lectotype; syn. of M. crypticus Zikán). Distr.: Brazil: Rio de Janeiro. cryptobius Zikán Mischocyttarus cryptobius Zikán, 1935, Arq. Inst. Biol. Veget. 1 (3): 155 (key), 186, female, male, nest - [Brazil] “Südabhange des Itatiaya (bei Kilometer 6,25, in einer Höhe von etwa 1200 Metern)” (lectotype male Inst. Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro). - W. Zikán and Wydodzinsky, 1948, Bol. Serv. Nac. Pesq. Agron. 4: 74 (list). - Zikán, 1949, Bol. Parq. Nac. Itatiaia 1: 143, figs. 87, 386. - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 315 (key), 366 (in subgenus Monocyttarus). Distr.: Brazil: Rio de Janeiro. cubensis (de Saussure) Polybia cubensis de Saussure, 1854, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2: 202, pl XXV figs. 5-6, female (in division My) - “Les Antilles, Cuba” (lectotype Paris); 1856, in La Sagra, Hist. Phys. Pol. Nat. Cuba, Segunda Parte 7: 324; 1857, in La Sagra, Hist. Phys. Pol. Nat. Cuba, Segunda Parte 7: 774. - Smith, 1857, Cat. Hym. Ins. Coll. Brit. Mus. 5, Vesp.: 130 (cat.). - Cresson, 1865, Proc. Entomol. Soc. Philadelphia 4: 167. - Gundlach, 1886, Contrib. Entomol. Cubana 2: 156. - Fox, 1890, Entomol. News 1: 93. - Dalla Torre, 1894, Cat. Hym. 9: 163 (cat.). - Ashmead, 1894, Psyche 7: 76; 1896, Bull. Labor. Nat. Sci. State Univ., Iowa 4 (1): 31; 1900, Trans. Entomol. Soc. London: 311 [partim]. - Lewis, 1897, Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 24: 191. - Dalla Torre, 1904, Gen. Ins. 19: 77 (cat.). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 317 (designation of lectotype). Polybia phthisica; Cresson, 1865, Proc. Entomol. Soc. Philadelphia 4: 167. - Gundlach, 1886, Contrib. Entomol. Cubana 2: 155. Misidentification. Megacanthopus cubensis; Ducke, 1908, Dts. Entomol. Zeitschr.: 698 (male). - Meade-Waldo, 1911, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (8) 7: 111. Megacanthopus indeterminabilis var. cubensis; Ducke, 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 540. Mischocyttarus cubensis; Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 308 (key), 317 (in subgenus Monocyttarus). - Carpenter, 1999, Am. Mus. Novitat. 3259: 21 (note on types). Distr.: Cuba. declaratus Zikán Mischocyttarus declaratus Zikán, 1935, Arq. Inst. Biol. Veget. 1 (3): 155 (key), 162, figs. 17-19, pl. 3 fig. 9, female, male, nest - [Brazil] “Südabhang des Itatiaya, 700 m.” (lectotype male São Paulo). - W. Zikán and Wydodzinsky, 1948, Bol. Serv. Nac. Pesq. Agron. 4: 74 (list). - Zikán, 1949, Bol. Parq. Nac. Itatiaia 1: 125, figs. 70-71, 210. - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 313 (key), 348 (designation of lectotype; in subgenus Monocyttarus). - Colomo and Berta, 2005, Rev. Soc. Entomol. Argent. 64: 79 (note on types). Distr.: Brazil: Rio de Janeiro. duidensis Richards Mischocyttarus duidensis Richards, 1945, Trans. R. Ent. Soc. London 95: 314 (key), 370, figs. 48-49, female (in subgenus Kappa, flavitarsis group) - “VENEZUELA: Mt. Duida” (Cambridge). - Bequaert, 1949 (1948), Bol. Ent. Venez. 7: 130 (list). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 309 (key), 320 (in subgenus Monocyttarus). Distr.: Venezuela: Amazonas. ecuadorensis Zikán Mischocyttarus ecuadorensis Zikán, 1949, Bol. Parq. Nac. Itatiaia 1: 31 (key), 156, female - “Equador” (São Paulo). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 312 (key), 336 (in subgenus Monocyttarus). Distr.: Ecuador: Bolivar. extinctus Zikán Mischocyttarus extinctus Zikán, 1935, Arq. Inst. Biol. Veget. 1 (3): 155 (key), 183, figs. 50 (exinctus [!]), 52, pl. 2 fig. 3, female, nest - [Brazil] “Sitio ‘Itaoca’, in 850 m Seehöhe, am Südabhang des Itatiaya” (lectotype Inst. Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro). - Richards, 1941, Proc. R. Ent. Soc. London (B) 10: 126 (in subgenus Kappa, flavitarsis group); 1945, Trans. R. Ent. Soc. London 95: 314 (key), 366 (in subgenus Kappa, flavitarsis group). - W. Zikán and Wydodzinsky, 1948, Bol. Serv. Nac. Pesq. Agron. 4: 74 (list). - Zikán, 1949, Bol. Parq. Nac. Itatiaia 1: 145, fig. 89, 380. - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 315 (key), 367 (designation of lectotype; syns.: M. paranaensis Zikán, scotophilus Zikán, scotophiloides Zikán; in subgenus Monocyttarus). - Raposo-Filho and Rodrigues, 1987, Univ. Fed. Juiz Fora Inst. Cienc. Biol. Geocienc. Bol. 40: 11-16 (ethology). - Raposo-Filho, 1987, Univ. Fed. Juiz Fora Inst. Cienc. Biol. Geocienc. Bol. 40: 17-23 (male behavior). - Silva and Rodrigues, 1987, Univ. Fed. Juiz Fora Inst. Cienc. Biol. Geocienc. Bol. 40: 25-34 (nesting; Brazil). - Raposo-Filho and Rodrigues, 1988, Univ. Fed. Juiz Fora Inst. Cienc. Biol. Geocienc. Bol. 41: 39-46 (ethology). - Raposo-Filho, 1989, Univ. Fed. Juiz Fora Inst. Cienc. Biol. Geocienc. Bol. 42: 37-43 (ethology). Mischocyttarus paranaënsis Zikán, 1949, Bol. Parq. Nac. Itatiaia 1: 140, fig. 225, female - [Brazil] Curitiba, (Paraná)” (lectotype Inst. Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 367 (designation of lectotype; syn. of M. extinctus Zikán). Mischocyttarus scotophilus Zikán, 1949, Bol. Parq. Nac. Itatiaia 1: 144, 236 (“host” of scotophiloides n. sp.), figs. 88, 228, 387, female, male - “Itatiaia, 700 m, Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil” (lectotype male Inst. Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 367 (designation of lectotype; syn. of M. extinctus Zikán). Mischocyttarus scotophiloides Zikán, 1949, Bol. Parq. Nac. Itatiaia 1: 236, sex and locality not stated (lectotype male Inst. Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 367 (designation of lectotype; syn. of M. extinctus Zikán). Distr.: Brazil: Minas Gerais, Paraná, Pará, Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo. fisheri Snelling Mischocyttarus fisheri Snelling, 1970, Contrib. Sci. 137: 1, 16, figs. 4d-f, female (in subgenus Kappa) - [Mexico] “La Laguna, 5500’, Terr. Sur Baja California” (Los Angeles). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 309 (key), 321 (in subgenus Monocyttarus). - Rodríguez-Palafox, 1996, in Llorente-Bousquets et al., Biodiv. Taxon. Biogeogr. Artrópod. México: 482 (list). Distr.: Mexico: Baja California Sur. flavicornis flavicornis Zikán Mischocyttarus flavicornis Zikán, 1935, Arq. Inst. Biol. Veget. 1 (3): 154 (key), 168, female - [Brazil] “Goyaz” (São Paulo); 1949, Bol. Parq. Nac. Itatiaia 1: 153, figs. 94, 237-238, 382. - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 340 (designation of lectotype). - Raw, 1989, Maracá Rainfor. Proj., Invert. Limnol., Prelim. Rep.: 31 (compared to M. maracaensis n. sp.). - Carpenter, 1999, Am. Mus. Novitat. 3259: 20 (notes on type). Mischocyttarus basimacula var. flavicornis; Richards, 1945, Trans. R. Ent. Soc. London 95: 317 (key), 394 (in subgenus Kappa, cubensis group). Mischocyttarus flavicornis flavicornis; Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 313 (key), 341 (in subgenus Monocyttarus). - Almeida and Castro, 1991, Acta Biol. Par., Curitiba 20: 49 (coll. list). Distr.: Brazil: Goiás, Maranhão, Mato Grosso, Pará. flavicornis nigricornis Zikán Mischocyttarus “nigricornis Zikán nov. spec.” Weyrauch, 1943, Bol. Mus. Hist. Nat. Javier Prado 7: 68. Nomen nudum. Mischocyttarus flavicornis race nigricornis Zikán, 1949, Bol. Parq. Nac. Itatiaia 1: 154, female, male - “Santa Ana, Valle de Rubamba, 1.100 metros, (Peru)” [Urubamba] (lectotype male Inst. Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 341 (designation of lectotype). Mischocyttarus flavicornis variety rufescens Zikán, 1949, Bol. Parq. Nac. Itatiaia 1: 155, female, male - “Satipo, (Peru)” (lectotype male Inst. Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 341 (designation of lectotype; syn. of M. flavicornis nigricornis Zikán). Mischocyttarus basimacula var. flavicornis; Richards, 1945, Trans. R. Ent. Soc. London 95: 394 [partim]. Mischocyttarus flavicornis nigricornis; Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 313 (key), 341 (syn.: M. flavicornis var. rufescens Zikán; in subgenus Monocyttarus). - Raw, 1989, Maracá Rainfor. Proj., Invert. Limnol., Prelim. Rep.: 31 (compared to M. maracaensis n. sp.). - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 361 (list). Distr.: Colombia: Arauca, Meta, Nariño; Ecuador: Manabi, Napo; Peru: Cuzco, Huánuco, Junín, Loreto, Pasco; Bolivia: Beni. flavitarsis (de Saussure) Polybia flavitarsis de Saussure, 1854, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2: 199, female (in division My) - “La Californie” (London). - Smith, 1857, Cat. Hym. Ins. Coll. Brit. Mus. 5, Vesp.: 130, pl. V fig. 1 (cat.). - Walsh and Riley, 1869, Am. Ent. 1: 142. - Cresson, 1887, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc. Suppl. Vol.: 290. - Ashmead, 1890, Colorado Biol. Assoc. Bull. 1: 34 (U. S. A.: CO). - Viereck, 1903, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc. 29: 68 (male; U. S. A.: NM). - Dalla Torre, 1894, Cat. Hym. 9: 163 (cat.). - Lewis, 1897, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc. 29: 190, pl. 1 fig. 3 (male). - Dalla Torre, 1904, Gen. Ins. 19: 77 (cat.). - Kellogg, 1905, Am. Insects, Ed. 1: 507; 1908, Am. Insects, Ed. 2: 507. Megacanthopus flavitarsis; Ducke, 1907, Bol. Mus. Para. Emilo Goeldi 5: 190; 1908, Deutsch. Ent. Z.: 698 (U. S. A.: CO, NM, AZ); 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 540. - Meade-Waldo, 1911, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (8) 7: 111. Mischocyttarus flavitarsis; Essig, 1926, Ins. West. North Am.: 888, fig. 750 (in subgenus Myrapetra). - Hayward, 1930, Ent. News 41: 222(U. S. A.: CA, ID, UT, AZ); 1932, Proc. Utah Acad. Sci. 9: 88, pl. 9 fig. 30 (U. S. A.: ID, UT, AZ). - Bequaert, 1933, Entomologica Am. 13: 115 (key), 118 (nest), 119, fig. 3. - Richards, 1941, Proc. R. Ent. Soc. London (B) 10: 126 (in subgenus Kappa, flavitarsis group). - Smith, 1944, Pan-Pacif. Ent. 20: 80 (hibernation site). - Richards, 1945, Trans. R. Ent. Soc. London 95: 314 (key), 357, figs. 43-44, 56-57 (in subgenus Kappa, flavitarsis group). - Zikán, 1949, Bol. Parq. Nac. Itatiaia 1: 180, 236 (“host” of flavitarsoides n. sp.). - Snelling, 1953, J. Kans. Ent. Soc. 26: 143-145 (hibernation, nest size and site); 1983, Pan-Pacif. Ent. 59: 276 (syns.: flavitarsis var. centralis Bequaert, flavitarsis var. idahoensis Bequaert, flavitarsis var. kaibabensis Bequaert). - Cornelius, 1993, J. Ins. Behav. 6 (6): 771-781 (foraging behavior). - Cooper, 1996, Ent. Mon. Mag. 132: 24 (characters). - Rodríguez-Palafox, 1996, in Llorente-Bousquets et al., Biodiv. Taxon. Biogeogr. Artrópod. México: 482 (list). Mischocyttarus flavitarsis var. flavitarsis; Bequaert, 1933, Ent. Am. (N. S.) 13: 123 (key), 125, 126 (nest), 127, pl. XXIX figs. 3-4 (U. S. A.: CA, OR, UT, CO, NB). - Richards, 1945, Trans. R. Ent. Soc. London 95: 314 (key), 359 (in subgenus Kappa, flavitarsis group). Mischocyttarus flavitarsis var. centralis Bequaert, 1933, Ent. Am. (N. S.) 13: 123 (key), 125, 126-127 (stylopization), 129, female, male - [U. S. A.] “NEW MEXICO: ... Jemez Springs, Sandoval Co.” (holotype female Cambridge); also from elsewhere in NM, TX, NB, CO, UT. - Richards, 1945, Trans. R. Ent. Soc. London 95: 314 (key), 360 (in subgenus Kappa, flavitarsis group). - Snelling, 1983, Pan-Pacif. Ent. 59: 276 (syn. of M. flavitarsis (de Saussure)). Mischocyttarus flavitarsis var. idahoensis Bequaert, 1933, Ent. Am. (N. S.) 13: 123 (key), 125, 133, female, male - [U. S. A.] “IDAHO: Warren, Idaho Co.” (holotype female Cambridge); also from UT, OR, WA; and Canada: B. C. - Richards, 1945, Trans. R. Ent. Soc. London 95: 314 (key), 360 (in subgenus Kappa, flavitarsis group). - Snelling, 1983, Pan-Pacif. Ent. 59: 276 (syn. of M. flavitarsis (de Saussure)). Mischocyttarus flavitarsis var. kaibabensis Bequaert, 1933, Ent. Am. (N. S.) 13: 122 (key), 125, 133, female - [U. S. A.] “ARIZONA: Bright Angel Trail, Grand Canyon, Cococino Co.” (Ithaca). - Richards, 1945, Trans. R. Ent. Soc. London 95: 314 (key), 361 (in subgenus Kappa, flavitarsis group). - Snelling, 1983, Pan-Pacif. Ent. 59: 276 (syn. of M. flavitarsis (de Saussure)). Mischocyttarus flavitarsoides Zikán, 1949, Bol. Parq. Nac. Itatiaia 1: 236, sex and locality not stated (Inst. Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro?). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 321 (designation of lectotype; syn. of M. flavitarsis (de Saussure)). Mischocyttarus flavitarsis flavitarsis; Bohart, 1951, in Muesebeck, et al., Hym. Am. N. of Mexico: 880 (cat.). - Bohart and Bechtel, 1957, Bull. Calif. Ins. Surv. 4: 100. - Krombein, 1958, Hym. Am. N. of Mex. First Suppl.: 162. - Snelling, 1970, Contrib. Sci. 137: 19, figs. 4a-c (no records from Baja California, but occurrence likely). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 309 (key), 322 (in subgenus Monocyttarus). - Krombein, 1979, in Krombein et al., Cat. Hym. Am. N. of Mex.: 1516 (cat.). - Post and Jeanne, 1982, J. New York Entomol. Soc. 90: 8-15 (male morphology). Mischocyttarus flavitarsis centralis; Bohart, 1951, in Muesebeck, et al., Hym. Am. N. of Mexico: 880 (cat.). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 309 (key), 322 (in subgenus Monocyttarus). - Krombein, 1979, in Krombein et al., Cat. Hym. Am. N. of Mex.: 1516 (cat.). Mischocyttarus flavitarsis idahoensis; Bohart, 1951, in Muesebeck, et al., Hym. Am. N. of Mexico: 880 (cat.). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 309 (key), 323 (in subgenus Monocyttarus). - Krombein, 1979, in Krombein et al., Cat. Hym. Am. N. of Mex.: 1516 (cat.). Mischocyttarus flavitarsis kaibabensis; Bohart, 1951, in Muesebeck, et al., Hym. Am. N. of Mexico: 880 (cat.). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 309 (key), 323 (in subgenus Monocyttarus). - Krombein, 1979, in Krombein et al., Cat. Hym. Am. N. of Mex.: 1516 (cat.). Distr.: Canada: Alta., B. C.; U. S. A.: AZ, CA, TX, UT, CO, ID, MT, NB, NM, OR, WA; Mexico: Chihuahua, Coahuila, Sonora. Adventive in Hawaii. flavoniger Zikán Mischocyttarus “flavoniger Zikán nov. spec.” Weyrauch, 1943, Bol. Mus. Hist. Nat. Javier Prado 7: 68. Nomen nudum. Mischocyttarus flavoniger Zikán, 1949, Bol. Parq. Nac. Itatiaia 1: 170, female - “Peru, (Vale de Chanchamayo, 800 m...)” (lectotype Inst. Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro); also from Oreja de Capelo. - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 314 (key), 358 (designation of lectotype; in subgenus Monocyttarus). - Cooper, 1998, Ent. Mon. Mag. 134: 301 (mimicry). - Colomo and Berta, 2005, Rev. Soc. Entomol. Argent. 64: 79 (note on types). Distr.: Peru: Junín; Bolivia: La Paz (?). fluminensis Zikán Mischocyttarus fluminensis Zikán, 1949, Bol. Parq. Nac. Itatiaia 1: 169, figs. 251, 388, female - [Brazil] “Rio de Janeiro, D. F.” (Inst. Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 314 (key), 356 (designation of lectotype; in subgenus Monocyttarus). Distr.: Brazil: Rio de Janeiro. gilvus Zikán Mischocyttarus gilvus Zikán, 1949, Bol. Parq. Nac. Itatiaia 1: 31 (key), 159, male - “Puerto Bortoni, (Paraguai)” (São Paulo). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 313 (key), 346 (in subgenus Monocyttarus). - Garcete-Barrett, 1999, Avispas Soc. Parag.: 26 (key), 28. Distr.: Brazil*: São Paulo; Paraguay: Alto Paraná; Argentina: Misiones (?). haywardi Willink Mischocyttarus haywardi Willink, 1954 (1953), Acta Zool. Lilloana 14: 317, 322 (key), 327, figs. 8-9, female (in subgenus Kappa) - “Pto. 17 de Octubre (ex Bemberg), Misiones, Argentina” (Tucumán). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 368 (in subgenus Monocyttarus). - Colomo and Berta, 2005, Rev. Soc. Entomol. Argent. 64: 80 (list). Distr.: Argentina: Misiones. hirsutus Richards Mischocyttarus hirsutus Richards, 1945, Trans. R. Ent. Soc. London 95: 315 (key), 363 (in subgenus Kappa, flavitarsis group); 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 310 (key), 331 (in subgenus Monocyttarus). - Sarmiento, 1993, Bol. Mus. Ent. Univ. Valle 1 (2): 6 (nest; Colombia: Boyacá); 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 361 (list). Mischocyttarus hirsutus var. hirsutus Richards, 1945, Trans. R. Ent. Soc. London 95: 315 (key), 364, female, male (in subgenus Kapp